Squash my last X commits together using Git



Answers

You can do this fairly easily without git rebase or git merge --squash. In this example, we'll squash the last 3 commits.

If you want to write the new commit message from scratch, this suffices:

git reset --soft HEAD~3 &&
git commit

If you want to start editing the new commit message with a concatenation of the existing commit messages (i.e. similar to what a pick/squash/squash/…/squash git rebase -i instruction list would start you with), then you need to extract those messages and pass them to git commit:

git reset --soft HEAD~3 && 
git commit --edit -m"$(git log --format=%B --reverse HEAD..HEAD@{1})"

Both of those methods squash the last three commits into a single new commit in the same way. The soft reset just re-points HEAD to the last commit that you do not want to squash. Neither the index nor the working tree are touched by the soft reset, leaving the index in the desired state for your new commit (i.e. it already has all the changes from the commits that you are about to “throw away”).

Question

How can I squash my last X commits together into one commit using Git?




What can be really convenient: Find the commit hash you want to squash on top of; say it's d43e15 Now use

git reset d43e15

git commit -am 'new commit name'




Based on this article I found this method easier for my usecase.

My 'dev' branch was ahead of 'origin/dev' by 96 commits (so these commits were not pushed to the remote yet).

I wanted to squash these commits into one before pushing the change. I prefere to reset the branch to the state of 'origin/dev' (this will leave all changes from the 96 commits unstaged) and then commit the changes at once:

git reset origin/dev
git add --all
git commit -m 'my commit message'



Just add this bash function to your bash of .zshrc file.

# Squash last X commits with a Commit message.
# Usage: squash X 'COMMIT_MSG'
# where X= Number of last commits.
# where COMMIT_MSG= New commit msg.
function squash() {
    if [ -z "${1}" -o -z "${2}" ]; then
        echo "Usage: \`squash X COMMIT_MSG\`"
        echo "X= Number of last commits."
        echo "COMMIT_MSG= New commit msg."
        return 1
    fi

    git reset --soft HEAD~"$1"
    git add . && git ci -m "$2" # With 100 emoji
    git push --force
}

Then just run

squash X 'New Commit Message'

And you're done.




If you want to squish every commit into a single commit (e.g. when releasing a project publicly for the first time), try:

git checkout --orphan <new-branch>
git commit



Have a look at this gist:

Gist - Easy git-squash

You'll have to type e.g. git-squash 3 and that's it. Last three commits merged into one with their messages concatenated.




I recommend avoiding git reset when possible -- especially for Git-novices. Unless you really need to automate a process based on a number of commits, there is a less exotic way...

  1. Put the to-be-squashed commits on a working branch (if they aren't already) -- use gitk for this
  2. Check out the target branch (e.g. 'master')
  3. git merge --squash (working branch name)
  4. git commit

The commit message will be prepopulated based on the squash.




If you're using GitUp, select the commit you want to merge with its parent and press S. You have to do it once for each commit, but it's much more straightforward than coming up with the correct command line incantation. Especially if it's something you only do once in a while.




If you use TortoiseGit, you can the function Combine to one commit:

  1. Open TortoiseGit context menu
  2. Select Show Log
  3. Mark the relevant commits in the log view
  4. Select Combine to one commit from the context menu

This function automatically executes all necessary single git steps. Unfortunatly only available for Windows.




If you are on a remote branch(called feature-branch) cloned from a Golden Repository(golden_repo_name), then here's the technique to squash your commits into one:

  1. Checkout the golden repo

    git checkout golden_repo_name
    
  2. Create a new branch from it(golden repo) as follows

    git checkout -b dev-branch
    
  3. Squash merge with your local branch that you have already

    git merge --squash feature-branch
    
  4. Commit your changes (this will be the only commit that goes in dev-branch)

    git commit -m "My feature complete"
    
  5. Push the branch to your local repository

    git push origin dev-branch
    



git rebase -i HEAD^^

where the number of ^'s is X

(in this case, squash the two last commits)




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