algorithm check inside - How to determine if a point is in a 2D triangle?





12 Answers

Solve the following equation system:

p = p0 + (p1 - p0) * s + (p2 - p0) * t

The point p is inside the triangle if 0 <= s <= 1 and 0 <= t <= 1 and s + t <= 1.

s,t and 1 - s - t are called the barycentric coordinates of the point p.

java find whether

Is there an easy way to determine if a point is inside a triangle? It's 2D, not 3D.




I wrote this code before a final attempt with Google and finding this page, so I thought I'd share it. It is basically an optimized version of Kisielewicz answer. I looked into the Barycentric method also but judging from the Wikipedia article I have a hard time seeing how it is more efficient (I'm guessing there is some deeper equivalence). Anyway, this algorithm has the advantage of not using division; a potential problem is the behavior of the edge detection depending on orientation.

bool intpoint_inside_trigon(intPoint s, intPoint a, intPoint b, intPoint c)
{
    int as_x = s.x-a.x;
    int as_y = s.y-a.y;

    bool s_ab = (b.x-a.x)*as_y-(b.y-a.y)*as_x > 0;

    if((c.x-a.x)*as_y-(c.y-a.y)*as_x > 0 == s_ab) return false;

    if((c.x-b.x)*(s.y-b.y)-(c.y-b.y)*(s.x-b.x) > 0 != s_ab) return false;

    return true;
}

In words, the idea is this: Is the point s to the left of or to the right of both the lines AB and AC? If true, it can't be inside. If false, it is at least inside the "cones" that satisfy the condition. Now since we know that a point inside a trigon (triangle) must be to the same side of AB as BC (and also CA), we check if they differ. If they do, s can't possibly be inside, otherwise s must be inside.

Some keywords in the calculations are line half-planes and the determinant (2x2 cross product). Perhaps a more pedagogical way is probably to think of it as a point being inside iff it's to the same side (left or right) to each of the lines AB, BC and CA. The above way seemed a better fit for some optimization however.




A simple way is to:

find the vectors connecting the point to each of the triangle's three vertices and sum the angles between those vectors. If the sum of the angles is 2*pi then the point is inside the triangle.

Two good sites that explain alternatives are:

blackpawn and wolfram




By using the analytic solution to the barycentric coordinates (pointed out by Andreas Brinck) and:

  • not distributing the multiplication over the parenthesized terms
  • avoiding computing several times the same terms by storing them
  • reducing comparisons (as pointed out by coproc and Thomas Eding)

one can minimize the number of "costy" operations:

function ptInTriangle(p, p0, p1, p2) {
    var dX = p.x-p2.x;
    var dY = p.y-p2.y;
    var dX21 = p2.x-p1.x;
    var dY12 = p1.y-p2.y;
    var D = dY12*(p0.x-p2.x) + dX21*(p0.y-p2.y);
    var s = dY12*dX + dX21*dY;
    var t = (p2.y-p0.y)*dX + (p0.x-p2.x)*dY;
    if (D<0) return s<=0 && t<=0 && s+t>=D;
    return s>=0 && t>=0 && s+t<=D;
}

(code can be pasted in Perro Azul jsfiddle)

Leading to:

  • variable "recalls": 30
  • variable storage: 7
  • additions: 4
  • substractions: 8
  • multiplications: 6
  • divisions: none
  • comparisons: 4

This compares quite well with Kornel Kisielewicz solution (25 recalls, 1 storage, 15 substractions, 6 multiplications, 5 comparisons), and might be even better if clockwise/counter-clockwise detection is needed (which takes 6 recalls, 1 addition, 2 substractions, 2 multiplications and 1 comparison in itself, using the analytic solution determinant, as pointed out by rhgb).




Here is an efficient Python implementation:

def PointInsideTriangle2(pt,tri):
    '''checks if point pt(2) is inside triangle tri(3x2). @Developer'''
    a = 1/(-tri[1,1]*tri[2,0]+tri[0,1]*(-tri[1,0]+tri[2,0])+ \
        tri[0,0]*(tri[1,1]-tri[2,1])+tri[1,0]*tri[2,1])
    s = a*(tri[2,0]*tri[0,1]-tri[0,0]*tri[2,1]+(tri[2,1]-tri[0,1])*pt[0]+ \
        (tri[0,0]-tri[2,0])*pt[1])
    if s<0: return False
    else: t = a*(tri[0,0]*tri[1,1]-tri[1,0]*tri[0,1]+(tri[0,1]-tri[1,1])*pt[0]+ \
              (tri[1,0]-tri[0,0])*pt[1])
    return ((t>0) and (1-s-t>0))

and an example output:




If you know the co-ordinates of the three vertices and the co-ordinates of the specific point, then you can get the area of the complete triangle. Afterwards, calculate the area of the three triangle segments (one point being the point given and the other two being any two vertices of the triangle). Thus, you will get the area of the three triangle segments. If the sum of these areas are equal to the total area (that you got previously), then, the point should be inside the triangle. Otherwise, the point is not inside the triangle. This should work. If there are any issues, let me know. Thank you.




There are pesky edge conditions where a point is exactly on the common edge of two adjacent triangles. The point cannot be in both, or neither of the triangles. You need an arbitrary but consistent way of assigning the point. For example, draw a horizontal line through the point. If the line intersects with the other side of the triangle on the right, the point is treated as though it is inside the triangle. If the intersection is on the left, the point is outside.

If the line on which the point lies is horizontal, use above/below.

If the point is on the common vertex of multiple triangles, use the triangle with whose center the point forms the smallest angle.

More fun: three points can be in a straight line (zero degrees), for example (0,0) - (0,10) - (0,5). In a triangulating algorithm, the "ear" (0,10) must be lopped off, the "triangle" generated being the degenerate case of a straight line.




Here is a solution in python that is efficient, documented and contains three unittests. It's professional-grade quality and ready to be dropped into your project in the form of a module as is.

import unittest

###############################################################################
def point_in_triangle(point, triangle):
    """Returns True if the point is inside the triangle
    and returns False if it falls outside.
    - The argument *point* is a tuple with two elements
    containing the X,Y coordinates respectively.
    - The argument *triangle* is a tuple with three elements each
    element consisting of a tuple of X,Y coordinates.

    It works like this:
    Walk clockwise or counterclockwise around the triangle
    and project the point onto the segment we are crossing
    by using the dot product.
    Finally, check that the vector created is on the same side
    for each of the triangle's segments.
    """
    # Unpack arguments
    x, y = point
    ax, ay = triangle[0]
    bx, by = triangle[1]
    cx, cy = triangle[2]
    # Segment A to B
    side_1 = (x - bx) * (ay - by) - (ax - bx) * (y - by)
    # Segment B to C
    side_2 = (x - cx) * (by - cy) - (bx - cx) * (y - cy)
    # Segment C to A
    side_3 = (x - ax) * (cy - ay) - (cx - ax) * (y - ay)
    # All the signs must be positive or all negative
    return (side_1 < 0.0) == (side_2 < 0.0) == (side_3 < 0.0)

###############################################################################
class TestPointInTriangle(unittest.TestCase):

    triangle = ((22 , 8),
                (12 , 55),
                (7 , 19))

    def test_inside(self):
        point = (15, 20)
        self.assertTrue(point_in_triangle(point, self.triangle))

    def test_outside(self):
        point = (1, 7)
        self.assertFalse(point_in_triangle(point, self.triangle))

    def test_border_case(self):
        """If the point is exactly on one of the triangle's edges,
        we consider it is inside."""
        point = (7, 19)
        self.assertTrue(point_in_triangle(point, self.triangle))

###############################################################################
if __name__ == "__main__":
    suite = unittest.defaultTestLoader.loadTestsFromTestCase(TestPointInTriangle)
    unittest.TextTestRunner().run(suite)

There is an additional optional graphical test for the algorithm above to confirm its validity:

import random
from matplotlib import pyplot
from triangle_test import point_in_triangle

###############################################################################
# The area #
size_x = 64
size_y = 64

# The triangle #
triangle = ((22 , 8),
            (12 , 55),
            (7 , 19))

# Number of random points #
count_points = 10000

# Prepare the figure #
figure = pyplot.figure()
axes = figure.add_subplot(111, aspect='equal')
axes.set_title("Test the 'point_in_triangle' function")
axes.set_xlim(0, size_x)
axes.set_ylim(0, size_y)

# Plot the triangle #
from matplotlib.patches import Polygon
axes.add_patch(Polygon(triangle, linewidth=1, edgecolor='k', facecolor='none'))

# Plot the points #
for i in range(count_points):
    x = random.uniform(0, size_x)
    y = random.uniform(0, size_y)
    if point_in_triangle((x,y), triangle): pyplot.plot(x, y, '.g')
    else:                                  pyplot.plot(x, y, '.b')

# Save it #
figure.savefig("point_in_triangle.pdf")

Producing the following graphic:




Supposedly high-performance code which I adapted in JavaScript(article below):

function pointInTriangle (p, p0, p1, p2) {
  return (((p1.y - p0.y) * (p.x - p0.x) - (p1.x - p0.x) * (p.y - p0.y)) | ((p2.y - p1.y) * (p.x - p1.x) - (p2.x - p1.x) * (p.y - p1.y)) | ((p0.y - p2.y) * (p.x - p2.x) - (p0.x - p2.x) * (p.y - p2.y))) >= 0;
}

pointInTriangle (p, p0, p1, p2) - for counter-clockwise triangles

pointInTriangle (p, p0, p1, p2) - for clockwise triangles

Look in jsFiddle (performance test included), there's also winding checking in a separate function http://jsfiddle.net/z7x0udf7/3/

Inspired by this: http://www.phatcode.net/articles.php?id=459




Honestly it is as simple as Simon P Steven's answer however with that approach you don't have a solid control on whether you want the points on the edges of the triangle to be included or not.

My approach is a little different but very basic. Consider the following triangle;

In order to have the point in the triangle we have to satisfy 3 conditions

  1. ACE angle (green) should be smaller than ACB angle (red)
  2. ECB angle (blue) should be smaller than ACB angle (red)
  3. Point E and Point C shoud have the same sign when their x and y values are applied to the equation of the |AB| line.

In this method you have full control to include or exclude the point on the edges individually. So you may check if a point is in the triangle including only the |AC| edge for instance.

So my solution in JavaScript would be as follows;

function isInTriangle(t,p){

  function isInBorder(a,b,c,p){
    var m = (a.y - b.y) / (a.x - b.x);                     // calculate the slope
    return Math.sign(p.y - m*p.x + m*a.x - a.y) === Math.sign(c.y - m*c.x + m*a.x - a.y);
  }
  
  function findAngle(a,b,c){                               // calculate the C angle from 3 points.
    var ca = Math.hypot(c.x-a.x, c.y-a.y),                 // ca edge length
        cb = Math.hypot(c.x-b.x, c.y-b.y),                 // cb edge length
        ab = Math.hypot(a.x-b.x, a.y-b.y);                 // ab edge length
    return Math.acos((ca*ca + cb*cb - ab*ab) / (2*ca*cb)); // return the C angle
  }

  var pas = t.slice(1)
             .map(tp => findAngle(p,tp,t[0])),             // find the angle between (p,t[0]) with (t[1],t[0]) & (t[2],t[0])
       ta = findAngle(t[1],t[2],t[0]);
  return pas[0] < ta && pas[1] < ta && isInBorder(t[1],t[2],t[0],p);
}

var triangle = [{x:3, y:4},{x:10, y:8},{x:6, y:10}],
      point1 = {x:3, y:9},
      point2 = {x:7, y:9};

console.log(isInTriangle(triangle,point1));
console.log(isInTriangle(triangle,point2));



This is the simplest concept to determine if a point is inside or outside the triangle or on an arm of a triangle. Determination of a point is inside a tringle by determinants

The simplest working code: `

#-*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import numpy as np

tri_points = [(1,1),(2,3),(3,1)]

def pisinTri(point,tri_points):
    Dx , Dy = point

    A,B,C = tri_points
    Ax, Ay = A
    Bx, By = B
    Cx, Cy = C

    M1 = np.array([ [Dx - Bx, Dy - By, 0],
                    [Ax - Bx, Ay - By, 0],
                    [1      , 1      , 1]
                  ])

    M2 = np.array([ [Dx - Ax, Dy - Ay, 0],
                    [Cx - Ax, Cy - Ay, 0],
                    [1      , 1      , 1]
                  ])

    M3 = np.array([ [Dx - Cx, Dy - Cy, 0],
                    [Bx - Cx, By - Cy, 0],
                    [1      , 1      , 1]
                  ])

    M1 = np.linalg.det(M1)
    M2 = np.linalg.det(M2)
    M3 = np.linalg.det(M3)
    print(M1,M2,M3)

    if(M1 == 0 or M2 == 0 or M3 ==0):
            print("Point: ",point," lies on the arms of Triangle")
    elif((M1 > 0 and M2 > 0 and M3 > 0)or(M1 < 0 and M2 < 0 and M3 < 0)):
            #if products is non 0 check if all of their sign is same
            print("Point: ",point," lies inside the Triangle")
    else:
            print("Point: ",point," lies outside the Triangle")

print("Vertices of Triangle: ",tri_points)
points = [(0,0),(1,1),(2,3),(3,1),(2,2),(4,4),(1,0),(0,4)]
for c in points:
    pisinTri(c,tri_points)

`




Since there's no JS answer,
Clockwise & Counter-Clockwise solution:

function triangleContains(ax, ay, bx, by, cx, cy, x, y) {

    let det = (bx - ax) * (cy - ay) - (by - ay) * (cx - ax)

    return  det * ((bx - ax) * (y - ay) - (by - ay) * (x - ax)) > 0 &&
            det * ((cx - bx) * (y - by) - (cy - by) * (x - bx)) > 0 &&
            det * ((ax - cx) * (y - cy) - (ay - cy) * (x - cx)) > 0 

}

EDIT: there was a typo for det computation (cy - ay instead of cx - ax), this is fixed.

https://jsfiddle.net/jniac/rctb3gfL/

I'm using here the same method as described above: a point is inside ABC if he is respectively on the "same" side of each line AB, BC, CA.




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