c# to restrict - How do I make a textbox that only accepts numbers?





15 Answers

And just because it's always more fun to do stuff in one line...

 private void textBox1_KeyPress(object sender, KeyPressEventArgs e)
    {
        e.Handled = !char.IsDigit(e.KeyChar) && !char.IsControl(e.KeyChar);
    }

NOTE: This DOES NOT prevent a user from Copy / Paste into this textbox. It's not a fail safe way to sanitize your data.

in windows forms

I have a windows forms app with a textbox control that I want to only accept integer values. In the past I've done this kind of validation by overloading the KeyPress event and just removing characters which didn't fit the specification. I've looked at the MaskedTextBox control but I'd like a more general solution that could work with perhaps a regular expression, or depend on the values of other controls.

Ideally this would behave such that pressing a non numeric character would either produce no result or immediately provide the user with feedback about the invalid character.




Here is a simple standalone Winforms custom control, derived from the standard TextBox, that allows only System.Int32 input (it could be easily adapted for other types such as System.Int64, etc.). It supports copy/paste operations and negative numbers:

public class Int32TextBox : TextBox
{
    protected override void OnKeyPress(KeyPressEventArgs e)
    {
        base.OnKeyPress(e);

        NumberFormatInfo fi = CultureInfo.CurrentCulture.NumberFormat;

        string c = e.KeyChar.ToString();
        if (char.IsDigit(c, 0))
            return;

        if ((SelectionStart == 0) && (c.Equals(fi.NegativeSign)))
            return;

        // copy/paste
        if ((((int)e.KeyChar == 22) || ((int)e.KeyChar == 3))
            && ((ModifierKeys & Keys.Control) == Keys.Control))
            return;

        if (e.KeyChar == '\b')
            return;

        e.Handled = true;
    }

    protected override void WndProc(ref System.Windows.Forms.Message m)
    {
        const int WM_PASTE = 0x0302;
        if (m.Msg == WM_PASTE)
        {
            string text = Clipboard.GetText();
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(text))
                return;

            if ((text.IndexOf('+') >= 0) && (SelectionStart != 0))
                return;

            int i;
            if (!int.TryParse(text, out i)) // change this for other integer types
                return;

            if ((i < 0) && (SelectionStart != 0))
                return;
        }
        base.WndProc(ref m);
    }

Update 2017: My first answer has some issues:

  • you can type something that's longer than an integer of a given type (for example 2147483648 is greater than Int32.MaxValue);
  • more generally, there's no real validation of the result of what has been typed;
  • it only handles int32, you'll have to write specific TextBox derivated control for each type (Int64, etc.)

So I came up with another version that's more generic, that still supports copy/paste, + and - sign, etc.

public class ValidatingTextBox : TextBox
{
    private string _validText;
    private int _selectionStart;
    private int _selectionEnd;
    private bool _dontProcessMessages;

    public event EventHandler<TextValidatingEventArgs> TextValidating;

    protected virtual void OnTextValidating(object sender, TextValidatingEventArgs e) => TextValidating?.Invoke(sender, e);

    protected override void WndProc(ref Message m)
    {
        base.WndProc(ref m);
        if (_dontProcessMessages)
            return;

        const int WM_KEYDOWN = 0x100;
        const int WM_ENTERIDLE = 0x121;
        const int VK_DELETE = 0x2e;

        bool delete = m.Msg == WM_KEYDOWN && (int)m.WParam == VK_DELETE;
        if ((m.Msg == WM_KEYDOWN && !delete) || m.Msg == WM_ENTERIDLE)
        {
            DontProcessMessage(() =>
            {
                _validText = Text;
                _selectionStart = SelectionStart;
                _selectionEnd = SelectionLength;
            });
        }

        const int WM_CHAR = 0x102;
        const int WM_PASTE = 0x302;
        if (m.Msg == WM_CHAR || m.Msg == WM_PASTE || delete)
        {
            string newText = null;
            DontProcessMessage(() =>
            {
                newText = Text;
            });

            var e = new TextValidatingEventArgs(newText);
            OnTextValidating(this, e);
            if (e.Cancel)
            {
                DontProcessMessage(() =>
                {
                    Text = _validText;
                    SelectionStart = _selectionStart;
                    SelectionLength = _selectionEnd;
                });
            }
        }
    }

    private void DontProcessMessage(Action action)
    {
        _dontProcessMessages = true;
        try
        {
            action();
        }
        finally
        {
            _dontProcessMessages = false;
        }
    }
}

public class TextValidatingEventArgs : CancelEventArgs
{
    public TextValidatingEventArgs(string newText) => NewText = newText;
    public string NewText { get; }
}

For Int32, you can either derive from it, like this:

public class Int32TextBox : ValidatingTextBox
{
    protected override void OnTextValidating(object sender, TextValidatingEventArgs e)
    {
        e.Cancel = !int.TryParse(e.NewText, out int i);
    }
}

or w/o derivation, use the new TextValidating event like this:

var vtb = new ValidatingTextBox();
...
vtb.TextValidating += (sender, e) => e.Cancel = !int.TryParse(e.NewText, out int i);

but what's nice is it works with any string, and any validation routine.




Try a MaskedTextBox. It takes a simple mask format so you can limit the input to numbers or dates or whatever.




I've been working on a collection of components to complete missing stuff in WinForms, here it is: Advanced Forms

In particular this is the class for a Regex TextBox

/// <summary>Represents a Windows text box control that only allows input that matches a regular expression.</summary>
public class RegexTextBox : TextBox
{
    [NonSerialized]
    string lastText;

    /// <summary>A regular expression governing the input allowed in this text field.</summary>
    [Browsable(false), EditorBrowsable(EditorBrowsableState.Never)]
    [DesignerSerializationVisibility(DesignerSerializationVisibility.Hidden)]
    public virtual Regex Regex { get; set; }

    /// <summary>A regular expression governing the input allowed in this text field.</summary>
    [DefaultValue(null)]
    [Category("Behavior")]
    [Description("Sets the regular expression governing the input allowed for this control.")]
    public virtual string RegexString {
        get {
            return Regex == null ? string.Empty : Regex.ToString();
        }
        set {
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
                Regex = null;
            else
                Regex = new Regex(value);
        }
    }

    protected override void OnTextChanged(EventArgs e) {
        if (Regex != null && !Regex.IsMatch(Text)) {
            int pos = SelectionStart - Text.Length + (lastText ?? string.Empty).Length;
            Text = lastText;
            SelectionStart = Math.Max(0, pos);
        }

        lastText = Text;

        base.OnTextChanged(e);
    }
}

Simply adding something like myNumbericTextBox.RegexString = "^(\\d+|)$"; should suffice.




This might be useful. It allows "real" numeric values, including proper decimal points and preceding plus or minus signs. Call it from within the related KeyPress event.

       private bool IsOKForDecimalTextBox(char theCharacter, TextBox theTextBox)
    {
        // Only allow control characters, digits, plus and minus signs.
        // Only allow ONE plus sign.
        // Only allow ONE minus sign.
        // Only allow the plus or minus sign as the FIRST character.
        // Only allow ONE decimal point.
        // Do NOT allow decimal point or digits BEFORE any plus or minus sign.

        if (
            !char.IsControl(theCharacter)
            && !char.IsDigit(theCharacter)
            && (theCharacter != '.')
            && (theCharacter != '-')
            && (theCharacter != '+')
        )
        {
            // Then it is NOT a character we want allowed in the text box.
            return false;
        }



        // Only allow one decimal point.
        if (theCharacter == '.'
            && theTextBox.Text.IndexOf('.') > -1)
        {
            // Then there is already a decimal point in the text box.
            return false;
        }

        // Only allow one minus sign.
        if (theCharacter == '-'
            && theTextBox.Text.IndexOf('-') > -1)
        {
            // Then there is already a minus sign in the text box.
            return false;
        }

        // Only allow one plus sign.
        if (theCharacter == '+'
            && theTextBox.Text.IndexOf('+') > -1)
        {
            // Then there is already a plus sign in the text box.
            return false;
        }

        // Only allow one plus sign OR minus sign, but not both.
        if (
            (
                (theCharacter == '-')
                || (theCharacter == '+')
            )
            && 
            (
                (theTextBox.Text.IndexOf('-') > -1)
                ||
                (theTextBox.Text.IndexOf('+') > -1)
            )
            )
        {
            // Then the user is trying to enter a plus or minus sign and
            // there is ALREADY a plus or minus sign in the text box.
            return false;
        }

        // Only allow a minus or plus sign at the first character position.
        if (
            (
                (theCharacter == '-')
                || (theCharacter == '+')
            )
            && theTextBox.SelectionStart != 0
            )
        {
            // Then the user is trying to enter a minus or plus sign at some position 
            // OTHER than the first character position in the text box.
            return false;
        }

        // Only allow digits and decimal point AFTER any existing plus or minus sign
        if  (
                (
                    // Is digit or decimal point
                    char.IsDigit(theCharacter)
                    ||
                    (theCharacter == '.')
                )
                &&
                (
                    // A plus or minus sign EXISTS
                    (theTextBox.Text.IndexOf('-') > -1)
                    ||
                    (theTextBox.Text.IndexOf('+') > -1)
                )
                &&
                    // Attempting to put the character at the beginning of the field.
                    theTextBox.SelectionStart == 0
            )
        {
            // Then the user is trying to enter a digit or decimal point in front of a minus or plus sign.
            return false;
        }

        // Otherwise the character is perfectly fine for a decimal value and the character
        // may indeed be placed at the current insertion position.
        return true;
    }



In our webpage with the definition of textbox we can add an onkeypress event for accepting only numbers. It will not show any message but it will prevent you from wrong input. It worked for me, user could not enter anything except number.

<asp:TextBox runat="server" ID="txtFrom"
     onkeypress="if(isNaN(String.fromCharCode(event.keyCode))) return false;">



you could use TextChanged/ Keypress event, use a regex to filter on numbers and take some action.




Take a look at Input handling in WinForm

I have posted my solution which uses the ProcessCmdKey and OnKeyPress events on the textbox. The comments show you how to use a Regex to verify the keypress and block/allow appropriately.




It seems like many of the current answers to this question are manually parsing the input text. If you're looking for a specific built-in numeric type (e.g. int or double), why not just delegate the work to that type's TryParse method? For example:

public class IntTextBox : TextBox
{
    string PreviousText = "";
    int BackingResult;

    public IntTextBox()
    {
        TextChanged += IntTextBox_TextChanged;
    }

    public bool HasResult { get; private set; }

    public int Result
    {
        get
        {
            return HasResult ? BackingResult : default(int);
        }
    }

    void IntTextBox_TextChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        HasResult = int.TryParse(Text, out BackingResult);

        if (HasResult || string.IsNullOrEmpty(Text))
        {
            // Commit
            PreviousText = Text;
        }
        else
        {
            // Revert
            var changeOffset = Text.Length - PreviousText.Length;
            var previousSelectionStart =
                Math.Max(0, SelectionStart - changeOffset);

            Text = PreviousText;
            SelectionStart = previousSelectionStart;
        }
    }
}

If you want something more generic but still compatible with Visual Studio's Designer:

public class ParsableTextBox : TextBox
{
    TryParser BackingTryParse;
    string PreviousText = "";
    object BackingResult;

    public ParsableTextBox()
        : this(null)
    {
    }

    public ParsableTextBox(TryParser tryParse)
    {
        TryParse = tryParse;

        TextChanged += ParsableTextBox_TextChanged;
    }

    public delegate bool TryParser(string text, out object result);

    public TryParser TryParse
    {
        set
        {
            Enabled = !(ReadOnly = value == null);

            BackingTryParse = value;
        }
    }

    public bool HasResult { get; private set; }

    public object Result
    {
        get
        {
            return GetResult<object>();
        }
    }

    public T GetResult<T>()
    {
        return HasResult ? (T)BackingResult : default(T);
    }

    void ParsableTextBox_TextChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        if (BackingTryParse != null)
        {
            HasResult = BackingTryParse(Text, out BackingResult);
        }

        if (HasResult || string.IsNullOrEmpty(Text))
        {
            // Commit
            PreviousText = Text;
        }
        else
        {
            // Revert
            var changeOffset = Text.Length - PreviousText.Length;
            var previousSelectionStart =
                Math.Max(0, SelectionStart - changeOffset);

            Text = PreviousText;
            SelectionStart = previousSelectionStart;
        }
    }
}

And finally, if you want something fully generic and don't care about Designer support:

public class ParsableTextBox<T> : TextBox
{
    TryParser BackingTryParse;
    string PreviousText;
    T BackingResult;

    public ParsableTextBox()
        : this(null)
    {
    }

    public ParsableTextBox(TryParser tryParse)
    {
        TryParse = tryParse;

        TextChanged += ParsableTextBox_TextChanged;
    }

    public delegate bool TryParser(string text, out T result);

    public TryParser TryParse
    {
        set
        {
            Enabled = !(ReadOnly = value == null);

            BackingTryParse = value;
        }
    }

    public bool HasResult { get; private set; }

    public T Result
    {
        get
        {
            return HasResult ? BackingResult : default(T);
        }
    }

    void ParsableTextBox_TextChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        if (BackingTryParse != null)
        {
            HasResult = BackingTryParse(Text, out BackingResult);
        }

        if (HasResult || string.IsNullOrEmpty(Text))
        {
            // Commit
            PreviousText = Text;
        }
        else
        {
            // Revert
            var changeOffset = Text.Length - PreviousText.Length;
            var previousSelectionStart =
                Math.Max(0, SelectionStart - changeOffset);

            Text = PreviousText;
            SelectionStart = previousSelectionStart;
        }
    }
}



Using the approach described in Fabio Iotti's answer I have created a more generic solution:

public abstract class ValidatedTextBox : TextBox {
    private string m_lastText = string.Empty;
    protected abstract bool IsValid(string text);
    protected sealed override void OnTextChanged(EventArgs e) {
        if (!IsValid(Text)) {
            var pos = SelectionStart - Text.Length + m_lastText.Length;
            Text = m_lastText;
            SelectionStart = Math.Max(0, pos);
        }
        m_lastText = Text;
        base.OnTextChanged(e);
    }
}

"ValidatedTextBox", which contains all nontrivial validation behavior. All that's left to do is inherit from this class and override "IsValid" method with whatever validation logic is required. For example, using this class, it is possible to create "RegexedTextBox" which will accept only strings which match specific regular expression:

public abstract class RegexedTextBox : ValidatedTextBox {
    private readonly Regex m_regex;
    protected RegexedTextBox(string regExpString) {
        m_regex = new Regex(regExpString);
    }
    protected override bool IsValid(string text) {
        return m_regex.IsMatch(Text);
    }
}

After that, inheriting from the "RegexedTextBox" class, we can easily create "PositiveNumberTextBox" and "PositiveFloatingPointNumberTextBox" controls:

public sealed class PositiveNumberTextBox : RegexedTextBox {
    public PositiveNumberTextBox() : base(@"^\d*$") { }
}

public sealed class PositiveFloatingPointNumberTextBox : RegexedTextBox {
    public PositiveFloatingPointNumberTextBox()
        : base(@"^(\d+\" + CultureInfo.CurrentCulture.NumberFormat.NumberDecimalSeparator + @")?\d*$") { }
}



I would handle it in the KeyDown event.

void TextBox_KeyDown(object sender, KeyEventArgs e)
        {
            char c = Convert.ToChar(e.PlatformKeyCode);
            if (!char.IsDigit(c))
            {
                e.Handled = true;
            }
        }



Do not forget that a user can paste an invalid text in a TextBox.

If you want to restrict that, follow the below code:

private void ultraTextEditor1_TextChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    string append="";
    foreach (char c in ultraTextEditor1.Text)
    {
        if ((!Char.IsNumber(c)) && (c != Convert.ToChar(Keys.Back)))
        {

        }
        else
        {
            append += c;
        }
    }

    ultraTextEditor1.Text = append;
}   



int Number;
bool isNumber;
isNumber = int32.TryPase(textbox1.text, out Number);

if (!isNumber)
{ 
    (code if not an integer);
}
else
{
    (code if an integer);
}



In button click you can check text of textbox by for loop:

char[] c = txtGetCustomerId.Text.ToCharArray();
bool IsDigi = true;

for (int i = 0; i < c.Length; i++)
     {
       if (c[i] < '0' || c[i] > '9')
      { IsDigi = false; }
     }
 if (IsDigi)
    { 
     // do something
    }



FAIL-SAFE and simple "recursive" method, which can be used with multiple textboxes.

It blocks the wrong keyboard typed characters and also pasted values etc. It only accepts integer numbers, and the maximum number length is the maximum length of a string type (which is int, really long!)

public void Check_If_Int_On_TextChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
   // This method checks that each inputed character is a number. Any non-numeric
   // characters are removed from the text

   TextBox textbox = (TextBox)sender;

   // If the text is empty, return
   if (textbox.Text.Length == 0) { return; }

   // Check the new Text value if it's only numbers
   byte parsedValue;
   if (!byte.TryParse(textbox.Text[(textbox.Text.Length - 1)].ToString(), out parsedValue))
   {
      // Remove the last character as it wasn't a number
      textbox.Text = textbox.Text.Remove((textbox.Text.Length - 1));

      // Move the cursor to the end of text
      textbox.SelectionStart = textbox.Text.Length;
    }
 }



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