What are the benefits of using C# vs F# or F# vs C#?
It's like asking what's the benefit of a hammer over a screwdriver. At an extremely high level, both do essentially the same thing, but at the implementation level it's important to select the optimal tool for what you're trying to accomplish. There are tasks that are difficult and time-consuming in c# but easy in f# - like trying to pound a nail with a screwdriver. You can do it, for sure - it's just not ideal.
Data manipulation is one example I can personally point to where f# really shines and c# can potentially be unwieldy. On the flip side, I'd say (generally speaking) complex stateful UI is easier in OO (c#) than functional (f#). (There would probably be some people who disagree with this since it's "cool" right now to "prove" how easy it is to do anything in F#, but I stand by it). There are countless others.
I work for a tech company that does more prototyping than product shipment. I just got asked what's the difference between C# and F#, why did MS create F# and what scenarios would it be better than C#.
I've been using the language for a while now and I love it so I could easily go on about the great features of F# however I lack the experience in C# to say why we should use one over the other.
What's the benefits of using C# vs F# or F# vs C#?
One of the aspects of .NET I like the most are generics. Even if you write procedural code in F#, you will still benefit from type inference. It makes writing generic code easy.
In C#, you write concrete code by default, and you have to put in some extra work to write generic code.
In F#, you write generic code by default. After spending over a year of programming in both F# and C#, I find that library code I write in F# is both more concise and more generic than the code I write in C#, and is therefore also more reusable. I miss many opportunities to write generic code in C#, probably because I'm blinded by the mandatory type annotations.
There are however situations where using C# is preferable, depending on one's taste and programming style.
- C# does not impose an order of declaration among types, and it's not sensitive to the order in which files are compiled.
- C# has some implicit conversions that F# cannot afford because of type inference.
F# is not yet-another-programming-language if you are comparing it to C#, C++, VB. C#, C, VB are all imperative or procedural programming languages. F# is a functional programming language.
Two main benefits of functional programming languages (compared to imperative languages) are 1. that they don't have side-effects. This makes mathematical reasoning about properties of your program a lot easier. 2. that functions are first class citizens. You can pass functions as parameters to another functions just as easily as you can other values.
Both imperative and functional programming languages have their uses. Although I have not done any serious work in F# yet, we are currently implementing a scheduling component in one of our products based on C# and are going to do an experiment by coding the same scheduler in F# as well to see if the correctness of the implementation can be validated more easily than with the C# equivalent.
To answer your question as I understand it: Why use C#? (You say you're already sold on F#.)
First off. It's not just "functional versus OO". It's "Functional+OO versus OO". C#'s functional features are pretty rudimentary. F#'s are not. Meanwhile, F# does almost all of C#'s OO features. For the most part, F# ends up as a superset of C#'s functionality.
However, there are a few cases where F# might not be the best choice:
Interop. There are plenty of libraries that just aren't going to be too comfortable from F#. Maybe they exploit certain C# OO things that F# doesn't do the same, or perhaps they rely on internals of the C# compiler. For example, Expression. While you can easily turn an F# quotation into an Expression, the result is not always exactly what C# would create. Certain libraries have a problem with this.
Yes, interop is a pretty big net and can result in a bit of friction with some libraries.
I consider interop to also include if you have a large existing codebase. It might not make sense to just start writing parts in F#.
Design tools. F# doesn't have any. Does not mean it couldn't have any, but just right now you can't whip up a WinForms app with F# codebehind. Even where it is supported, like in ASPX pages, you don't currently get IntelliSense. So, you need to carefully consider where your boundaries will be for generated code. On a really tiny project that almost exclusively uses the various designers, it might not be worth it to use F# for the "glue" or logic. On larger projects, this might become less of an issue.
This isn't an intrinsic problem. Unlike the Rex M's answer, I don't see anything intrinsic about C# or F# that make them better to do a UI with lots of mutable fields. Maybe he was referring to the extra overhead of having to write "mutable" and using <- instead of =.
Also depends on the library/designer used. We love using ASP.NET MVC with F# for all the controllers, then a C# web project to get the ASPX designers. We mix the actual ASPX "code inline" between C# and F#, depending on what we need on that page. (IntelliSense versus F# types.)
Other tools. They might just be expecting C# only and not know how to deal with F# projects or compiled code. Also, F#'s libraries don't ship as part of .NET, so you have a bit extra to ship around.
But the number one issue? People. If none of your developers want to learn F#, or worse, have severe difficulty comprehending certain aspects, then you're probably toast. (Although, I'd argue you're toast anyways in that case.) Oh, and if management says no, that might be an issue.
I wrote about this a while ago: Why NOT F#?