Guardar el estado de la actividad de Android usando Guardar estado de instancia


Answers

savedInstanceState solo sirve para guardar el estado asociado a una instancia actual de una actividad, por ejemplo, la navegación actual o la información de selección, de modo que si Android destruye y recrea una actividad, puede volver a funcionar como antes. Consulte la documentación de onCreate y onSaveInstanceState

Para un estado más longevo, considere usar una base de datos SQLite, un archivo o preferencias. Consulte Cómo guardar el estado persistente .

Question

He estado trabajando en la plataforma Android SDK, y no está claro cómo guardar el estado de una aplicación. Entonces, dado este pequeño retoque del ejemplo de 'Hola, Android':

package com.android.hello;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class HelloAndroid extends Activity {

  private TextView mTextView = null;

  /** Called when the activity is first created. */
  @Override
  public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

    mTextView = new TextView(this);

    if (savedInstanceState == null) {
       mTextView.setText("Welcome to HelloAndroid!");
    } else {
       mTextView.setText("Welcome back.");
    }

    setContentView(mTextView);
  }
}

Pensé que sería suficiente para el caso más simple, pero siempre responde con el primer mensaje, sin importar cómo me alejo de la aplicación.

Estoy seguro de que la solución es tan simple como anular onPause o algo así, pero he estado hurgando en la documentación durante 30 minutos más o menos y no he encontrado nada obvio.




Not sure if my solution is frowned upon or not but I use a bound service to persist ViewModel state. Whether you store it in memory in the service or persist and retrieve from a SqlLite database depends on your requirements. This is what services of any flavor do, they provide services such as maintaining application state and abstract common business logic.

Because of memory and processing constraints inherent on mobile devices, I treat Android views in a similar way to a web page. The page does not maintain state, it is purely a presentation layer component whose only purpose is to present application state and accept user input. Recent trends in web app architecture employ the use of the age old Model, View, Controller (MVC) pattern, where the page is the View, Domain data is the model and the controller sits behind a web service. The same pattern can be employed in android with the View being well ... the View, the model is your domain data and the Controller is implemented as an Android bound service. Whenever you want a view to interact with the controller, bind to it on start/resume and unbind on stop/pause.

This approach gives you the added bonus of enforcing the Separation of Concern design principle in that all of you application business logic can be moved into your service which reduces duplicated logic across multiple views and allows the view to enforce another important design principle, Single Responsibility.




To get activity state data stored in onCreate() , first you have to save data in savedInstanceState by overriding SaveInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) method.

Cuando SaveInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState)se llama al método de destrucción de actividad y allí guarda los datos que desea guardar. Y obtienes lo mismo onCreate()cuando la actividad se reinicia. (SavedInstanceState no será nulo ya que has guardado algunos datos antes de que se destruya la actividad)




Really onSaveInstance state callen when the Activity goes to background

Quote from the docs: "the method onSaveInstanceState(Bundle) is called before placing the activity in such a background state"




Although the accepted answer is correct, there is a faster and easier method to save the Activity state on Android using a library called Icepick . Icepick is an annotation processor that takes care of all the boilerplate code used in saving and restoring state for you.

Doing something like this with Icepick:

class MainActivity extends Activity {
  @State String username; // These will be automatically saved and restored
  @State String password;
  @State int age;

  @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    Icepick.restoreInstanceState(this, savedInstanceState);
  }

  @Override public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle outState) {
    super.onSaveInstanceState(outState);
    Icepick.saveInstanceState(this, outState);
  }
}

Is the same as doing this:

class MainActivity extends Activity {
  String username;
  String password;
  int age;

  @Override
  public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onSaveInstanceState(savedInstanceState);
    savedInstanceState.putString("MyString", username);
    savedInstanceState.putString("MyPassword", password);
    savedInstanceState.putInt("MyAge", age); 
    /* remember you would need to actually initialize these variables before putting it in the
    Bundle */
  }

  @Override
  public void onRestoreInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onRestoreInstanceState(savedInstanceState);
    username = savedInstanceState.getString("MyString");
    password = savedInstanceState.getString("MyPassword");
    age = savedInstanceState.getInt("MyAge");
  }
}

Icepick will work with any object that saves its state with a Bundle .




onSaveInstanceState se onSaveInstanceState cuando el sistema necesita memoria y mata a una aplicación. No se llama cuando el usuario simplemente cierra la aplicación. Así que creo que el estado de la aplicación también debe guardarse en onPause Se debe guardar en algún almacenamiento persistente como Preferences o Sqlite




Mi colega escribió un artículo explicando el estado de la aplicación en los dispositivos Android, que incluye explicaciones sobre el ciclo de vida de la actividad y la información del estado, cómo almacenar la información del estado, y guardar en Bundle estatal y SharedPreferences y aquí .

El artículo cubre tres enfoques:

Almacene los datos de control de varilla / UI locales para la vida útil de la aplicación (es decir, temporalmente) utilizando el paquete de estado de instancia

[Code sample – Store State in State Bundle]
@Override
public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) 
{
  // Store UI state to the savedInstanceState.
  // This bundle will be passed to onCreate on next call.  EditText txtName = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.txtName);
  String strName = txtName.getText().toString();

  EditText txtEmail = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.txtEmail);
  String strEmail = txtEmail.getText().toString();

  CheckBox chkTandC = (CheckBox)findViewById(R.id.chkTandC);
  boolean blnTandC = chkTandC.isChecked();

  savedInstanceState.putString(“Name”, strName);
  savedInstanceState.putString(“Email”, strEmail);
  savedInstanceState.putBoolean(“TandC”, blnTandC);

  super.onSaveInstanceState(savedInstanceState);
}

Almacene los datos de control de varilla / UI locales entre las instancias de la aplicación (es decir, permanentemente) utilizando Preferencias compartidas

[Code sample – Store State in SharedPreferences]
@Override
protected void onPause() 
{
  super.onPause();

  // Store values between instances here
  SharedPreferences preferences = getPreferences(MODE_PRIVATE);
  SharedPreferences.Editor editor = preferences.edit();  // Put the values from the UI
  EditText txtName = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.txtName);
  String strName = txtName.getText().toString();

  EditText txtEmail = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.txtEmail);
  String strEmail = txtEmail.getText().toString();

  CheckBox chkTandC = (CheckBox)findViewById(R.id.chkTandC);
  boolean blnTandC = chkTandC.isChecked();

  editor.putString(“Name”, strName); // value to store
  editor.putString(“Email”, strEmail); // value to store
  editor.putBoolean(“TandC”, blnTandC); // value to store    
  // Commit to storage
  editor.commit();
}

Mantener activas las instancias de objetos en la memoria entre las actividades dentro de la vida útil de la aplicación utilizando Instancia no configurada retenida

[Code sample – store object instance]
private cMyClassType moInstanceOfAClass;// Store the instance of an object
@Override
public Object onRetainNonConfigurationInstance() 
{
  if (moInstanceOfAClass != null) // Check that the object exists
      return(moInstanceOfAClass);
  return super.onRetainNonConfigurationInstance();
}



The onSaveInstanceState(bundle) and onRestoreInstanceState(bundle) methods are useful for data persistence merely while rotating the screen (orientation change).
They are not even good while switching between applications (since the onSaveInstanceState() method is called but onCreate(bundle) and onRestoreInstanceState(bundle) is not invoked again.
For more persistence use shared preferences. read this article




onSaveInstanceState() para datos transitorios (restaurado en onCreate() / onRestoreInstanceState() ), onPause() para datos persistentes (restaurado en onResume() ). De los recursos técnicos de Android:

onSaveInstanceState () es llamado por Android si la actividad se detiene y puede ser eliminada antes de que se reanude. Esto significa que debe almacenar cualquier estado necesario para reiniciarse en la misma condición cuando se reinicie la actividad. Es la contraparte del método onCreate (), y de hecho el paquete savedInstanceState pasado a onCreate () es el mismo paquete que construye como outState en el método onSaveInstanceState ().

onPause () y onResume () también son métodos complementarios. onPause () siempre se invoca cuando termina la actividad, incluso si lo instigamos (con una llamada a finish () por ejemplo). Usaremos esto para guardar la nota actual en la base de datos. Una buena práctica es liberar todos los recursos que se pueden liberar durante un OnPause () también, para tomar menos recursos cuando se está en estado pasivo.




When an activity is created it's onCreate() method is called.

   @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    }

savedInstanceState is an object of Bundle class which is null for the first time, but it contains values when it is recreated. To save Activity's state you have to override onSaveInstanceState().

   @Override
    protected void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle outState) {
      outState.putString("key","Welcome Back")
        super.onSaveInstanceState(outState);       //save state
    }

put your values in "outState" Bundle object like outState.putString("key","Welcome Back") and save by calling super. When activity will be destroyed it's state get saved in Bundle object and can be restored after recreation in onCreate() or onRestoreInstanceState(). Bundle received in onCreate() and onRestoreInstanceState() are same.

   @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

          //restore activity's state
         if(savedInstanceState!=null){
          String reStoredString=savedInstanceState.getString("key");
            }
    }

o

  //restores activity's saved state
 @Override
    protected void onRestoreInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
      String restoredMessage=savedInstanceState.getString("key");
    }



To help reduce boilerplate I use the following interface and class to read/write to a Bundle for saving instance state.

First, create an interface that will be used to annotate your instance variables:

import java.lang.annotation.Documented;
import java.lang.annotation.ElementType;
import java.lang.annotation.Retention;
import java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy;
import java.lang.annotation.Target;

@Documented
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Target({
        ElementType.FIELD
})
public @interface SaveInstance {

}

Then, create a class where reflection will be used to save values to the bundle:

import android.app.Activity;
import android.app.Fragment;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Parcelable;
import android.util.Log;

import java.io.Serializable;
import java.lang.reflect.Field;

/**
 * Save and load fields to/from a {@link Bundle}. All fields should be annotated with {@link
 * SaveInstance}.</p>
 */
public class Icicle {

    private static final String TAG = "Icicle";

    /**
     * Find all fields with the {@link SaveInstance} annotation and add them to the {@link Bundle}.
     *
     * @param outState
     *         The bundle from {@link Activity#onSaveInstanceState(Bundle)} or {@link
     *         Fragment#onSaveInstanceState(Bundle)}
     * @param classInstance
     *         The object to access the fields which have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     * @see #load(Bundle, Object)
     */
    public static void save(Bundle outState, Object classInstance) {
        save(outState, classInstance, classInstance.getClass());
    }

    /**
     * Find all fields with the {@link SaveInstance} annotation and add them to the {@link Bundle}.
     *
     * @param outState
     *         The bundle from {@link Activity#onSaveInstanceState(Bundle)} or {@link
     *         Fragment#onSaveInstanceState(Bundle)}
     * @param classInstance
     *         The object to access the fields which have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     * @param baseClass
     *         Base class, used to get all superclasses of the instance.
     * @see #load(Bundle, Object, Class)
     */
    public static void save(Bundle outState, Object classInstance, Class<?> baseClass) {
        if (outState == null) {
            return;
        }
        Class<?> clazz = classInstance.getClass();
        while (baseClass.isAssignableFrom(clazz)) {
            String className = clazz.getName();
            for (Field field : clazz.getDeclaredFields()) {
                if (field.isAnnotationPresent(SaveInstance.class)) {
                    field.setAccessible(true);
                    String key = className + "#" + field.getName();
                    try {
                        Object value = field.get(classInstance);
                        if (value instanceof Parcelable) {
                            outState.putParcelable(key, (Parcelable) value);
                        } else if (value instanceof Serializable) {
                            outState.putSerializable(key, (Serializable) value);
                        }
                    } catch (Throwable t) {
                        Log.d(TAG, "The field '" + key + "' was not added to the bundle");
                    }
                }
            }
            clazz = clazz.getSuperclass();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Load all saved fields that have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     *
     * @param savedInstanceState
     *         The saved-instance {@link Bundle} from an {@link Activity} or {@link Fragment}.
     * @param classInstance
     *         The object to access the fields which have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     * @see #save(Bundle, Object)
     */
    public static void load(Bundle savedInstanceState, Object classInstance) {
        load(savedInstanceState, classInstance, classInstance.getClass());
    }

    /**
     * Load all saved fields that have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     *
     * @param savedInstanceState
     *         The saved-instance {@link Bundle} from an {@link Activity} or {@link Fragment}.
     * @param classInstance
     *         The object to access the fields which have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     * @param baseClass
     *         Base class, used to get all superclasses of the instance.
     * @see #save(Bundle, Object, Class)
     */
    public static void load(Bundle savedInstanceState, Object classInstance, Class<?> baseClass) {
        if (savedInstanceState == null) {
            return;
        }
        Class<?> clazz = classInstance.getClass();
        while (baseClass.isAssignableFrom(clazz)) {
            String className = clazz.getName();
            for (Field field : clazz.getDeclaredFields()) {
                if (field.isAnnotationPresent(SaveInstance.class)) {
                    String key = className + "#" + field.getName();
                    field.setAccessible(true);
                    try {
                        Object fieldVal = savedInstanceState.get(key);
                        if (fieldVal != null) {
                            field.set(classInstance, fieldVal);
                        }
                    } catch (Throwable t) {
                        Log.d(TAG, "The field '" + key + "' was not retrieved from the bundle");
                    }
                }
            }
            clazz = clazz.getSuperclass();
        }
    }

}

Ejemplo de uso:

public class MainActivity extends Activity {

    @SaveInstance
    private String foo;

    @SaveInstance
    private int bar;

    @SaveInstance
    private Intent baz;

    @SaveInstance
    private boolean qux;

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        Icicle.load(savedInstanceState, this);
    }

    @Override
    public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle outState) {
        super.onSaveInstanceState(outState);
        Icicle.save(outState, this);
    }

}

Note: This code was adapted from a library project named AndroidAutowire which is licensed under the MIT license .




El estado de ahorro es, en el mejor de los casos, un desafío en lo que a mí respecta. Si necesita guardar datos persistentes, solo use una SQLite datos SQLite . Android lo hace MUY fácil.

Algo como esto:

import java.util.Date;
import android.content.Context;
import android.database.Cursor;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteOpenHelper;

public class dataHelper {

    private static final String DATABASE_NAME = "autoMate.db";
    private static final int DATABASE_VERSION = 1;

    private Context context;
    private SQLiteDatabase db;
    private OpenHelper oh ;

    public dataHelper(Context context) {
        this.context = context;
        this.oh = new OpenHelper(this.context);
        this.db = oh.getWritableDatabase();
    }

    public void close()
    {
        db.close();
        oh.close();
        db = null;
        oh = null;
        SQLiteDatabase.releaseMemory();
    }


    public void setCode(String codeName, Object codeValue, String codeDataType)
    {
        Cursor codeRow = db.rawQuery("SELECT * FROM code WHERE codeName = '"+  codeName + "'", null);
        String cv = "" ;

        if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("long") == true)
        {
            cv = String.valueOf(codeValue);
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("int") == true)
        {
            cv = String.valueOf(codeValue);
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("date") == true)
        {
            cv = String.valueOf(((Date)codeValue).getTime());
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("boolean") == true)
        {
            String.valueOf(codeValue);
        }
        else
        {
            cv = String.valueOf(codeValue);
        }

        if(codeRow.getCount() > 0) //exists-- update
        {
            db.execSQL("update code set codeValue = '" + cv +
                "' where codeName = '" + codeName + "'");
        }
        else // does not exist, insert
        {
            db.execSQL("INSERT INTO code (codeName, codeValue, codeDataType) VALUES(" +
                    "'" + codeName + "'," +
                    "'" + cv + "'," +
                    "'" + codeDataType + "')" );
        }
    }

    public Object getCode(String codeName, Object defaultValue)
    {
        //Check to see if it already exists
        String codeValue = "";
        String codeDataType = "";
        boolean found = false;
        Cursor codeRow  = db.rawQuery("SELECT * FROM code WHERE codeName = '"+  codeName + "'", null);
        if (codeRow.moveToFirst())
        {
            codeValue = codeRow.getString(codeRow.getColumnIndex("codeValue"));
            codeDataType = codeRow.getString(codeRow.getColumnIndex("codeDataType"));
            found = true;
        }

        if (found == false)
        {
            return defaultValue;
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("long") == true)
        {
            if (codeValue.equals("") == true)
            {
                return (long)0;
            }
            return Long.parseLong(codeValue);
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("int") == true)
        {
            if (codeValue.equals("") == true)
            {
                return (int)0;
            }
            return Integer.parseInt(codeValue);
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("date") == true)
        {
            if (codeValue.equals("") == true)
            {
                return null;
            }
            return new Date(Long.parseLong(codeValue));
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("boolean") == true)
        {
            if (codeValue.equals("") == true)
            {
                return false;
            }
            return Boolean.parseBoolean(codeValue);
        }
        else
        {
            return (String)codeValue;
        }
    }


    private static class OpenHelper extends SQLiteOpenHelper {

        OpenHelper(Context context) {
            super(context, DATABASE_NAME, null, DATABASE_VERSION);
        }

        @Override
        public void onCreate(SQLiteDatabase db) {
            db.execSQL("CREATE TABLE IF  NOT EXISTS code" +
            "(id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, codeName TEXT, codeValue TEXT, codeDataType TEXT)");
        }

        @Override
        public void onUpgrade(SQLiteDatabase db, int oldVersion, int newVersion) {
        }
    }
}

Una simple llamada después de eso

dataHelper dh = new dataHelper(getBaseContext());
String status = (String) dh.getCode("appState", "safetyDisabled");
Date serviceStart = (Date) dh.getCode("serviceStartTime", null);
dh.close();
dh = null;



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