unit-testing mocking comparison - What's the best mock framework for Java?

7 Answers

I am the creator of PowerMock so obviously I must recommend that! :-)

PowerMock extends both EasyMock and Mockito with the ability to mock static methods, final and even private methods. The EasyMock support is complete, but the Mockito plugin needs some more work. We are planning to add JMock support as well.

PowerMock is not intended to replace other frameworks, rather it can be used in the tricky situations when other frameworks does't allow mocking. PowerMock also contains other useful features such as suppressing static initializers and constructors.

frameworks mockito documentation

What's the best framework for creating mock objects in Java? Why? What are the pros and cons of each framework?

I've been having success with JMockit.

It's pretty new, and so it's a bit raw and under-documented. It uses ASM to dynamically redefine the class bytecode, so it can mock out all methods including static, private, constructors, and static initializers. For example:

import mockit.Mockit;

class MyReplacementClass {
  public void $init() {...} // replace default constructor
  public static void $clinit{...} // replace static initializer
  public static void myStatic{...} // replace static method
  // etc...

It has an Expectations interface allowing record/playback scenarios as well:

import mockit.Expectations;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class ExpecationsTest {
  private MyClass obj;

  public void testFoo() {
    new Expectations(true) {
      MyClass c;
        obj = c;
        invokeReturning(c.getFoo("foo", false), "bas");

    assert "bas".equals(obj.getFoo("foo", false));


  public static class MyClass {
    public String getFoo(String str, boolean bool) {
      if (bool) {
        return "foo";
      } else {
        return "bar";

The downside is that it requires Java 5/6.

I started using mocks with EasyMock. Easy enough to understand, but the replay step was kinda annoying. Mockito removes this, also has a cleaner syntax as it looks like readability was one of its primary goals. I cannot stress enough how important this is, since most of developers will spend their time reading and maintaining existing code, not creating it.

Another nice thing is that interfaces and implementation classes are handled in the same way, unlike in EasyMock where still you need to remember (and check) to use an EasyMock Class Extension.

I've taken a quick look at JMockit recently, and while the laundry list of features is pretty comprehensive, I think the price of this is legibility of resulting code, and having to write more.

For me, Mockito hits the sweet spot, being easy to write and read, and dealing with majority of the situations most code will require. Using Mockito with PowerMock would be my choice.

One thing to consider is that the tool you would choose if you were developing by yourself, or in a small tight-knit team, might not be the best to get for a large company with developers of varying skill levels. Readability, ease of use and simplicity would need more consideration in the latter case. No sense in getting the ultimate mocking framework if a lot of people end up not using it or not maintaining the tests.

I used JMock early. I've tried Mockito at my last project and liked it. More concise, more cleaner. PowerMock covers all needs which are absent in Mockito, such as mocking a static code, mocking an instance creation, mocking final classes and methods. So I have all I need to perform my work.

Yes, Mockito is a great framework. I use it together with hamcrest and Google guice to setup my tests.

Mockito also provides the option of stubbing methods, matching arguments (like anyInt() and anyString()), verifying the number of invocations (times(3), atLeastOnce(), never()), and more.

I've also found that Mockito is simple and clean.

One thing I don't like about Mockito is that you can't stub static methods.

I started using mocks through JMock, but eventually transitioned to use EasyMock. EasyMock was just that, --easier-- and provided a syntax that felt more natural. I haven't switched since.