8How do I get the file extension of a file in Java?




13 Answers

Do you really need a "parser" for this?

String extension = "";

int i = fileName.lastIndexOf('.');
if (i > 0) {
    extension = fileName.substring(i+1);
}

Assuming that you're dealing with simple Windows-like file names, not something like archive.tar.gz.

Btw, for the case that a directory may have a '.', but the filename itself doesn't (like /path/to.a/file), you can do

String extension = "";

int i = fileName.lastIndexOf('.');
int p = Math.max(fileName.lastIndexOf('/'), fileName.lastIndexOf('\\'));

if (i > p) {
    extension = fileName.substring(i+1);
}
java get file type without extension

Just to be clear, I'm not looking for the MIME type.

Let's say I have the following input: /path/to/file/foo.txt

I'd like a way to break this input up, specifically into .txt for the extension. Is there any built in way to do this in Java? I would like to avoid writing my own parser.




If you use Guava library, you can resort to Files utility class. It has a specific method, getFileExtension(). For instance:

String path = "c:/path/to/file/foo.txt";
String ext = Files.getFileExtension(path);
System.out.println(ext); //prints txt

In addition you may also obtain the filename with a similar function, getNameWithoutExtension():

String filename = Files.getNameWithoutExtension(path);
System.out.println(filename); //prints foo



In order to take into account file names without characters before the dot, you have to use that slight variation of the accepted answer:

String extension = "";

int i = fileName.lastIndexOf('.');
if (i >= 0) {
    extension = fileName.substring(i+1);
}

"file.doc" => "doc"
"file.doc.gz" => "gz"
".doc" => "doc"



This is a tested method

public static String getExtension(String fileName) {
    char ch;
    int len;
    if(fileName==null || 
            (len = fileName.length())==0 || 
            (ch = fileName.charAt(len-1))=='/' || ch=='\\' || //in the case of a directory
             ch=='.' ) //in the case of . or ..
        return "";
    int dotInd = fileName.lastIndexOf('.'),
        sepInd = Math.max(fileName.lastIndexOf('/'), fileName.lastIndexOf('\\'));
    if( dotInd<=sepInd )
        return "";
    else
        return fileName.substring(dotInd+1).toLowerCase();
}

And test case:

@Test
public void testGetExtension() {
    assertEquals("", getExtension("C"));
    assertEquals("ext", getExtension("C.ext"));
    assertEquals("ext", getExtension("A/B/C.ext"));
    assertEquals("", getExtension("A/B/C.ext/"));
    assertEquals("", getExtension("A/B/C.ext/.."));
    assertEquals("bin", getExtension("A/B/C.bin"));
    assertEquals("hidden", getExtension(".hidden"));
    assertEquals("dsstore", getExtension("/user/home/.dsstore"));
    assertEquals("", getExtension(".strange."));
    assertEquals("3", getExtension("1.2.3"));
    assertEquals("exe", getExtension("C:\\Program Files (x86)\\java\\bin\\javaw.exe"));
}



If you plan to use Apache commons-io,and just want to check the file's extension and then do some operation,you can use this,here is a snippet:

if(FilenameUtils.isExtension(file.getName(),"java")) {
    someoperation();
}



How about JFileChooser? It is not straightforward as you will need to parse its final output...

JFileChooser filechooser = new JFileChooser();
File file = new File("your.txt");
System.out.println("the extension type:"+filechooser.getTypeDescription(file));

which is a MIME type...

OK...I forget that you don't want to know its MIME type.

Interesting code in the following link: http://download.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/uiswing/components/filechooser.html

/*
 * Get the extension of a file.
 */  
public static String getExtension(File f) {
    String ext = null;
    String s = f.getName();
    int i = s.lastIndexOf('.');

    if (i > 0 &&  i < s.length() - 1) {
        ext = s.substring(i+1).toLowerCase();
    }
    return ext;
}

Related question: How do I trim a file extension from a String in Java?




Here's the version with Optional as a return value (cause you can't be sure the file has an extension)... also sanity checks...

import java.io.File;
import java.util.Optional;

public class GetFileExtensionTool {

    public static Optional<String> getFileExtension(File file) {
        if (file == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException("file argument was null");
        }
        if (!file.isFile()) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("getFileExtension(File file)"
                    + " called on File object that wasn't an actual file"
                    + " (perhaps a directory or device?). file had path: "
                    + file.getAbsolutePath());
        }
        String fileName = file.getName();
        int i = fileName.lastIndexOf('.');
        if (i > 0) {
            return Optional.of(fileName.substring(i + 1));
        } else {
            return Optional.empty();
        }
    }
}



String extension = com.google.common.io.Files.getFileExtension("fileName.jpg");



Getting File Extension from File Name

/**
 * The extension separator character.
 */
private static final char EXTENSION_SEPARATOR = '.';

/**
 * The Unix separator character.
 */
private static final char UNIX_SEPARATOR = '/';

/**
 * The Windows separator character.
 */
private static final char WINDOWS_SEPARATOR = '\\';

/**
 * The system separator character.
 */
private static final char SYSTEM_SEPARATOR = File.separatorChar;

/**
 * Gets the extension of a filename.
 * <p>
 * This method returns the textual part of the filename after the last dot.
 * There must be no directory separator after the dot.
 * <pre>
 * foo.txt      --> "txt"
 * a/b/c.jpg    --> "jpg"
 * a/b.txt/c    --> ""
 * a/b/c        --> ""
 * </pre>
 * <p>
 * The output will be the same irrespective of the machine that the code is running on.
 *
 * @param filename the filename to retrieve the extension of.
 * @return the extension of the file or an empty string if none exists.
 */
public static String getExtension(String filename) {
    if (filename == null) {
        return null;
    }
    int index = indexOfExtension(filename);
    if (index == -1) {
        return "";
    } else {
        return filename.substring(index + 1);
    }
}

/**
 * Returns the index of the last extension separator character, which is a dot.
 * <p>
 * This method also checks that there is no directory separator after the last dot.
 * To do this it uses {@link #indexOfLastSeparator(String)} which will
 * handle a file in either Unix or Windows format.
 * <p>
 * The output will be the same irrespective of the machine that the code is running on.
 *
 * @param filename  the filename to find the last path separator in, null returns -1
 * @return the index of the last separator character, or -1 if there
 * is no such character
 */
public static int indexOfExtension(String filename) {
    if (filename == null) {
        return -1;
    }
    int extensionPos = filename.lastIndexOf(EXTENSION_SEPARATOR);
    int lastSeparator = indexOfLastSeparator(filename);
    return (lastSeparator > extensionPos ? -1 : extensionPos);
}

/**
 * Returns the index of the last directory separator character.
 * <p>
 * This method will handle a file in either Unix or Windows format.
 * The position of the last forward or backslash is returned.
 * <p>
 * The output will be the same irrespective of the machine that the code is running on.
 *
 * @param filename  the filename to find the last path separator in, null returns -1
 * @return the index of the last separator character, or -1 if there
 * is no such character
 */
public static int indexOfLastSeparator(String filename) {
    if (filename == null) {
        return -1;
    }
    int lastUnixPos = filename.lastIndexOf(UNIX_SEPARATOR);
    int lastWindowsPos = filename.lastIndexOf(WINDOWS_SEPARATOR);
    return Math.max(lastUnixPos, lastWindowsPos);
}

Credits

  1. Copied from Apache FileNameUtils Class - http://grepcode.com/file/repo1.maven.org/maven2/commons-io/commons-io/1.3.2/org/apache/commons/io/FilenameUtils.java#FilenameUtils.getExtension%28java.lang.String%29



Without use of any library, you can use the String method split as follows :

        String[] splits = fileNames.get(i).split("\\.");

        String extension = "";

        if(splits.length >= 2)
        {
            extension = splits[splits.length-1];
        }



Just a regular-expression based alternative. Not that fast, not that good.

Pattern pattern = Pattern.compile("\\.([^.]*)$");
Matcher matcher = pattern.matcher(fileName);

if (matcher.find()) {
    String ext = matcher.group(1);
}



I found a better way to find extension by mixing all above answers

public static String getFileExtension(String fileLink) {

        String extension;
        Uri uri = Uri.parse(fileLink);
        String scheme = uri.getScheme();
        if (scheme != null && scheme.equals(ContentResolver.SCHEME_CONTENT)) {
            MimeTypeMap mime = MimeTypeMap.getSingleton();
            extension = mime.getExtensionFromMimeType(CoreApp.getInstance().getContentResolver().getType(uri));
        } else {
            extension = MimeTypeMap.getFileExtensionFromUrl(fileLink);
        }

        return extension;
    }

public static String getMimeType(String fileLink) {
        String type = CoreApp.getInstance().getContentResolver().getType(Uri.parse(fileLink));
        if (!TextUtils.isEmpty(type)) return type;
        MimeTypeMap mime = MimeTypeMap.getSingleton();
        return mime.getMimeTypeFromExtension(FileChooserUtil.getFileExtension(fileLink));
    }



  @Test
    public void getFileExtension(String fileName){
      String extension = null;
      List<String> list = new ArrayList<>();
      do{
          extension =  FilenameUtils.getExtension(fileName);
          if(extension==null){
              break;
          }
          if(!extension.isEmpty()){
              list.add("."+extension);
          }
          fileName = FilenameUtils.getBaseName(fileName);
      }while (!extension.isEmpty());
      Collections.reverse(list);
      System.out.println(list.toString());
    }



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Tags

java   file   io