[Python] 获取两个列表之间的区别


Answers

现有的解决方案都提供以下两种方法之一:

  • 比O(n * m)的性能更快。
  • 保留输入列表的顺序。

但迄今为止没有解决方案。 如果你想要两个,试试这个:

s = set(temp2)
temp3 = [x for x in temp1 if x not in s]

性能测试

import timeit
init = 'temp1 = list(range(100)); temp2 = [i * 2 for i in range(50)]'
print timeit.timeit('list(set(temp1) - set(temp2))', init, number = 100000)
print timeit.timeit('s = set(temp2);[x for x in temp1 if x not in s]', init, number = 100000)
print timeit.timeit('[item for item in temp1 if item not in temp2]', init, number = 100000)

结果:

4.34620224079 # ars' answer
4.2770634955  # This answer
30.7715615392 # matt b's answer

我提出的方法以及保存顺序也比设置的减法(略快)快,因为它不需要构建不必要的集合。 如果第一个列表比第二个列表长得多,并且如果哈希值很高,则性​​能差异将更加明显。 这是第二个测试,演示了这一点:

init = '''
temp1 = [str(i) for i in range(100000)]
temp2 = [str(i * 2) for i in range(50)]
'''

结果:

11.3836875916 # ars' answer
3.63890368748 # this answer (3 times faster!)
37.7445402279 # matt b's answer
Question

我有两个Python列表,如下所示:

temp1 = ['One', 'Two', 'Three', 'Four']
temp2 = ['One', 'Two']

我需要创建第三个列表,其中第一个列表中的项目不在第二个列表中。 从我必须得到的例子:

temp3 = ['Three', 'Four']

有没有循环和检查的快速方法?




两个列表(比如list1和list2)之间的区别可以使用下面的简单函数找到。

def diff(list1, list2):
    c = set(list1).union(set(list2))  # or c = set(list1) | set(list2)
    d = set(list1).intersection(set(list2))  # or d = set(list1) & set(list2)
    return list(c - d)

要么

def diff(list1, list2):
    return list(set(list1).symmetric_difference(set(list2)))  # or return list(set(list1) ^ set(list2))

通过使用上述函数,可以使用diff(temp2, temp1)diff(temp1, temp2)来找到diff(temp2, temp1) 。 两者都会给出结果['Four', 'Three'] 。 您不必担心列表的顺序或首先给出哪个列表。

Python文档参考




(list(set(a)-set(b))+list(set(b)-set(a)))



如果遇到TypeError: unhashable type: 'list' ,则需要将列表或集合转换为元组,例如

set(map(tuple, list_of_lists1)).symmetric_difference(set(map(tuple, list_of_lists2)))

另请参见如何比较Python中的列表/集列表?




如果你想要更像变更集的东西......可以使用Counter

from collections import Counter

def diff(a, b):
  """ more verbose than needs to be, for clarity """
  ca, cb = Counter(a), Counter(b)
  to_add = cb - ca
  to_remove = ca - cb
  changes = Counter(to_add)
  changes.subtract(to_remove)
  return changes

lista = ['one', 'three', 'four', 'four', 'one']
listb = ['one', 'two', 'three']

In [127]: diff(lista, listb)
Out[127]: Counter({'two': 1, 'one': -1, 'four': -2})
# in order to go from lista to list b, you need to add a "two", remove a "one", and remove two "four"s

In [128]: diff(listb, lista)
Out[128]: Counter({'four': 2, 'one': 1, 'two': -1})
# in order to go from listb to lista, you must add two "four"s, add a "one", and remove a "two"



这可以用一条线解决。 问题是两个列表(temp1和temp2)在第三个列表(temp3)中返​​回它们的差异。

temp3 = list(set(temp1).difference(set(temp2)))



如果你想递归的区别,我写了一个python包: https://github.com/seperman/deepdiffhttps://github.com/seperman/deepdiff

安装

从PyPi安装:

pip install deepdiff

用法示例

输入

>>> from deepdiff import DeepDiff
>>> from pprint import pprint
>>> from __future__ import print_function # In case running on Python 2

相同的对象返回空

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3}
>>> t2 = t1
>>> print(DeepDiff(t1, t2))
{}

项目的类型已更改

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:"2", 3:3}
>>> pprint(DeepDiff(t1, t2), indent=2)
{ 'type_changes': { 'root[2]': { 'newtype': <class 'str'>,
                                 'newvalue': '2',
                                 'oldtype': <class 'int'>,
                                 'oldvalue': 2}}}

一个项目的价值已经改变

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:4, 3:3}
>>> pprint(DeepDiff(t1, t2), indent=2)
{'values_changed': {'root[2]': {'newvalue': 4, 'oldvalue': 2}}}

项目添加和/或删除

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:4}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:4, 3:3, 5:5, 6:6}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff)
{'dic_item_added': ['root[5]', 'root[6]'],
 'dic_item_removed': ['root[4]'],
 'values_changed': {'root[2]': {'newvalue': 4, 'oldvalue': 2}}}

字符串差异

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world"}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:4, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world!"}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'values_changed': { 'root[2]': {'newvalue': 4, 'oldvalue': 2},
                      "root[4]['b']": { 'newvalue': 'world!',
                                        'oldvalue': 'world'}}}

字符串差异2

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world!\nGoodbye!\n1\n2\nEnd"}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world\n1\n2\nEnd"}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'values_changed': { "root[4]['b']": { 'diff': '--- \n'
                                                '+++ \n'
                                                '@@ -1,5 +1,4 @@\n'
                                                '-world!\n'
                                                '-Goodbye!\n'
                                                '+world\n'
                                                ' 1\n'
                                                ' 2\n'
                                                ' End',
                                        'newvalue': 'world\n1\n2\nEnd',
                                        'oldvalue': 'world!\n'
                                                    'Goodbye!\n'
                                                    '1\n'
                                                    '2\n'
                                                    'End'}}}

>>> 
>>> print (ddiff['values_changed']["root[4]['b']"]["diff"])
--- 
+++ 
@@ -1,5 +1,4 @@
-world!
-Goodbye!
+world
 1
 2
 End

类型更改

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, 3]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world\n\n\nEnd"}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'type_changes': { "root[4]['b']": { 'newtype': <class 'str'>,
                                      'newvalue': 'world\n\n\nEnd',
                                      'oldtype': <class 'list'>,
                                      'oldvalue': [1, 2, 3]}}}

列表差异

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, 3, 4]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2]}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{'iterable_item_removed': {"root[4]['b'][2]": 3, "root[4]['b'][3]": 4}}

列表差异2:

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, 3]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 3, 2, 3]}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'iterable_item_added': {"root[4]['b'][3]": 3},
  'values_changed': { "root[4]['b'][1]": {'newvalue': 3, 'oldvalue': 2},
                      "root[4]['b'][2]": {'newvalue': 2, 'oldvalue': 3}}}

列表差异忽略顺序或重复:(使用与上面相同的字典)

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, 3]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 3, 2, 3]}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2, ignore_order=True)
>>> print (ddiff)
{}

包含词典的列表:

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, {1:1, 2:2}]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, {1:3}]}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'dic_item_removed': ["root[4]['b'][2][2]"],
  'values_changed': {"root[4]['b'][2][1]": {'newvalue': 3, 'oldvalue': 1}}}

集:

>>> t1 = {1, 2, 8}
>>> t2 = {1, 2, 3, 5}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (DeepDiff(t1, t2))
{'set_item_added': ['root[3]', 'root[5]'], 'set_item_removed': ['root[8]']}

命名的元组:

>>> from collections import namedtuple
>>> Point = namedtuple('Point', ['x', 'y'])
>>> t1 = Point(x=11, y=22)
>>> t2 = Point(x=11, y=23)
>>> pprint (DeepDiff(t1, t2))
{'values_changed': {'root.y': {'newvalue': 23, 'oldvalue': 22}}}

自定义对象:

>>> class ClassA(object):
...     a = 1
...     def __init__(self, b):
...         self.b = b
... 
>>> t1 = ClassA(1)
>>> t2 = ClassA(2)
>>> 
>>> pprint(DeepDiff(t1, t2))
{'values_changed': {'root.b': {'newvalue': 2, 'oldvalue': 1}}}

添加对象属性:

>>> t2.c = "new attribute"
>>> pprint(DeepDiff(t1, t2))
{'attribute_added': ['root.c'],
 'values_changed': {'root.b': {'newvalue': 2, 'oldvalue': 1}}}



可以使用python XOR操作符完成。

  • 这将删除每个列表中的重复项
  • 这将显示temp1与temp1的temp1和temp2的差异。
set(temp1) ^ set(temp2)



最简单的方法,

使用set()。difference(set())

list_a = [1,2,3]
list_b = [2,3]
print set(list_a).difference(set(list_b))

答案已set([1])

可以打印列表,

print list(set(list_a).difference(set(list_b)))



这是另一个解决方案:

def diff(a, b):
    xa = [i for i in set(a) if i not in b]
    xb = [i for i in set(b) if i not in a]
    return xa + xb



这可能比Mark的列表理解速度更快:

filterfalse(set(temp2).__contains__, temp1)





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