[c++] 迭代时从STL集中删除元素


Answers

如果你通过valgrind运行你的程序,你会看到一堆读取错误。 换句话说,是的,迭代器失效了,但是在你的例子中你很幸运(或者真的很不幸,因为你没有看到未定义行为的负面影响)。 对此的一个解决方案是创建一个临时迭代器,增加temp,删除目标迭代器,然后将目标设置为temp。 例如,重新编写你的循环如下:

std::set<int>::iterator it = numbers.begin();                               
std::set<int>::iterator tmp;                                                

// iterate through the set and erase all even numbers                       
for ( ; it != numbers.end(); )                                              
{                                                                           
    int n = *it;                                                            
    if (n % 2 == 0)                                                         
    {                                                                       
        tmp = it;                                                           
        ++tmp;                                                              
        numbers.erase(it);                                                  
        it = tmp;                                                           
    }                                                                       
    else                                                                    
    {                                                                       
        ++it;                                                               
    }                                                                       
} 
Question

我需要通过一个集合并删除符合预定义条件的元素。

这是我写的测试代码:

#include <set>
#include <algorithm>

void printElement(int value) {
    std::cout << value << " ";
}

int main() {
    int initNum[] = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 };
    std::set<int> numbers(initNum, initNum + 10);
    // print '0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9'
    std::for_each(numbers.begin(), numbers.end(), printElement);

    std::set<int>::iterator it = numbers.begin();

    // iterate through the set and erase all even numbers
    for (; it != numbers.end(); ++it) {
        int n = *it;
        if (n % 2 == 0) {
            // wouldn't invalidate the iterator?
            numbers.erase(it);
        }
    }

    // print '1 3 5 7 9'
    std::for_each(numbers.begin(), numbers.end(), printElement);

    return 0;
}

起初,我认为在迭代过程中擦除集合中的元素会使迭代器失效,并且for循环中的增量将具有未定义的行为。 尽管如此,我执行了这个测试代码,并且一切顺利,我无法解释为什么。

我的问题:这是为std集定义的行为还是这个实现特定? 顺便说一下,我在ubuntu 10.04(32位版本)上使用gcc 4.3.3。

谢谢!

建议的解决方案:

这是迭代和擦除集合中元素的正确方法吗?

while(it != numbers.end()) {
    int n = *it;
    if (n % 2 == 0) {
        // post-increment operator returns a copy, then increment
        numbers.erase(it++);
    } else {
        // pre-increment operator increments, then return
        ++it;
    }
}

编辑:预置解决方案

我遇到了一个似乎对我更优雅的解决方案,即使它完全一样。

while(it != numbers.end()) {
    // copy the current iterator then increment it
    std::set<int>::iterator current = it++;
    int n = *current;
    if (n % 2 == 0) {
        // don't invalidate iterator it, because it is already
        // pointing to the next element
        numbers.erase(current);
    }
}

如果在这段时间内有几个测试条件,它们中的每一个都必须递增迭代器。 我更喜欢这个代码,因为迭代器只在一个地方递增,使得代码更容易出错并且更具可读性。




只是为了警告,在deque容器的情况下,所有检查迭代器与numbers.end()的等价性的解决方案可能会在gcc 4.8.4上失败。 也就是说,擦除deque元素通常会使指向numbers.end()的指针无效:

#include <iostream>
#include <deque>

using namespace std;
int main() 
{

  deque<int> numbers;

  numbers.push_back(0);
  numbers.push_back(1);
  numbers.push_back(2);
  numbers.push_back(3);
  //numbers.push_back(4);

  deque<int>::iterator  it_end = numbers.end();

  for (deque<int>::iterator it = numbers.begin(); it != numbers.end(); ) {
    if (*it % 2 == 0) {
      cout << "Erasing element: " << *it << "\n";
      numbers.erase(it++);
      if (it_end == numbers.end()) {
    cout << "it_end is still pointing to numbers.end()\n";
      } else {
    cout << "it_end is not anymore pointing to numbers.end()\n";
      }
    }
    else {
      cout << "Skipping element: " << *it << "\n";
      ++it;
    }
  }
}

输出:

Erasing element: 0
it_end is still pointing to numbers.end()
Skipping element: 1
Erasing element: 2
it_end is not anymore pointing to numbers.end()

请注意,尽管在这种特殊情况下deque变换是正确的,但是结尾指针在这个过程中一直是无效的。 随着大小不同,错误更加明显:

int main() 
{

  deque<int> numbers;

  numbers.push_back(0);
  numbers.push_back(1);
  numbers.push_back(2);
  numbers.push_back(3);
  numbers.push_back(4);

  deque<int>::iterator  it_end = numbers.end();

  for (deque<int>::iterator it = numbers.begin(); it != numbers.end(); ) {
    if (*it % 2 == 0) {
      cout << "Erasing element: " << *it << "\n";
      numbers.erase(it++);
      if (it_end == numbers.end()) {
    cout << "it_end is still pointing to numbers.end()\n";
      } else {
    cout << "it_end is not anymore pointing to numbers.end()\n";
      }
    }
    else {
      cout << "Skipping element: " << *it << "\n";
      ++it;
    }
  }
}

输出:

Erasing element: 0
it_end is still pointing to numbers.end()
Skipping element: 1
Erasing element: 2
it_end is still pointing to numbers.end()
Skipping element: 3
Erasing element: 4
it_end is not anymore pointing to numbers.end()
Erasing element: 0
it_end is not anymore pointing to numbers.end()
Erasing element: 0
it_end is not anymore pointing to numbers.end()
...
Segmentation fault (core dumped)

这是解决这个问题的方法之一:

#include <iostream>
#include <deque>

using namespace std;
int main() 
{

  deque<int> numbers;
  bool done_iterating = false;

  numbers.push_back(0);
  numbers.push_back(1);
  numbers.push_back(2);
  numbers.push_back(3);
  numbers.push_back(4);

  if (!numbers.empty()) {
    deque<int>::iterator it = numbers.begin();
    while (!done_iterating) {
      if (it + 1 == numbers.end()) {
    done_iterating = true;
      } 
      if (*it % 2 == 0) {
    cout << "Erasing element: " << *it << "\n";
      numbers.erase(it++);
      }
      else {
    cout << "Skipping element: " << *it << "\n";
    ++it;
      }
    }
  }
}





Links