w3schools How do I declare a namespace in JavaScript?




13 Answers

I use the approach found on the Enterprise jQuery site:

Here is their example showing how to declare private & public properties and functions. Everything is done as a self-executing anonymous function.

(function( skillet, $, undefined ) {
    //Private Property
    var isHot = true;

    //Public Property
    skillet.ingredient = "Bacon Strips";

    //Public Method
    skillet.fry = function() {
        var oliveOil;

        addItem( "\t\n Butter \n\t" );
        addItem( oliveOil );
        console.log( "Frying " + skillet.ingredient );
    };

    //Private Method
    function addItem( item ) {
        if ( item !== undefined ) {
            console.log( "Adding " + $.trim(item) );
        }
    }
}( window.skillet = window.skillet || {}, jQuery ));

So if you want to access one of the public members you would just go skillet.fry() or skillet.ingredients.

What's really cool is that you can now extend the namespace using the exact same syntax.

//Adding new Functionality to the skillet
(function( skillet, $, undefined ) {
    //Private Property
    var amountOfGrease = "1 Cup";

    //Public Method
    skillet.toString = function() {
        console.log( skillet.quantity + " " +
                     skillet.ingredient + " & " +
                     amountOfGrease + " of Grease" );
        console.log( isHot ? "Hot" : "Cold" );
    };
}( window.skillet = window.skillet || {}, jQuery ));

The third undefined argument

The third, undefined argument is the source of the variable of value undefined. I'm not sure if it's still relevant today, but while working with older browsers / JavaScript standards (ecmascript 5, javascript < 1.8.5 ~ firefox 4), the global-scope variable undefined is writable, so anyone could rewrite its value. The third argument (when not passed a value) creates a variable named undefined which is scoped to the namespace/function. Because no value was passed when you created the name space, it defaults to the value undefined.

javascript namespace es6

How do I create a namespace in JavaScript so that my objects and functions aren't overwritten by other same-named objects and functions? I've used the following:

if (Foo == null || typeof(Foo) != "object") { var Foo = new Object();}

Is there a more elegant or succinct way of doing this?




Is there a more elegant or succinct way of doing this?

Yes. For example:

var your_namespace = your_namespace || {};

then you can have

var your_namespace = your_namespace || {};
your_namespace.Foo = {toAlert:'test'};
your_namespace.Bar = function(arg) 
{
    alert(arg);
};
with(your_namespace)
{
   Bar(Foo.toAlert);
}



Because you may write different files of JavaScript and later combine or not combine them in an application, each needs to be able to recover or construct the namespace object without damaging the work of other files...

One file might intend to use the namespace namespace.namespace1:

namespace = window.namespace || {};
namespace.namespace1 = namespace.namespace1 || {};

namespace.namespace1.doSomeThing = function(){}

Another file might want to use the namespace namespace.namespace2:

namespace = window.namespace || {};
namespace.namespace2 = namespace.namespace2 || {};

namespace.namespace2.doSomeThing = function(){}

These two files can live together or apart without colliding.




I use this approach:

var myNamespace = {}
myNamespace._construct = function()
{
    var staticVariable = "This is available to all functions created here"

    function MyClass()
    {
       // Depending on the class, we may build all the classes here
       this.publicMethod = function()
       {
          //Do stuff
       }
    }

    // Alternatively, we may use a prototype.
    MyClass.prototype.altPublicMethod = function()
    {
        //Do stuff
    }

    function privateStuff()
    {
    }

    function publicStuff()
    {
       // Code that may call other public and private functions
    }

    // List of things to place publically
    this.publicStuff = publicStuff
    this.MyClass = MyClass
}
myNamespace._construct()

// The following may or may not be in another file
myNamespace.subName = {}
myNamespace.subName._construct = function()
{
   // Build namespace
}
myNamespace.subName._construct()

External code can then be:

var myClass = new myNamespace.MyClass();
var myOtherClass = new myNamepace.subName.SomeOtherClass();
myNamespace.subName.publicOtherStuff(someParameter);



Sample:

var namespace = {};
namespace.module1 = (function(){

    var self = {};
    self.initialized = false;

    self.init = function(){
        setTimeout(self.onTimeout, 1000)
    };

    self.onTimeout = function(){
        alert('onTimeout')
        self.initialized = true;
    };

    self.init(); /* If it needs to auto-initialize, */
    /* You can also call 'namespace.module1.init();' from outside the module. */
    return self;
})()

You can optionally declare a local variable, same, like self and assign local.onTimeout if you want it to be private.




I created namespace which is inspired by Erlang's modules. It is a very functional approach, but that is how I write my JavaScript code these days.

It gives a closure a global namespace and exposes a defined set functions within that closure.

(function(){

  namespace("images", previous, next);
  // ^^ This creates or finds a root object, images, and binds the two functions to it.
  // It works even though those functions are not yet defined.

  function previous(){ ... }

  function next(){ ... }

  function find(){ ... } // A private function

})();



I use the following syntax for the namespace.

var MYNamespace = MYNamespace|| {};

 MYNamespace.MyFirstClass = function (val) {
        this.value = val;
        this.getValue = function(){
                          return this.value;
                       };
    }

var myFirstInstance = new MYNamespace.MyFirstClass(46);
alert(myFirstInstance.getValue());

jsfiddle: http://jsfiddle.net/rpaul/4dngxwb3/1/




After porting several of my libraries to different projects, and having to constantly be changing the top level (statically named) namespace, I've switched to using this small (open source) helper function for defining namespaces.

global_namespace.Define('startpad.base', function(ns) {
    var Other = ns.Import('startpad.other');
    ....
});

Description of the benefits are at my blog post. You can grab the source code here.

One of the benefits I really like is isolation between modules with respect to load order. You can refer to an external module BEFORE it is loaded. And the object reference you get will be filled in when the code is available.







I like Jaco Pretorius' solution, but I wanted to make the "this" keyword a bit more useful by pointing it to the module/namespace object. My version of skillet:

(function ($, undefined) {

    console.log(this);

}).call(window.myNamespace = window.myNamespace || {}, jQuery);



We can use it independently in this way:

var A = A|| {};
A.B = {};

A.B = {
    itemOne: null,
    itemTwo: null,
};

A.B.itemOne = function () {
    //..
}

A.B.itemTwo = function () {
    //..
}



If using a Makefile you can do this.

// prelude.hjs
billy = new (
    function moduleWrapper () {
    const exports = this;

// postlude.hjs
return exports;
})();

// someinternalfile.js
function bob () { console.log('hi'); }
exports.bob = bob;

// clientfile.js
billy.bob();

I prefer to use a Makefile anyway once I get to about 1000 lines because I can effectively comment out large swaths of code by removing a single line in the makefile. It makes it easy to fiddle with stuff. Also, with this technique the namespace only appears once in the prelude so it's easy to change and you don't have to keep repeating it inside the library code.

A shell script for live development in the browser when using a makefile:

while (true); do make; sleep 1; done

Add this as a make task 'go' and you can 'make go' to keep your build updated as you code.




My habit is to use function myName() as property storage, and then var myName as "method" holder...

Whether this is legitimate enough or not, beat me! I am relying on my PHP logic all the time, and things simply work. :D

function myObj() {
    this.prop1 = 1;
    this.prop2 = 2;
    this.prop3 = 'string';
}

var myObj = (
 (myObj instanceof Function !== false)
 ? Object.create({

     $props: new myObj(),
     fName1: function() { /* code..  */ },
     fName2: function() { /* code ...*/ }
 })
 : console.log('Object creation failed!')
);

if (this !== that) myObj.fName1(); else myObj.fName2();

You can also do it in a 'vice versa' way to check before object creation which is much better:

function myObj() {
    this.prop1 = 1;
    this.prop2 = 2;
    this.prop3 = 'string';
}

var myObj = (
    (typeof(myObj) !== "function" || myObj instanceof Function === false)
    ? new Boolean()
    : Object.create({
        $props: new myObj(),
        init: function () { return; },
        fName1: function() { /* code..  */ },
        fName2: function() { /* code ...*/ }
    })
);

if (myObj instanceof Boolean) {
    Object.freeze(myObj);
    console.log('myObj failed!');
    debugger;
}
else
    myObj.init();

Reference to this: JavaScript: Creating Object with Object.create()




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