[c++] std :: string formateo como sprintf


Answers

Solución C ++ 11 que usa vsnprintf () internamente:

#include <stdarg.h>  // For va_start, etc.

std::string string_format(const std::string fmt, ...) {
    int size = ((int)fmt.size()) * 2 + 50;   // Use a rubric appropriate for your code
    std::string str;
    va_list ap;
    while (1) {     // Maximum two passes on a POSIX system...
        str.resize(size);
        va_start(ap, fmt);
        int n = vsnprintf((char *)str.data(), size, fmt.c_str(), ap);
        va_end(ap);
        if (n > -1 && n < size) {  // Everything worked
            str.resize(n);
            return str;
        }
        if (n > -1)  // Needed size returned
            size = n + 1;   // For null char
        else
            size *= 2;      // Guess at a larger size (OS specific)
    }
    return str;
}

Un enfoque más seguro y eficiente (lo probé y es más rápido):

#include <stdarg.h>  // For va_start, etc.
#include <memory>    // For std::unique_ptr

std::string string_format(const std::string fmt_str, ...) {
    int final_n, n = ((int)fmt_str.size()) * 2; /* Reserve two times as much as the length of the fmt_str */
    std::unique_ptr<char[]> formatted;
    va_list ap;
    while(1) {
        formatted.reset(new char[n]); /* Wrap the plain char array into the unique_ptr */
        strcpy(&formatted[0], fmt_str.c_str());
        va_start(ap, fmt_str);
        final_n = vsnprintf(&formatted[0], n, fmt_str.c_str(), ap);
        va_end(ap);
        if (final_n < 0 || final_n >= n)
            n += abs(final_n - n + 1);
        else
            break;
    }
    return std::string(formatted.get());
}

El fmt_str se pasa por valor para cumplir con los requisitos de va_start.

NOTA: La versión "más segura" y "más rápida" no funciona en algunos sistemas. Por lo tanto, ambos siguen en la lista. Además, "más rápido" depende completamente de que el paso de preasignación sea correcto, de lo contrario, strcpy lo hace más lento.

Question

Tengo que formatear std::string con sprintf y enviarlo al flujo de archivos. ¿Cómo puedo hacer esto?




There can be problems, if the buffer is not large enough to print the string. You must determine the length of the formatted string before printing a formatted message in there. I make own helper to this (tested on Windows and Linux GCC ), and you can try use it.

String.cpp: http://pastebin.com/DnfvzyKP
String.h: http://pastebin.com/7U6iCUMa

String.cpp:

#include <cstdio>
#include <cstdarg>
#include <cstring>
#include <string>

using ::std::string;

#pragma warning(disable : 4996)

#ifndef va_copy
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#define va_copy(dst, src) dst=src
#elif !(__cplusplus >= 201103L || defined(__GXX_EXPERIMENTAL_CXX0X__))
#define va_copy(dst, src) memcpy((void*)dst, (void*)src, sizeof(*src))
#endif
#endif

///
/// \breif Format message
/// \param dst String to store formatted message
/// \param format Format of message
/// \param ap Variable argument list
///
void toString(string &dst, const char *format, va_list ap) throw() {
  int length;
  va_list apStrLen;
  va_copy(apStrLen, ap);
  length = vsnprintf(NULL, 0, format, apStrLen);
  va_end(apStrLen);
  if (length > 0) {
    dst.resize(length);
    vsnprintf((char *)dst.data(), dst.size() + 1, format, ap);
  } else {
    dst = "Format error! format: ";
    dst.append(format);
  }
}

///
/// \breif Format message
/// \param dst String to store formatted message
/// \param format Format of message
/// \param ... Variable argument list
///
void toString(string &dst, const char *format, ...) throw() {
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap, format);
  toString(dst, format, ap);
  va_end(ap);
}

///
/// \breif Format message
/// \param format Format of message
/// \param ... Variable argument list
///
string toString(const char *format, ...) throw() {
  string dst;
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap, format);
  toString(dst, format, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  return dst;
}

///
/// \breif Format message
/// \param format Format of message
/// \param ap Variable argument list
///
string toString(const char *format, va_list ap) throw() {
  string dst;
  toString(dst, format, ap);
  return dst;
}


int main() {
  int a = 32;
  const char * str = "This works!";

  string test(toString("\nSome testing: a = %d, %s\n", a, str));
  printf(test.c_str());

  a = 0x7fffffff;
  test = toString("\nMore testing: a = %d, %s\n", a, "This works too..");
  printf(test.c_str());

  a = 0x80000000;
  toString(test, "\nMore testing: a = %d, %s\n", a, "This way is cheaper");
  printf(test.c_str());

  return 0;
}

String.h:

#pragma once
#include <cstdarg>
#include <string>

using ::std::string;

///
/// \breif Format message
/// \param dst String to store formatted message
/// \param format Format of message
/// \param ap Variable argument list
///
void toString(string &dst, const char *format, va_list ap) throw();
///
/// \breif Format message
/// \param dst String to store formatted message
/// \param format Format of message
/// \param ... Variable argument list
///
void toString(string &dst, const char *format, ...) throw();
///
/// \breif Format message
/// \param format Format of message
/// \param ... Variable argument list
///
string toString(const char *format, ...) throw();

///
/// \breif Format message
/// \param format Format of message
/// \param ap Variable argument list
///
string toString(const char *format, va_list ap) throw();



I usually use this:

std::string myformat(const char *const fmt, ...)
{
        char *buffer = NULL;
        va_list ap;

        va_start(ap, fmt);
        (void)vasprintf(&buffer, fmt, ap);
        va_end(ap);

        std::string result = buffer;
        free(buffer);

        return result;
}

Disadvantage: not all systems support vasprint




All the answers so far here seems to have one or more of these problems: (1) it may not work on VC++ (2) it requires additional dependencies like boost or fmt (3) its too complicated custom implementation and probably not tested well.

Below code addresses all of above issues.

#include <string>
#include <cstdarg>
#include <memory>

std::string stringf(const char* format, ...)
{
    va_list args;
    va_start(args, format);
    #ifndef _MSC_VER

        //GCC generates warning for valid use of snprintf to get
        //size of result string. We suppress warning with below macro.
        #ifdef __GNUC__
        #pragma GCC diagnostic push
        #pragma GCC diagnostic ignored "-Wformat-nonliteral"
        #endif

        size_t size = std::snprintf(nullptr, 0, format, args) + 1; // Extra space for '\0'

        #ifdef __GNUC__
        # pragma GCC diagnostic pop
        #endif

        std::unique_ptr<char[]> buf(new char[ size ] ); 
        std::vsnprintf(buf.get(), size, format, args);
        return std::string(buf.get(), buf.get() + size - 1 ); // We don't want the '\0' inside
    #else
        int size = _vscprintf(format, args);
        std::string result(++size, 0);
        vsnprintf_s((char*)result.data(), size, _TRUNCATE, format, args);
        return result;
    #endif
    va_end(args);
}    

int main() {
    float f = 3.f;
    int i = 5;
    std::string s = "hello!";
    auto rs = stringf("i=%d, f=%f, s=%s", i, f, s.c_str());
    printf("%s", rs.c_str());
    return 0;
}

Notas:

  1. Separate VC++ code branch is necessary because VC++ has decided to deprecate snprintf which will generate compiler warnings for other highly voted answers above. As I always run in "warnings as errors" mode, its no go for me.
  2. The function accepts char * instead of std::string . This because most of the time this function would be called with literal string which is indeed char * , not std::string . In case you do have std::string as format parameter, then just call .c_str() .
  3. Name of the function is stringf instead of things like string_format to keepup with printf, scanf etc.
  4. It doesn't address safety issue (ie bad parameters can potentially cause seg fault instead of exception). If you need this then you are better off with boost or fmt libraries. My preference here would be fmt because it is just one header and source file to drop in the project while having less weird formatting syntax than boost. However both are non-compatible with printf format strings so below is still useful in that case.
  5. The stringf code passes through GCC strict mode compilation . This requires extra #pragma macros to suppress false positives in GCC warnings.

Above code was tested on,




Below slightly modified version of @iFreilicht answer, updated to C++14 (usage of make_unique function instead of raw declaration) and added support for std::string arguments (based on Kenny Kerr article )

#include <iostream>
#include <memory>
#include <string>
#include <cstdio>

template <typename T>
T process_arg(T value) noexcept
{
    return value;
}

template <typename T>
T const * process_arg(std::basic_string<T> const & value) noexcept
{
    return value.c_str();
}

template<typename ... Args>
std::string string_format(const std::string& format, Args const & ... args)
{
    const auto fmt = format.c_str();
    const size_t size = std::snprintf(nullptr, 0, fmt, process_arg(args) ...) + 1;
    auto buf = std::make_unique<char[]>(size);
    std::snprintf(buf.get(), size, fmt, process_arg(args) ...);
    auto res = std::string(buf.get(), buf.get() + size - 1);
    return res;
}

int main()
{
    int i = 3;
    float f = 5.f;
    char* s0 = "hello";
    std::string s1 = "world";
    std::cout << string_format("i=%d, f=%f, s=%s %s", i, f, s0, s1) << "\n";
}

Salida:

i = 3, f = 5.000000, s = hello world

Feel free to merge this answer with the original one if desired.




this can be tried out. simple. really does not use nuances of the string class though.

#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <assert.h>

#include <string>
#include <exception>
using namespace std;

//---------------------------------------------------------------------

class StringFormatter
{
public:
    static string format(const char *format, ...);
};

string StringFormatter::format(const char *format, ...)
{
    va_list  argptr;

    va_start(argptr, format);

        char   *ptr;
        size_t  size;
        FILE   *fp_mem = open_memstream(&ptr, &size);
        assert(fp_mem);

        vfprintf (fp_mem, format, argptr);
        fclose (fp_mem);

    va_end(argptr);

    string ret = ptr;
    free(ptr);

    return ret;
}

//---------------------------------------------------------------------

int main(void)
{
    string temp = StringFormatter::format("my age is %d", 100);
    printf("%s\n", temp.c_str());

    return 0;
}



Así es como lo hace google: StringPrintf (Licencia BSD)
y Facebook lo hace de una manera bastante similar: StringPrintf (Licencia de Apache)
Ambos proporcionan un StringAppendF conveniente también.




Puedes intentar esto:

string str;
str.resize( _MAX_PATH );

sprintf( &str[0], "%s %s", "hello", "world" );
// optionals
// sprintf_s( &str[0], str.length(), "%s %s", "hello", "world" ); // Microsoft
// #include <stdio.h>
// snprintf( &str[0], str.length(), "%s %s", "hello", "world" ); // c++11

str.resize( strlen( str.data() ) + 1 );



boost::format() proporciona la funcionalidad que desea:

A partir de la sinopsis de las bibliotecas de formato Boost:

Un objeto de formato se construye a partir de una serie de formato, y luego se le dan argumentos a través de llamadas repetidas al operador%. Cada uno de esos argumentos se convierte en cadenas, que a su vez se combinan en una cadena, de acuerdo con la cadena de formato.

#include <boost/format.hpp>

cout << boost::format("writing %1%,  x=%2% : %3%-th try") % "toto" % 40.23 % 50; 
// prints "writing toto,  x=40.230 : 50-th try"



inline void format(string& a_string, const char* fmt, ...)
{
    va_list vl;
    va_start(vl, fmt);
    int size = _vscprintf( fmt, vl );
    a_string.resize( ++size );
    vsnprintf_s((char*)a_string.data(), size, _TRUNCATE, fmt, vl);
    va_end(vl);
}



Este es el código que uso para hacer esto en mi programa ... No es nada sofisticado, pero cumple la función ... Tenga en cuenta que tendrá que ajustar su tamaño según corresponda. MAX_BUFFER para mí es 1024.

std::string Format ( const char *fmt, ... )
{
    char textString[MAX_BUFFER*5] = {'\0'};

    // -- Empty the buffer properly to ensure no leaks.
    memset(textString, '\0', sizeof(textString));

    va_list args;
    va_start ( args, fmt );
    vsnprintf ( textString, MAX_BUFFER*5, fmt, args );
    va_end ( args );
    std::string retStr = textString;
    return retStr;
}



Si solo desea una sintaxis similar a printf (sin llamar a printf usted mismo), eche un vistazo al Formato Boost .




Basado en la respuesta proporcionada por Erik Aronesty:

std::string string_format(const std::string &fmt, ...) {
    std::vector<char> str(100,'\0');
    va_list ap;
    while (1) {
        va_start(ap, fmt);
        auto n = vsnprintf(str.data(), str.size(), fmt.c_str(), ap);
        va_end(ap);
        if ((n > -1) && (size_t(n) < str.size())) {
            return str.data();
        }
        if (n > -1)
            str.resize( n + 1 );
        else
            str.resize( str.size() * 2);
    }
    return str.data();
}

Esto evita la necesidad de descartar const del resultado de .c_str() que estaba en la respuesta original.




[edit '17 / 8/31] Agregando una variaded templated version 'vtspf (..)':

template<typename T> const std::string type_to_string(const T &v)
{
    std::ostringstream ss;
    ss << v;
    return ss.str();
};

template<typename T> const T string_to_type(const std::string &str)
{
    std::istringstream ss(str);
    T ret;
    ss >> ret;
    return ret;
};

template<typename...P> void vtspf_priv(std::string &s) {}

template<typename H, typename...P> void vtspf_priv(std::string &s, H h, P...p)
{
    s+=type_to_string(h);
    vtspf_priv(s, p...);
}

template<typename...P> std::string temp_vtspf(P...p)
{
    std::string s("");
    vtspf_priv(s, p...);
    return s;
}

que es efectivamente una versión delimitada por comas (en cambio) de los operadores << veces obstaculizadores ', usados ​​así:

char chSpace=' ';
double pi=3.1415;
std::string sWorld="World", str_var;
str_var = vtspf("Hello", ',', chSpace, sWorld, ", pi=", pi);


[edit] Adaptado para hacer uso de la técnica en la respuesta de Erik Aronesty (arriba):

#include <string>
#include <cstdarg>
#include <cstdio>

//=============================================================================
void spf(std::string &s, const std::string fmt, ...)
{
    int n, size=100;
    bool b=false;
    va_list marker;

    while (!b)
    {
        s.resize(size);
        va_start(marker, fmt);
        n = vsnprintf((char*)s.c_str(), size, fmt.c_str(), marker);
        va_end(marker);
        if ((n>0) && ((b=(n<size))==true)) s.resize(n); else size*=2;
    }
}

//=============================================================================
void spfa(std::string &s, const std::string fmt, ...)
{
    std::string ss;
    int n, size=100;
    bool b=false;
    va_list marker;

    while (!b)
    {
        ss.resize(size);
        va_start(marker, fmt);
        n = vsnprintf((char*)ss.c_str(), size, fmt.c_str(), marker);
        va_end(marker);
        if ((n>0) && ((b=(n<size))==true)) ss.resize(n); else size*=2;
    }
    s += ss;
}

[respuesta anterior]
Una respuesta muy tardía, pero para aquellos que, como a mí, les gusta el estilo 'sprintf': he escrito y estoy usando las siguientes funciones. Si te gusta, puedes expandir las opciones% para que se ajusten mejor a las de sprintf; los que están ahí actualmente son suficientes para mis necesidades. Usas stringf () y stringfappend () del mismo modo que lo harías con sprintf. Solo recuerde que los parámetros para ... deben ser tipos POD.

//=============================================================================
void DoFormatting(std::string& sF, const char* sformat, va_list marker)
{
    char *s, ch=0;
    int n, i=0, m;
    long l;
    double d;
    std::string sf = sformat;
    std::stringstream ss;

    m = sf.length();
    while (i<m)
    {
        ch = sf.at(i);
        if (ch == '%')
        {
            i++;
            if (i<m)
            {
                ch = sf.at(i);
                switch(ch)
                {
                    case 's': { s = va_arg(marker, char*);  ss << s;         } break;
                    case 'c': { n = va_arg(marker, int);    ss << (char)n;   } break;
                    case 'd': { n = va_arg(marker, int);    ss << (int)n;    } break;
                    case 'l': { l = va_arg(marker, long);   ss << (long)l;   } break;
                    case 'f': { d = va_arg(marker, double); ss << (float)d;  } break;
                    case 'e': { d = va_arg(marker, double); ss << (double)d; } break;
                    case 'X':
                    case 'x':
                        {
                            if (++i<m)
                            {
                                ss << std::hex << std::setiosflags (std::ios_base::showbase);
                                if (ch == 'X') ss << std::setiosflags (std::ios_base::uppercase);
                                char ch2 = sf.at(i);
                                if (ch2 == 'c') { n = va_arg(marker, int);  ss << std::hex << (char)n; }
                                else if (ch2 == 'd') { n = va_arg(marker, int); ss << std::hex << (int)n; }
                                else if (ch2 == 'l') { l = va_arg(marker, long);    ss << std::hex << (long)l; }
                                else ss << '%' << ch << ch2;
                                ss << std::resetiosflags (std::ios_base::showbase | std::ios_base::uppercase) << std::dec;
                            }
                        } break;
                    case '%': { ss << '%'; } break;
                    default:
                    {
                        ss << "%" << ch;
                        //i = m; //get out of loop
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        else ss << ch;
        i++;
    }
    va_end(marker);
    sF = ss.str();
}

//=============================================================================
void stringf(string& stgt,const char *sformat, ... )
{
    va_list marker;
    va_start(marker, sformat);
    DoFormatting(stgt, sformat, marker);
}

//=============================================================================
void stringfappend(string& stgt,const char *sformat, ... )
{
    string sF = "";
    va_list marker;
    va_start(marker, sformat);
    DoFormatting(sF, sformat, marker);
    stgt += sF;
}






Related