How do I generate random integers within a specific range in Java?


14 Answers

Note that this approach is more biased and less efficient than a nextInt approach, https://stackoverflow.com/a/738651/360211

One standard pattern for accomplishing this is:

Min + (int)(Math.random() * ((Max - Min) + 1))

The Java Math library function Math.random() generates a double value in the range [0,1). Notice this range does not include the 1.

In order to get a specific range of values first, you need to multiply by the magnitude of the range of values you want covered.

Math.random() * ( Max - Min )

This returns a value in the range [0,Max-Min), where 'Max-Min' is not included.

For example, if you want [5,10], you need to cover five integer values so you use

Math.random() * 5

This would return a value in the range [0,5), where 5 is not included.

Now you need to shift this range up to the range that you are targeting. You do this by adding the Min value.

Min + (Math.random() * (Max - Min))

You now will get a value in the range [Min,Max). Following our example, that means [5,10):

5 + (Math.random() * (10 - 5))

But, this still doesn't include Max and you are getting a double value. In order to get the Max value included, you need to add 1 to your range parameter (Max - Min) and then truncate the decimal part by casting to an int. This is accomplished via:

Min + (int)(Math.random() * ((Max - Min) + 1))

And there you have it. A random integer value in the range [Min,Max], or per the example [5,10]:

5 + (int)(Math.random() * ((10 - 5) + 1))
Question

How do I generate a random int value in a specific range?

I have tried the following, but those do not work:

Attempt 1:

randomNum = minimum + (int)(Math.random() * maximum);
// Bug: `randomNum` can be bigger than `maximum`.

Attempt 2:

Random rn = new Random();
int n = maximum - minimum + 1;
int i = rn.nextInt() % n;
randomNum =  minimum + i;
// Bug: `randomNum` can be smaller than `minimum`.



Just use the Random class:

Random ran = new Random();
// Assumes max and min are non-negative.
int randomInt = min + ran.nextInt(max - min + 1);



Generate a random number for the difference of min and max by using the nextint(n) method and then add min number to the result:

Random rn = new Random();
int result = rn.nextInt(max - min + 1) + min;
System.out.println(result);



 rand.nextInt((max+1) - min) + min;



ThreadLocalRandom equivalent of class java.util.Random for multithreaded environment. Generating a random number is carried out locally in each of the threads. So we have a better performance by reducing the conflicts.

int rand = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextInt(x,y);

x,y - intervals e.g. (1,10)




You can achieve that concisely in Java 8:

Random random = new Random();

int max = 10;
int min = 5;
int totalNumber = 10;

IntStream stream = random.ints(totalNumber, min, max);
stream.forEach(System.out::println);



It's better to use SecureRandom rather than just Random.

public static int generateRandomInteger(int min, int max) {
    SecureRandom rand = new SecureRandom();
    rand.setSeed(new Date().getTime());
    int randomNum = rand.nextInt((max - min) + 1) + min;
    return randomNum;
}



Use:

minimum + rn.nextInt(maxValue - minvalue + 1)



public static Random RANDOM = new Random(System.nanoTime());

public static final float random(final float pMin, final float pMax) {
    return pMin + RANDOM.nextFloat() * (pMax - pMin);
}



import java.util.Random; 

public class RandomUtil {
    // Declare as class variable so that it is not re-seeded every call
    private static Random random = new Random();

    /**
     * Returns a psuedo-random number between min and max (both inclusive)
     * @param min Minimim value
     * @param max Maximim value. Must be greater than min.
     * @return Integer between min and max (both inclusive)
     * @see java.util.Random#nextInt(int)
     */
    public static int nextInt(int min, int max) {
        // nextInt is normally exclusive of the top value,
        // so add 1 to make it inclusive
        return random.nextInt((max - min) + 1) + min;
    }
}



int random = minimum + Double.valueOf(Math.random()*(maximum-minimun)).intValue();

Or take a look to RandomUtils from Apache Commons.




You can edit your second code example to:

Random rn = new Random();
int range = maximum - minimum + 1;
int randomNum =  rn.nextInt(range) + minimum;



rand.nextInt((max+1) - min) + min;

This is working fine.




This methods might be convenient to use:

This method will return a random number between the provided min and max value:

public static int getRandomNumberBetween(int min, int max) {
    Random foo = new Random();
    int randomNumber = foo.nextInt(max - min) + min;
    if (randomNumber == min) {
        // Since the random number is between the min and max values, simply add 1
        return min + 1;
    } else {
        return randomNumber;
    }
}

and this method will return a random number from the provided min and max value (so the generated number could also be the min or max number):

public static int getRandomNumberFrom(int min, int max) {
    Random foo = new Random();
    int randomNumber = foo.nextInt((max + 1) - min) + min;

    return randomNumber;
}



Forgive me for being fastidious, but the solution suggested by the majority, i.e., min + rng.nextInt(max - min + 1)), seems perilous due to the fact that:

  • rng.nextInt(n) cannot reach Integer.MAX_VALUE.
  • (max - min) may cause overflow when min is negative.

A foolproof solution would return correct results for any min <= max within [Integer.MIN_VALUE, Integer.MAX_VALUE]. Consider the following naive implementation:

int nextIntInRange(int min, int max, Random rng) {
   if (min > max) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Cannot draw random int from invalid range [" + min + ", " + max + "].");
   }
   int diff = max - min;
   if (diff >= 0 && diff != Integer.MAX_VALUE) {
      return (min + rng.nextInt(diff + 1));
   }
   int i;
   do {
      i = rng.nextInt();
   } while (i < min || i > max);
   return i;
}

Although inefficient, note that the probability of success in the while loop will always be 50% or higher.




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