c# example object - What is a NullReferenceException, and how do I fix it?

15 Answers

NullReference Exception — Visual Basic

The NullReference Exception for Visual Basic is no different from the one in C#. After all, they are both reporting the same exception defined in the .NET Framework which they both use. Causes unique to Visual Basic are rare (perhaps only one).

This answer will use Visual Basic terms, syntax, and context. The examples used come from a large number of past Stack  Overflow questions. This is to maximize relevance by using the kinds of situations often seen in posts. A bit more explanation is also provided for those who might need it. An example similar to yours is very likely listed here.


  1. This is concept-based: there is no code for you to paste into your project. It is intended to help you understand what causes a NullReferenceException (NRE), how to find it, how to fix it, and how to avoid it. An NRE can be caused many ways so this is unlikely to be your sole encounter.
  2. The examples (from Stack  Overflow posts) do not always show the best way to do something in the first place.
  3. Typically, the simplest remedy is used.

Basic Meaning

The message "Object not set to an instance of Object" means you are trying to use an object which has not been initialized. This boils down to one of these:

  • Your code declared an object variable, but it did not initialize it (create an instance or 'instantiate' it)
  • Something which your code assumed would initialize an object, did not
  • Possibly, other code prematurely invalidated an object still in use

Finding The Cause

Since the problem is an object reference which is Nothing, the answer is to examine them to find out which one. Then determine why it is not initialized. Hold the mouse over the various variables and Visual Studio (VS) will show their values - the culprit will be Nothing.

You should also remove any Try/Catch blocks from the relevant code, especially ones where there is nothing in the Catch block. This will cause your code to crash when it tries to use an object which is Nothing. This is what you want because it will identify the exact location of the problem, and allow you to identify the object causing it.

A MsgBox in the Catch which displays Error while... will be of little help. This method also leads to very bad Stack  Overflow questions, because you can't describe the actual exception, the object involved or even the line of code where it happens.

You can also use the Locals Window (Debug -> Windows -> Locals) to examine your objects.

Once you know what and where the problem is, it is usually fairly easy to fix and faster than posting a new question.

See also:

Examples and Remedies

Class Objects / Creating an Instance

Dim reg As CashRegister
TextBox1.Text = reg.Amount         ' NRE

The problem is that Dim does not create a CashRegister object; it only declares a variable named reg of that Type. Declaring an object variable and creating an instance are two different things.


The New operator can often be used to create the instance when you declare it:

Dim reg As New CashRegister        ' [New] creates instance, invokes the constructor

' Longer, more explicit form:
Dim reg As CashRegister = New CashRegister

When it is only appropriate to create the instance later:

Private reg As CashRegister         ' Declare
reg = New CashRegister()            ' Create instance

Note: Do not use Dim again in a procedure, including the constructor (Sub New):

Private reg As CashRegister

Public Sub New()
   Dim reg As New CashRegister
End Sub

This will create a local variable, reg, which exists only in that context (sub). The reg variable with module level Scope which you will use everywhere else remains Nothing.

Missing the New operator is the #1 cause of NullReference Exceptions seen in the Stack  Overflow questions reviewed.

Visual Basic tries to make the process clear repeatedly using New: Using the New Operator creates a new object and calls Sub New -- the constructor -- where your object can perform any other initialization.

To be clear, Dim (or Private) only declares a variable and its Type. The Scope of the variable - whether it exists for the entire module/class or is local to a procedure - is determined by where it is declared. Private | Friend | Public defines the access level, not Scope.

For more information, see:


Arrays must also be instantiated:

Private arr as String()

This array has only been declared, not created. There are several ways to initialize an array:

Private arr as String() = New String(10){}
' or
Private arr() As String = New String(10){}

' For a local array (in a procedure) and using 'Option Infer':
Dim arr = New String(10) {}

Note: Beginning with VS 2010, when initializing a local array using a literal and Option Infer, the As <Type> and New elements are optional:

Dim myDbl As Double() = {1.5, 2, 9.9, 18, 3.14}
Dim myDbl = New Double() {1.5, 2, 9.9, 18, 3.14}
Dim myDbl() = {1.5, 2, 9.9, 18, 3.14}

The data Type and array size are inferred from the data being assigned. Class/Module level declarations still require As <Type> with Option Strict:

Private myDoubles As Double() = {1.5, 2, 9.9, 18, 3.14}

Example: Array of class objects

Dim arrFoo(5) As Foo

For i As Integer = 0 To arrFoo.Count - 1
   arrFoo(i).Bar = i * 10       ' Exception

The array has been created, but the Foo objects in it have not.


For i As Integer = 0 To arrFoo.Count - 1
    arrFoo(i) = New Foo()         ' Create Foo instance
    arrFoo(i).Bar = i * 10

Using a List(Of T) will make it quite difficult to have an element without a valid object:

Dim FooList As New List(Of Foo)     ' List created, but it is empty
Dim f As Foo                        ' Temporary variable for the loop

For i As Integer = 0 To 5
    f = New Foo()                    ' Foo instance created
    f.Bar =  i * 10
    FooList.Add(f)                   ' Foo object added to list

For more information, see:

Lists and Collections

.NET collections (of which there are many varieties - Lists, Dictionary, etc.) must also be instantiated or created.

Private myList As List(Of String)
myList.Add("ziggy")           ' NullReference

You get the same exception for the same reason - myList was only declared, but no instance created. The remedy is the same:

myList = New List(Of String)

' Or create an instance when declared:
Private myList As New List(Of String)

A common oversight is a class which uses a collection Type:

Public Class Foo
    Private barList As List(Of Bar)

    Friend Function BarCount As Integer
        Return barList.Count
    End Function

    Friend Sub AddItem(newBar As Bar)
        If barList.Contains(newBar) = False Then
        End If
    End Function

Either procedure will result in an NRE, because barList is only declared, not instantiated. Creating an instance of Foo will not also create an instance of the internal barList. It may have been the intent to do this in the constructor:

Public Sub New         ' Constructor
    ' Stuff to do when a new Foo is created...
    barList = New List(Of Bar)
End Sub

As before, this is incorrect:

Public Sub New()
    ' Creates another barList local to this procedure
     Dim barList As New List(Of Bar)
End Sub

For more information, see List(Of T) Class.

Data Provider Objects

Working with databases presents many opportunities for a NullReference because there can be many objects (Command, Connection, Transaction, Dataset, DataTable, DataRows....) in use at once. Note: It does not matter which data provider you are using -- MySQL, SQL Server, OleDB, etc. -- the concepts are the same.

Example 1

Dim da As OleDbDataAdapter
Dim ds As DataSet
Dim MaxRows As Integer

Dim sql = "SELECT * FROM tblfoobar_List"
da = New OleDbDataAdapter(sql, con)
da.Fill(ds, "foobar")

MaxRows = ds.Tables("foobar").Rows.Count      ' Error

As before, the ds Dataset object was declared, but an instance was never created. The DataAdapter will fill an existing DataSet, not create one. In this case, since ds is a local variable, the IDE warns you that this might happen:

When declared as a module/class level variable, as appears to be the case with con, the compiler can't know if the object was created by an upstream procedure. Do not ignore warnings.


Dim ds As New DataSet

Example 2

ds = New DataSet
da = New OleDBDataAdapter(sql, con)
da.Fill(ds, "Employees")

txtID.Text = ds.Tables("Employee").Rows(0).Item(1)
txtID.Name = ds.Tables("Employee").Rows(0).Item(2)

A typo is a problem here: Employees vs Employee. There was no DataTable named "Employee" created, so a NullReferenceException results trying to access it. Another potential problem is assuming there will be Items which may not be so when the SQL includes a WHERE clause.


Since this uses one table, using Tables(0) will avoid spelling errors. Examining Rows.Count can also help:

If ds.Tables(0).Rows.Count > 0 Then
    txtID.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0).Item(1)
    txtID.Name = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0).Item(2)
End If

Fill is a function returning the number of Rows affected which can also be tested:

If da.Fill(ds, "Employees") > 0 Then...

Example 3

Dim da As New OleDb.OleDbDataAdapter("SELECT TICKET.TICKET_NO,
Dim ds As New DataSet

If ds.Tables("TICKET_RESERVATION").Rows.Count > 0 Then

The DataAdapter will provide TableNames as shown in the previous example, but it does not parse names from the SQL or database table. As a result, ds.Tables("TICKET_RESERVATION") references a non-existent table.

The Remedy is the same, reference the table by index:

If ds.Tables(0).Rows.Count > 0 Then

See also DataTable Class.

Object Paths / Nested

If myFoo.Bar.Items IsNot Nothing Then

The code is only testing Items while both myFoo and Bar may also be Nothing. The remedy is to test the entire chain or path of objects one at a time:

If (myFoo IsNot Nothing) AndAlso
    (myFoo.Bar IsNot Nothing) AndAlso
    (myFoo.Bar.Items IsNot Nothing) Then

AndAlso is important. Subsequent tests will not be performed once the first False condition is encountered. This allows the code to safely 'drill' into the object(s) one 'level' at a time, evaluating myFoo.Bar only after (and if) myFoo is determined to be valid. Object chains or paths can get quite long when coding complex objects:


It is not possible to reference anything 'downstream' of a null object. This also applies to controls:

myWebBrowser.Document.GetElementById("formfld1").InnerText = "some value"

Here, myWebBrowser or Document could be Nothing or the formfld1 element may not exist.

UI Controls

Dim cmd5 As New SqlCommand("select Cartons, Pieces, Foobar " _
     & "FROM Invoice where invoice_no = '" & _
     Me.ComboBox5.SelectedItem.ToString.Trim & "' And category = '" & _
     Me.ListBox1.SelectedItem.ToString.Trim & "' And item_name = '" & _
     Me.ComboBox2.SelectedValue.ToString.Trim & "' And expiry_date = '" & _
     Me.expiry.Text & "'", con)

Among other things, this code does not anticipate that the user may not have selected something in one or more UI controls. ListBox1.SelectedItem may well be Nothing, so ListBox1.SelectedItem.ToString will result in an NRE.


Validate data before using it (also use Option Strict and SQL parameters):

Dim expiry As DateTime         ' for text date validation
If (ComboBox5.SelectedItems.Count > 0) AndAlso
    (ListBox1.SelectedItems.Count > 0) AndAlso
    (ComboBox2.SelectedItems.Count > 0) AndAlso
    (DateTime.TryParse(expiry.Text, expiry) Then

    '... do stuff
    MessageBox.Show(...error message...)
End If

Alternatively, you can use (ComboBox5.SelectedItem IsNot Nothing) AndAlso...

Visual Basic Forms

Public Class Form1

    Private NameBoxes = New TextBox(5) {Controls("TextBox1"), _
                   Controls("TextBox2"), Controls("TextBox3"), _
                   Controls("TextBox4"), Controls("TextBox5"), _

    ' same thing in a different format:
    Private boxList As New List(Of TextBox) From {TextBox1, TextBox2, TextBox3 ...}

    ' Immediate NRE:
    Private somevar As String = Me.Controls("TextBox1").Text

This is a fairly common way to get an NRE. In C#, depending on how it is coded, the IDE will report that Controls does not exist in the current context, or "cannot reference non-static member". So, to some extent, this is a VB-only situation. It is also complex because it can result in a failure cascade.

The arrays and collections cannot be initialized this way. This initialization code will run before the constructor creates the Form or the Controls. As a result:

  • Lists and Collection will simply be empty
  • The Array will contain five elements of Nothing
  • The somevar assignment will result in an immediate NRE because Nothing doesn't have a .Text property

Referencing array elements later will result in an NRE. If you do this in Form_Load, due to an odd bug, the IDE may not report the exception when it happens. The exception will pop up later when your code tries to use the array. This "silent exception" is detailed in this post. For our purposes, the key is that when something catastrophic happens while creating a form (Sub New or Form Load event), exceptions may go unreported, the code exits the procedure and just displays the form.

Since no other code in your Sub New or Form Load event will run after the NRE, a great many other things can be left uninitialized.

Sub Form_Load(..._
   Dim name As String = NameBoxes(2).Text        ' NRE
   ' ...
   ' More code (which will likely not be executed)
   ' ...
End Sub

Note this applies to any and all control and component references making these illegal where they are:

Public Class Form1

    Private myFiles() As String = Me.OpenFileDialog1.FileName & ...
    Private dbcon As String = OpenFileDialog1.FileName & ";Jet Oledb..."
    Private studentName As String = TextBox13.Text

Partial Remedy

It is curious that VB does not provide a warning, but the remedy is to declare the containers at the form level, but initialize them in form load event handler when the controls do exist. This can be done in Sub New as long as your code is after the InitializeComponent call:

' Module level declaration
Private NameBoxes as TextBox()
Private studentName As String

' Form Load, Form Shown or Sub New:
' Using the OP's approach (illegal using OPTION STRICT)
NameBoxes = New TextBox() {Me.Controls("TextBox1"), Me.Controls("TestBox2"), ...)
studentName = TextBox32.Text           ' For simple control references

The array code may not be out of the woods yet. Any controls which are in a container control (like a GroupBox or Panel) will not be found in Me.Controls; they will be in the Controls collection of that Panel or GroupBox. Nor will a control be returned when the control name is misspelled ("TeStBox2"). In such cases, Nothing will again be stored in those array elements and an NRE will result when you attempt to reference it.

These should be easy to find now that you know what you are looking for:

"Button2" resides on a Panel


Rather than indirect references by name using the form's Controls collection, use the control reference:

' Declaration
Private NameBoxes As TextBox()

' Initialization -  simple and easy to read, hard to botch:
NameBoxes = New TextBox() {TextBox1, TextBox2, ...)

' Initialize a List
NamesList = New List(Of TextBox)({TextBox1, TextBox2, TextBox3...})
' or
NamesList = New List(Of TextBox)
NamesList.AddRange({TextBox1, TextBox2, TextBox3...})

Function Returning Nothing

Private bars As New List(Of Bars)        ' Declared and created

Public Function BarList() As List(Of Bars)
    If someCondition Then
        For n As Integer = 0 to someValue
        Next n
        Exit Function
    End If

    Return bars
End Function

This is a case where the IDE will warn you that 'not all paths return a value and a NullReferenceException may result'. You can suppress the warning, by replacing Exit Function with Return Nothing, but that does not solve the problem. Anything which tries to use the return when someCondition = False will result in an NRE:

bList = myFoo.BarList()
For Each b As Bar in bList      ' EXCEPTION


Replace Exit Function in the function with Return bList. Returning an empty List is not the same as returning Nothing. If there is a chance that a returned object can be Nothing, test before using it:

 bList = myFoo.BarList()
 If bList IsNot Nothing Then...

Poorly Implemented Try/Catch

A badly implemented Try/Catch can hide where the problem is and result in new ones:

Dim dr As SqlDataReader
    Dim lnk As LinkButton = TryCast(sender, LinkButton)
    Dim gr As GridViewRow = DirectCast(lnk.NamingContainer, GridViewRow)
    Dim eid As String = GridView1.DataKeys(gr.RowIndex).Value.ToString()
    ViewState("username") = eid
    sqlQry = "select FirstName, Surname, DepartmentName, ExtensionName, jobTitle,
             Pager, mailaddress, from employees1 where username='" & eid & "'"
    If connection.State <> ConnectionState.Open Then
    End If
    command = New SqlCommand(sqlQry, connection)

    'More code fooing and barring

    dr = command.ExecuteReader()
    If dr.Read() Then
        lblFirstName.Text = Convert.ToString(dr("FirstName"))
    End If

    dr.Close()             ' <-- NRE
End Try

This is a case of an object not being created as expected, but also demonstrates the counter usefulness of an empty Catch.

There is an extra comma in the SQL (after 'mailaddress') which results in an exception at .ExecuteReader. After the Catch does nothing, Finally tries to perform clean up, but since you cannot Close a null DataReader object, a brand new NullReferenceException results.

An empty Catch block is the devil's playground. This OP was baffled why he was getting an NRE in the Finally block. In other situations, an empty Catch may result in something else much further downstream going haywire and cause you to spend time looking at the wrong things in the wrong place for the problem. (The "silent exception" described above provides the same entertainment value.)


Don't use empty Try/Catch blocks - let the code crash so you can a) identify the cause b) identify the location and c) apply a proper remedy. Try/Catch blocks are not intended to hide exceptions from the person uniquely qualified to fix them - the developer.

DBNull is not the same as Nothing

For Each row As DataGridViewRow In dgvPlanning.Rows
    If Not IsDBNull(row.Cells(0).Value) Then

The IsDBNull function is used to test if a value equals System.DBNull: From MSDN:

The System.DBNull value indicates that the Object represents missing or non-existent data. DBNull is not the same as Nothing, which indicates that a variable has not yet been initialized.


If row.Cells(0) IsNot Nothing Then ...

As before, you can test for Nothing, then for a specific value:

If (row.Cells(0) IsNot Nothing) AndAlso (IsDBNull(row.Cells(0).Value) = False) Then

Example 2

Dim getFoo = (From f In dbContext.FooBars
               Where f.something = something
               Select f).FirstOrDefault

If Not IsDBNull(getFoo) Then
    If IsDBNull(getFoo.user_id) Then
        txtFirst.Text = getFoo.first_name

FirstOrDefault returns the first item or the default value, which is Nothing for reference types and never DBNull:

If getFoo IsNot Nothing Then...


Dim chk As CheckBox

chk = CType(Me.Controls(chkName), CheckBox)
If chk.Checked Then
    Return chk
End If

If a CheckBox with chkName can't be found (or exists in a GroupBox), then chk will be Nothing and be attempting to reference any property will result in an exception.


If (chk IsNot Nothing) AndAlso (chk.Checked) Then ...

The DataGridView

The DGV has a few quirks seen periodically:

dgvBooks.DataSource = loan.Books
dgvBooks.Columns("ISBN").Visible = True       ' NullReferenceException
dgvBooks.Columns("Title").DefaultCellStyle.Format = "C"
dgvBooks.Columns("Author").DefaultCellStyle.Format = "C"
dgvBooks.Columns("Price").DefaultCellStyle.Format = "C"

If dgvBooks has AutoGenerateColumns = True, it will create the columns, but it does not name them, so the above code fails when it references them by name.


Name the columns manually, or reference by index:

dgvBooks.Columns(0).Visible = True

Example 2 — Beware of the NewRow

xlWorkSheet = xlWorkBook.Sheets("sheet1")

For i = 0 To myDGV.RowCount - 1
    For j = 0 To myDGV.ColumnCount - 1
        For k As Integer = 1 To myDGV.Columns.Count
            xlWorkSheet.Cells(1, k) = myDGV.Columns(k - 1).HeaderText
            xlWorkSheet.Cells(i + 2, j + 1) = myDGV(j, i).Value.ToString()

When your DataGridView has AllowUserToAddRows as True (the default), the Cells in the blank/new row at the bottom will all contain Nothing. Most attempts to use the contents (for example, ToString) will result in an NRE.


Use a For/Each loop and test the IsNewRow property to determine if it is that last row. This works whether AllowUserToAddRows is true or not:

For Each r As DataGridViewRow in myDGV.Rows
    If r.IsNewRow = False Then
         ' ok to use this row

If you do use a For n loop, modify the row count or use Exit For when IsNewRow is true.

My.Settings (StringCollection)

Under certain circumstances, trying to use an item from My.Settings which is a StringCollection can result in a NullReference the first time you use it. The solution is the same, but not as obvious. Consider:

My.Settings.FooBars.Add("ziggy")         ' foobars is a string collection

Since VB is managing Settings for you, it is reasonable to expect it to initialize the collection. It will, but only if you have previously added an initial entry to the collection (in the Settings editor). Since the collection is (apparently) initialized when an item is added, it remains Nothing when there are no items in the Settings editor to add.


Initialize the settings collection in the form's Load event handler, if/when needed:

If My.Settings.FooBars Is Nothing Then
    My.Settings.FooBars = New System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
End If

Typically, the Settings collection will only need to be initialized the first time the application runs. An alternate remedy is to add an initial value to your collection in Project -> Settings | FooBars, save the project, then remove the fake value.

Key Points

You probably forgot the New operator.


Something you assumed would perform flawlessly to return an initialized object to your code, did not.

Don't ignore compiler warnings (ever) and use Option Strict On (always).

MSDN NullReference Exception

not set to

I have some code and when it executes, it throws a NullReferenceException, saying:

Object reference not set to an instance of an object.

What does this mean, and what can I do to fix this error?

It means that the variable in question is pointed at nothing. I could generate this like so:

SqlConnection connection = null;

That will throw the error because while I've declared the variable "connection", it's not pointed to anything. When I try to call the member "Open", there's no reference for it to resolve, and it will throw the error.

To avoid this error:

  1. Always initialize your objects before you try to do anything with them.
  2. If you're not sure whether the object is null, check it with object == null.

JetBrains' Resharper tool will identify every place in your code that has the possibility of a null reference error, allowing you to put in a null check. This error is the number one source of bugs, IMHO.

Be aware that regardless of the scenario, the cause is always the same in .NET:

You are trying to use a reference variable whose value is Nothing/null. When the value is Nothing/null for the reference variable, that means it is not actually holding a reference to an instance of any object that exists on the heap.

You either never assigned something to the variable, never created an instance of the value assigned to the variable, or you set the variable equal to Nothing/null manually, or you called a function that set the variable to Nothing/null for you.

If you have not initialized a reference type, and you want to set or read one of its properties, it will throw a NullReferenceException.


Person p = null;
p.Name = "Harry"; // NullReferenceException occurs here.

You can simply avoid this by checking if the variable is not null:

Person p = null;
if (p!=null)
    p.Name = "Harry"; // Not going to run to this point

To fully understand why a NullReferenceException is thrown, it is important to know the difference between value types and reference types.

So, if you're dealing with value types, NullReferenceExceptions can not occur. Though you need to keep alert when dealing with reference types!

Only reference types, as the name is suggesting, can hold references or point literally to nothing (or 'null'). Whereas value types always contain a value.

Reference types (these ones must be checked):

  • dynamic
  • object
  • string

Value types (you can simply ignore these ones):

  • Numeric types
  • Integral types
  • Floating-point types
  • decimal
  • bool
  • User defined structs

You are using the object that contains the null value reference. So it's giving a null exception. In the example the string value is null and when checking its length, the exception occurred.


string value = null;
if (value.Length == 0) // <-- Causes exception
    Console.WriteLine(value); // <-- Never reached

The exception error is:

Unhandled Exception:

System.NullReferenceException: Object reference not set to an instance of an object. at Program.Main()

While what causes a NullReferenceExceptions and approaches to avoid/fix such an exception have been addressed in other answers, what many programmers haven't learned yet is how to independently debug such exceptions during development.

In Visual Studio this is usually easy thanks to the Visual Studio Debugger.

First, make sure that the correct error is going to be caught - see How do I allow breaking on 'System.NullReferenceException' in VS2010? Note1

Then either Start with Debugging (F5) or Attach [the VS Debugger] to Running Process. On occasion it may be useful to use Debugger.Break, which will prompt to launch the debugger.

Now, when the NullReferenceException is thrown (or unhandled) the debugger will stop (remember the rule set above?) on the line on which the exception occurred. Sometimes the error will be easy to spot.

For instance, in the following line the only code that can cause the exception is if myString evaluates to null. This can be verified by looking at the Watch Window or running expressions in the Immediate Window.

var x = myString.Trim();

In more advanced cases, such as the following, you'll need to use one of the techniques above (Watch or Immediate Windows) to inspect the expressions to determine if str1 was null or if str2 was null.

var x = str1.Trim() + str2.Trim();

Once where the exception is throw has been located, it's usually trivial to reason backwards to find out where the null value was [incorrectly] introduced --

Take the time required to understand the cause of the exception. Inspect for null expressions. Inspect the previous expressions which could have resulted in such null expressions. Add breakpoints and step through the program as appropriate. Use the debugger.

1 If Break on Throws is too aggressive and the debugger stops on an NPE in the .NET or 3rd-party library, Break on User-Unhandled can be used to limit the exceptions caught. Additionally, VS2012 introduces Just My Code which I recommend enabling as well.

If you are debugging with Just My Code enabled, the behavior is slightly different. With Just My Code enabled, the debugger ignores first-chance common language runtime (CLR) exceptions that are thrown outside of My Code and do not pass through My Code

Another general case where one might receive this exception involves mocking classes during unit testing. Regardless of the mocking framework being used, you must ensure that all appropriate levels of the class hierarchy are properly mocked. In particular, all properties of HttpContext which are referenced by the code under test must be mocked.

See "NullReferenceException thrown when testing custom AuthorizationAttribute" for a somewhat verbose example.

On the matter of "what should I do about it", there can be many answers.

A more "formal" way of preventing such error conditions while developing is applying design by contract in your code. This means you need to set class invariants, and/or even function/method preconditions and postconditions on your system, while developing.

In short, class invariants ensure that there will be some constraints in your class that will not get violated in normal use (and therefore, the class will not get in an inconsistent state). Preconditions mean that data given as input to a function/method must follow some constraints set and never violate them, and postconditions mean that a function/method output must follow the set constraints again without ever violating them. Contract conditions should never be violated during execution of a bug-free program, therefore design by contract is checked in practice in debug mode, while being disabled in releases, to maximize the developed system performance.

This way, you can avoid NullReferenceException cases that are results of violation of the constraints set. For example, if you use an object property X in a class and later try to invoke one of its methods and X has a null value, then this will lead to NullReferenceException:

public X { get; set; }

public void InvokeX()
    X.DoSomething(); // if X value is null, you will get a NullReferenceException

But if you set "property X must never have a null value" as method precondition, then you can prevent the scenario described before:

//Using code contracts:
protected void ObjectInvariant () 
    Contract.Invariant ( X != null );

For this cause, Code Contracts project exists for .NET applications.

Alternatively, design by contract can be applied using assertions.

UPDATE: It is worth mentioning that the term was coined by Bertrand Meyer in connection with his design of the Eiffel programming language.

TL;DR: Try using Html.Partial instead of Renderpage

I was getting Object reference not set to an instance of an object when I tried to render a View within a View by sending it a Model, like this:

    MyEntity M = new MyEntity();
@RenderPage("_MyOtherView.cshtml", M); // error in _MyOtherView, the Model was Null

Debugging showed the model was Null inside MyOtherView. Until I changed it to:

    MyEntity M = new MyEntity();
@Html.Partial("_MyOtherView.cshtml", M);

And it worked.

Furthermore, the reason I didn't have Html.Partial to begin with was because Visual Studio sometimes throws error-looking squiggly lines under Html.Partial if it's inside a differently constructed foreach loop, even though it's not really an error:

@inherits System.Web.Mvc.WebViewPage
    ViewBag.Title = "Entity Index";
    List<MyEntity> MyEntities = new List<MyEntity>();
    MyEntities.Add(new MyEntity());
    MyEntities.Add(new MyEntity());
    MyEntities.Add(new MyEntity());
        foreach(var M in MyEntities)
            // Squiggly lines below. Hovering says: cannot convert method group 'partial' to non-delegate type Object, did you intend to envoke the Method?

But I was able to run the application with no problems with this "error". I was able to get rid of the error by changing the structure of the foreach loop to look like this:

@foreach(var M in MyEntities){

Although I have a feeling it was because Visual Studio was misreading the ampersands and brackets.

You can fix NullReferenceException in a clean way using Null-conditional Operators in c#6 and write less code to handle null checks.

It's used to test for null before performing a member access (?.) or index (?[) operation.


  var name = p?.Spouse?.FirstName;

is equivalent to:

    if (p != null)
        if (p.Spouse != null)
            name = p.Spouse.FirstName;

The result is that the name will be null when p is null or when p.Spouse is null.

Otherwise, the variable name will be assigned the value of the p.Spouse.FirstName.

For More details : Null-conditional Operators

Interestingly, none of the answers on this page mention the two edge cases, hope no one minds if I add them:

Edge case #1: concurrent access to a Dictionary

Generic dictionaries in .NET are not thread-safe and they sometimes might throw a NullReference or even (more frequent) a KeyNotFoundException when you try to access a key from two concurrent threads. The exception is quite misleading in this case.

Edge case #2: unsafe code

If a NullReferenceException is thrown by unsafe code, you might look at your pointer variables, and check them for IntPtr.Zero or something. Which is the same thing ("null pointer exception"), but in unsafe code, variables are often cast to value-types/arrays, etc., and you bang your head against the wall, wondering how a value-type can throw this exception.

(Another reason for non-using unsafe code unless you need it, by the way)

Well, in simple terms:

You are trying to access an object that isn't created or currently not in memory.

So how to tackle this:

  1. Debug and let the debugger break... It will directly take you to the variable that is broken... Now your task is to simply fix this.. Using the new keyword in the appropriate place.

  2. If it is caused on some database commands because the object isn't present then all you need to do is do a null check and handle it:

    if (i == null) {
        // Handle this
  3. The hardest one .. if the GC collected the object already... This generally occurs if you are trying to find an object using strings... That is, finding it by name of the object then it may happen that the GC might already cleaned it up... This is hard to find and will become quite a problem... A better way to tackle this is do null checks wherever necessary during the development process. This will save you a lot of time.

By finding by name I mean some framework allow you to FIndObjects using strings and the code might look like this: FindObject("ObjectName");

Literally the easiest way to fix a NullReferenceExeption has two ways. If you have a GameObject for example with a script attached and a variable named rb (rigidbody) this variable will start null when you start your game.
This is why you get a NullReferenceExeption because the computer does not have data stored in that variable.

I'll be using a RigidBody variable as an example.
We can add data really easily actually in a few ways:

  1. Add a RigidBody to your object with AddComponent > Physics > Rigidbody
    Then go into your script and type rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody>();
    This line of code works best under your Start() or Awake() functions.
  2. You can add a component programmatically and assign the variable at the same time with one line of code: rb = AddComponent<RigidBody>();

Further Notes: If you want unity to add a component to your object and you might have forgotten to add one, you can type [RequireComponent(typeof(RigidBody))] above your class declaration (the space below all of your usings).
Enjoy and have fun making games!

If one is getting this message during saving or compiling the build, just close all the files and then open any file to compile and save.

For me the reason was that I had rename the file and old file was still open.

It means you are trying to manipulate something which has reference but not yet initialized
The first thing to do here is check every instance created.

Use breakpoints , watches , inspect your varibale values.
Follow stack trace and search for exact row and column which is creating problem