[Java] Mocking static methods with Mockito



Answers

The typical strategy for dodging static methods that you have no way of avoiding using, is by creating wrapped objects and using the wrapper objects instead.

The wrapper objects become facades to the real static classes, and you do not test those.

A wrapper object could be something like

public class Slf4jMdcWrapper {
    public static final Slf4jMdcWrapper SINGLETON = new Slf4jMdcWrapper();

    public String myApisToTheSaticMethodsInSlf4jMdcStaticUtilityClass() {
        return MDC.getWhateverIWant();
    }
}

Finally, your class under test can use this singleton object by, for example, having a default constructor for real life use:

public class SomeClassUnderTest {
    final Slf4jMdcWrapper myMockableObject;

    /** constructor used by CDI or whatever real life use case */
    public myClassUnderTestContructor() {
        this.myMockableObject = Slf4jMdcWrapper.SINGLETON;
    }

    /** constructor used in tests*/
    myClassUnderTestContructor(Slf4jMdcWrapper myMock) {
        this.myMockableObject = myMock;
    }
}

And here you have a class that can easily be tested, because you do not directly use a class with static methods.

If you are using CDI and can make use of the @Inject annotation then it is even easier. Just make your Wrapper bean @ApplicationScoped, get that thing injected as a collaborator (you do not even need messy constructors for testing), and go on with the mocking.

Question

I've written a factory to produce java.sql.Connection objects:

public class MySQLDatabaseConnectionFactory implements DatabaseConnectionFactory {

    @Override public Connection getConnection() {
        try {
            return DriverManager.getConnection(...);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
        }
    }
}

I'd like to validate the parameters passed to DriverManager.getConnection, but I don't know how to mock a static method. I'm using JUnit 4 and Mockito for my test cases. Is there a good way to mock/verify this specific use-case?




You can do it with a little bit of refactoring:

public class MySQLDatabaseConnectionFactory implements DatabaseConnectionFactory {

    @Override public Connection getConnection() {
        try {
            return _getConnection(...some params...);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
        }
    }

    //method to forward parameters, enabling mocking, extension, etc
    Connection _getConnection(...some params...) throws SQLException {
        return DriverManager.getConnection(...some params...);
    }
}

Then you can extend your class MySQLDatabaseConnectionFactory to return a mocked connection, do assertions on the parameters, etc.

The extended class can reside within the test case, if it's located in the same package (which I encourage you to do)

public class MockedConnectionFactory extends MySQLDatabaseConnectionFactory {

    Connection _getConnection(...some params...) throws SQLException {
        if (some param != something) throw new InvalidParameterException();

        //consider mocking some methods with when(yourMock.something()).thenReturn(value)
        return Mockito.mock(Connection.class);
    }
}






I had a similar issue. The accepted answer did not work for me, until I made the change: @PrepareForTest(TheClassYouWriteTestFor.class).

And I don't have to use BDDMockito.

My class:

public class SmokeRouteBuilder {
    public static String smokeMessageId() {
        try {
            return InetAddress.getLocalHost().getHostAddress();
        } catch (UnknownHostException e) {
            log.error("Exception occurred while fetching localhost address", e);
            return UUID.randomUUID().toString();
        }
    }
}

My test class:

@RunWith(PowerMockRunner.class)
@PrepareForTest(SmokeRouteBuilder.class)
public class SmokeRouteBuilderTest {
    @Test
    public void testSmokeMessageId_exception() throws UnknownHostException {
        UUID id = UUID.randomUUID();

        mockStatic(InetAddress.class);
        mockStatic(UUID.class);
        when(InetAddress.getLocalHost()).thenThrow(UnknownHostException.class);
        when(UUID.randomUUID()).thenReturn(id);

        assertEquals(id.toString(), SmokeRouteBuilder.smokeMessageId());
    }
}



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