[Java] 为什么jUnit的fixtureSetup必须是静态的?


Answers

简短的答案是这样的: 它没有什么好的理由是静态的。

事实上,如果您使用Junit执行基于DBUnit的DAO集成测试,则将其设为静态会导致各种问题。 静态需求会干扰依赖注入,应用程序上下文访问,资源处理,日志记录以及依赖于“getClass”的任何内容。

Question

我用jUnit的@BeforeClass注解标记了一个方法,并得到这个异常说它必须是静态的。 基本原理是什么? 这迫使我的所有初始化都在静态字段中,因为据我所知没有任何理由。

在.Net(NUnit)中,情况并非如此。

编辑 - 使用@BeforeClass注释的方法只运行一次与静态方法无关 - 可以让非静态方法只运行一次(如在NUnit中)。




有两种类型的注释:

  • @BeforeClass(@AfterClass) 每个测试类调用一次
  • @Before(和@After) 在每次测试之前调用

所以@BeforeClass必须声明为static,因为它被调用一次。 您还应该考虑静态是确保测试之间正确的“状态”传播的唯一方法(JUnit模型每个@Test强加一个测试实例),并且由于在Java中只有静态方法可以访问静态数据... @BeforeClass和@ AfterClass只能应用于静态方法。

这个示例测试应该阐明@BeforeClass vs @Before的用法:

public class OrderTest {

    @BeforeClass
    public static void beforeClass() {
        System.out.println("before class");
    }

    @AfterClass
    public static void afterClass() {
        System.out.println("after class");
    }

    @Before
    public void before() {
        System.out.println("before");
    }

    @After
    public void after() {
        System.out.println("after");
    }    

    @Test
    public void test1() {
        System.out.println("test 1");
    }

    @Test
    public void test2() {
        System.out.println("test 2");
    }
}

输出:

------------- Standard Output ---------------
before class
before
test 1
after
before
test 2
after
after class
------------- ---------------- ---------------



要解决此问题,只需更改该方法

public void setUpBeforeClass 

public static void setUpBeforeClass()

以及这个方法中定义的所有static方法。




虽然这不会回答原来的问题。 它将回答明显的后续行动。 如何创建一个适用于课前和课后以及考试前后的规则。

为了实现这一点,你可以使用这种模式:

@ClassRule
public static JPAConnection jpaConnection = JPAConnection.forUITest("my-persistence-unit");

@Rule
public JPAConnection.EntityManager entityManager = jpaConnection.getEntityManager();

在before(Class)之后,JPAConnection在创建连接之后(Class)关闭它。

getEntityManger返回一个JPAConnection的内部类,它实现jpa的EntityManager并可以访问jpaConnection内部的jpaConnection 。 在之前(测试)它开始一个交易后(测试)它再次回滚。

这不是线程安全的,但可以做到这一点。

选择JPAConnection.class代码

package com.triodos.general.junit;

import com.triodos.log.Logger;
import org.jetbrains.annotations.NotNull;
import org.junit.rules.ExternalResource;

import javax.persistence.EntityManagerFactory;
import javax.persistence.EntityTransaction;
import javax.persistence.FlushModeType;
import javax.persistence.LockModeType;
import javax.persistence.Persistence;
import javax.persistence.Query;
import javax.persistence.TypedQuery;
import javax.persistence.criteria.CriteriaBuilder;
import javax.persistence.criteria.CriteriaQuery;
import javax.persistence.metamodel.Metamodel;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

import static com.google.common.base.Preconditions.checkState;
import static com.triodos.dbconn.DB2DriverManager.DRIVERNAME_TYPE4;
import static com.triodos.dbconn.UnitTestProperties.getDatabaseConnectionProperties;
import static com.triodos.dbconn.UnitTestProperties.getPassword;
import static com.triodos.dbconn.UnitTestProperties.getUsername;
import static java.lang.String.valueOf;
import static java.sql.Connection.TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED;

public final class JPAConnectionExample extends ExternalResource {

  private static final Logger LOG = Logger.getLogger(JPAConnectionExample.class);

  @NotNull
  public static JPAConnectionExample forUITest(String persistenceUnitName) {
    return new JPAConnectionExample(persistenceUnitName)
        .setManualEntityManager();
  }

  private final String persistenceUnitName;
  private EntityManagerFactory entityManagerFactory;
  private javax.persistence.EntityManager jpaEntityManager = null;
  private EntityManager entityManager;

  private JPAConnectionExample(String persistenceUnitName) {
    this.persistenceUnitName = persistenceUnitName;
  }

  @NotNull
  private JPAConnectionExample setEntityManager(EntityManager entityManager) {
    this.entityManager = entityManager;
    return this;
  }

  @NotNull
  private JPAConnectionExample setManualEntityManager() {
    return setEntityManager(new RollBackAfterTestEntityManager());
  }


  @Override
  protected void before() {
    entityManagerFactory = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory(persistenceUnitName, createEntityManagerProperties());
    jpaEntityManager = entityManagerFactory.createEntityManager();
  }

  @Override
  protected void after() {

    if (jpaEntityManager.getTransaction().isActive()) {
      jpaEntityManager.getTransaction().rollback();
    }

    if(jpaEntityManager.isOpen()) {
      jpaEntityManager.close();
    }
    // Free for garbage collection as an instance
    // of EntityManager may be assigned to a static variable
    jpaEntityManager = null;

    entityManagerFactory.close();
    // Free for garbage collection as an instance
    // of JPAConnection may be assigned to a static variable
    entityManagerFactory = null;
  }

  private Map<String,String> createEntityManagerProperties(){
    Map<String, String> properties = new HashMap<>();
    properties.put("javax.persistence.jdbc.url", getDatabaseConnectionProperties().getURL());
    properties.put("javax.persistence.jtaDataSource", null);
    properties.put("hibernate.connection.isolation", valueOf(TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED));
    properties.put("hibernate.connection.username", getUsername());
    properties.put("hibernate.connection.password", getPassword());
    properties.put("hibernate.connection.driver_class", DRIVERNAME_TYPE4);
    properties.put("org.hibernate.readOnly", valueOf(true));

    return properties;
  }

  @NotNull
  public EntityManager getEntityManager(){
    checkState(entityManager != null);
    return entityManager;
  }


  private final class RollBackAfterTestEntityManager extends EntityManager {

    @Override
    protected void before() throws Throwable {
      super.before();
      jpaEntityManager.getTransaction().begin();
    }

    @Override
    protected void after() {
      super.after();

      if (jpaEntityManager.getTransaction().isActive()) {
        jpaEntityManager.getTransaction().rollback();
      }
    }
  }

  public abstract class EntityManager extends ExternalResource implements javax.persistence.EntityManager {

    @Override
    protected void before() throws Throwable {
      checkState(jpaEntityManager != null, "JPAConnection was not initialized. Is it a @ClassRule? Did the test runner invoke the rule?");

      // Safety-close, if failed to close in setup
      if (jpaEntityManager.getTransaction().isActive()) {
        jpaEntityManager.getTransaction().rollback();
        LOG.error("EntityManager encountered an open transaction at the start of a test. Transaction has been closed but should have been closed in the setup method");
      }
    }

    @Override
    protected void after() {
      checkState(jpaEntityManager != null, "JPAConnection was not initialized. Is it a @ClassRule? Did the test runner invoke the rule?");
    }

    @Override
    public final void persist(Object entity) {
      jpaEntityManager.persist(entity);
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> T merge(T entity) {
      return jpaEntityManager.merge(entity);
    }

    @Override
    public final void remove(Object entity) {
      jpaEntityManager.remove(entity);
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> T find(Class<T> entityClass, Object primaryKey) {
      return jpaEntityManager.find(entityClass, primaryKey);
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> T find(Class<T> entityClass, Object primaryKey, Map<String, Object> properties) {
      return jpaEntityManager.find(entityClass, primaryKey, properties);
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> T find(Class<T> entityClass, Object primaryKey, LockModeType lockMode) {
      return jpaEntityManager.find(entityClass, primaryKey, lockMode);
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> T find(Class<T> entityClass, Object primaryKey, LockModeType lockMode, Map<String, Object> properties) {
      return jpaEntityManager.find(entityClass, primaryKey, lockMode, properties);
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> T getReference(Class<T> entityClass, Object primaryKey) {
      return jpaEntityManager.getReference(entityClass, primaryKey);
    }

    @Override
    public final void flush() {
      jpaEntityManager.flush();
    }

    @Override
    public final void setFlushMode(FlushModeType flushMode) {
      jpaEntityManager.setFlushMode(flushMode);
    }

    @Override
    public final FlushModeType getFlushMode() {
      return jpaEntityManager.getFlushMode();
    }

    @Override
    public final void lock(Object entity, LockModeType lockMode) {
      jpaEntityManager.lock(entity, lockMode);
    }

    @Override
    public final void lock(Object entity, LockModeType lockMode, Map<String, Object> properties) {
      jpaEntityManager.lock(entity, lockMode, properties);
    }

    @Override
    public final void refresh(Object entity) {
      jpaEntityManager.refresh(entity);
    }

    @Override
    public final void refresh(Object entity, Map<String, Object> properties) {
      jpaEntityManager.refresh(entity, properties);
    }

    @Override
    public final void refresh(Object entity, LockModeType lockMode) {
      jpaEntityManager.refresh(entity, lockMode);
    }

    @Override
    public final void refresh(Object entity, LockModeType lockMode, Map<String, Object> properties) {
      jpaEntityManager.refresh(entity, lockMode, properties);
    }

    @Override
    public final void clear() {
      jpaEntityManager.clear();
    }

    @Override
    public final void detach(Object entity) {
      jpaEntityManager.detach(entity);
    }

    @Override
    public final boolean contains(Object entity) {
      return jpaEntityManager.contains(entity);
    }

    @Override
    public final LockModeType getLockMode(Object entity) {
      return jpaEntityManager.getLockMode(entity);
    }

    @Override
    public final void setProperty(String propertyName, Object value) {
      jpaEntityManager.setProperty(propertyName, value);
    }

    @Override
    public final Map<String, Object> getProperties() {
      return jpaEntityManager.getProperties();
    }

    @Override
    public final Query createQuery(String qlString) {
      return jpaEntityManager.createQuery(qlString);
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> TypedQuery<T> createQuery(CriteriaQuery<T> criteriaQuery) {
      return jpaEntityManager.createQuery(criteriaQuery);
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> TypedQuery<T> createQuery(String qlString, Class<T> resultClass) {
      return jpaEntityManager.createQuery(qlString, resultClass);
    }

    @Override
    public final Query createNamedQuery(String name) {
      return jpaEntityManager.createNamedQuery(name);
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> TypedQuery<T> createNamedQuery(String name, Class<T> resultClass) {
      return jpaEntityManager.createNamedQuery(name, resultClass);
    }

    @Override
    public final Query createNativeQuery(String sqlString) {
      return jpaEntityManager.createNativeQuery(sqlString);
    }

    @Override
    public final Query createNativeQuery(String sqlString, Class resultClass) {
      return jpaEntityManager.createNativeQuery(sqlString, resultClass);
    }

    @Override
    public final Query createNativeQuery(String sqlString, String resultSetMapping) {
      return jpaEntityManager.createNativeQuery(sqlString, resultSetMapping);
    }

    @Override
    public final void joinTransaction() {
      jpaEntityManager.joinTransaction();
    }

    @Override
    public final <T> T unwrap(Class<T> cls) {
      return jpaEntityManager.unwrap(cls);
    }

    @Override
    public final Object getDelegate() {
      return jpaEntityManager.getDelegate();
    }

    @Override
    public final void close() {
      jpaEntityManager.close();
    }

    @Override
    public final boolean isOpen() {
      return jpaEntityManager.isOpen();
    }

    @Override
    public final EntityTransaction getTransaction() {
      return jpaEntityManager.getTransaction();
    }

    @Override
    public final EntityManagerFactory getEntityManagerFactory() {
      return jpaEntityManager.getEntityManagerFactory();
    }

    @Override
    public final CriteriaBuilder getCriteriaBuilder() {
      return jpaEntityManager.getCriteriaBuilder();
    }

    @Override
    public final Metamodel getMetamodel() {
      return jpaEntityManager.getMetamodel();
    }
  }
}