Can you compile C# so it doesn't need the .NET Framework at runtime?
Look at mkbundle using Mono.
Is it possible to force the C# compiler to pull all the referenced calls out of the framework and pack them into dlls or even a single executable?
I like writing quick 'one-off' applications with C#, however I don't want to have to install the whole framework on the target machine once it's ready to go.
There's a tool I've used in the past to do this called XenoCode.
It's probably overkill for the majority of situations, but that type of tool was necessary as .NET is/was not supported in WindowsPE.
Run a C# Program without having .NET Framework
I'm afraid that you cannot compile a C# program without the .NET Framework (or equivalent such as Mono) it was written for. There are some ways you can run a program without the framework, but not compile.
Normally, running a
.NET application without having the required referenced assemblies installed is not possible. However, there are alternative solutions, as you can see here.
Compile .NET with all dependencies
You will require installing .net on the client machines, it cannot be deployed as part of the application.
Possibly you could make an installer where .net is a requirement, but .Net will still need to be installed regardless