[Java] 如何有效地迭代'Map'中的每个条目?



Answers

总结其他答案并将其与我所知道的结合起来,我找到了10个主要方法来做到这一点(见下文)。 另外,我写了一些性能测试(见下面的结果)。 例如,如果我们想要查找地图的所有键和值的总和,我们可以这样写:

  1. 使用迭代器Map.Entry

    long i = 0;
    Iterator<Map.Entry<Integer, Integer>> it = map.entrySet().iterator();
    while (it.hasNext()) {
        Map.Entry<Integer, Integer> pair = it.next();
        i += pair.getKey() + pair.getValue();
    }
    
  2. 使用foreachMap.Entry

    long i = 0;
    for (Map.Entry<Integer, Integer> pair : map.entrySet()) {
        i += pair.getKey() + pair.getValue();
    }
    
  3. 从Java 8使用forEach

    final long[] i = {0};
    map.forEach((k, v) -> i[0] += k + v);
    
  4. 使用keySetforeach

    long i = 0;
    for (Integer key : map.keySet()) {
        i += key + map.get(key);
    }
    
  5. 使用keySet迭代器

    long i = 0;
    Iterator<Integer> itr2 = map.keySet().iterator();
    while (itr2.hasNext()) {
        Integer key = itr2.next();
        i += key + map.get(key);
    }
    
  6. 使用forMap.Entry

    long i = 0;
    for (Iterator<Map.Entry<Integer, Integer>> entries = map.entrySet().iterator(); entries.hasNext(); ) {
        Map.Entry<Integer, Integer> entry = entries.next();
        i += entry.getKey() + entry.getValue();
    }
    
  7. 使用Java 8 Stream API

    final long[] i = {0};
    map.entrySet().stream().forEach(e -> i[0] += e.getKey() + e.getValue());
    
  8. 使用Java 8 Stream API并行

    final long[] i = {0};
    map.entrySet().stream().parallel().forEach(e -> i[0] += e.getKey() + e.getValue());
    
  9. 使用Apache Collections IterableMap

    long i = 0;
    MapIterator<Integer, Integer> it = iterableMap.mapIterator();
    while (it.hasNext()) {
        i += it.next() + it.getValue();
    }
    
  10. 使用Eclipse(CS)集合的MutableMap

    final long[] i = {0};
    mutableMap.forEachKeyValue((key, value) -> {
        i[0] += key + value;
    });
    

性能测试 (mode = AverageTime,系统= Windows 8.1 64位,Intel i7-4790 3.60 GHz,16 GB)

  1. 对于小地图(100个元素),得分0.308是最好的

    Benchmark                          Mode  Cnt  Score    Error  Units
    test3_UsingForEachAndJava8         avgt  10   0.308 ±  0.021  µs/op
    test10_UsingEclipseMap             avgt  10   0.309 ±  0.009  µs/op
    test1_UsingWhileAndMapEntry        avgt  10   0.380 ±  0.014  µs/op
    test6_UsingForAndIterator          avgt  10   0.387 ±  0.016  µs/op
    test2_UsingForEachAndMapEntry      avgt  10   0.391 ±  0.023  µs/op
    test7_UsingJava8StreamApi          avgt  10   0.510 ±  0.014  µs/op
    test9_UsingApacheIterableMap       avgt  10   0.524 ±  0.008  µs/op
    test4_UsingKeySetAndForEach        avgt  10   0.816 ±  0.026  µs/op
    test5_UsingKeySetAndIterator       avgt  10   0.863 ±  0.025  µs/op
    test8_UsingJava8StreamApiParallel  avgt  10   5.552 ±  0.185  µs/op
    
  2. 对于具有10000个元素的地图,得分37.606是最好的

    Benchmark                           Mode   Cnt  Score      Error   Units
    test10_UsingEclipseMap              avgt   10    37.606 ±   0.790  µs/op
    test3_UsingForEachAndJava8          avgt   10    50.368 ±   0.887  µs/op
    test6_UsingForAndIterator           avgt   10    50.332 ±   0.507  µs/op
    test2_UsingForEachAndMapEntry       avgt   10    51.406 ±   1.032  µs/op
    test1_UsingWhileAndMapEntry         avgt   10    52.538 ±   2.431  µs/op
    test7_UsingJava8StreamApi           avgt   10    54.464 ±   0.712  µs/op
    test4_UsingKeySetAndForEach         avgt   10    79.016 ±  25.345  µs/op
    test5_UsingKeySetAndIterator        avgt   10    91.105 ±  10.220  µs/op
    test8_UsingJava8StreamApiParallel   avgt   10   112.511 ±   0.365  µs/op
    test9_UsingApacheIterableMap        avgt   10   125.714 ±   1.935  µs/op
    
  3. 对于100000个元素的地图,得分11​​84.767是最好的

    Benchmark                          Mode   Cnt  Score        Error    Units
    test1_UsingWhileAndMapEntry        avgt   10   1184.767 ±   332.968  µs/op
    test10_UsingEclipseMap             avgt   10   1191.735 ±   304.273  µs/op
    test2_UsingForEachAndMapEntry      avgt   10   1205.815 ±   366.043  µs/op
    test6_UsingForAndIterator          avgt   10   1206.873 ±   367.272  µs/op
    test8_UsingJava8StreamApiParallel  avgt   10   1485.895 ±   233.143  µs/op
    test5_UsingKeySetAndIterator       avgt   10   1540.281 ±   357.497  µs/op
    test4_UsingKeySetAndForEach        avgt   10   1593.342 ±   294.417  µs/op
    test3_UsingForEachAndJava8         avgt   10   1666.296 ±   126.443  µs/op
    test7_UsingJava8StreamApi          avgt   10   1706.676 ±   436.867  µs/op
    test9_UsingApacheIterableMap       avgt   10   3289.866 ±  1445.564  µs/op
    

图(性能测试取决于地图大小)

表(性能测试取决于地图大小)

          100     600      1100     1600     2100
test10    0.333    1.631    2.752    5.937    8.024
test3     0.309    1.971    4.147    8.147   10.473
test6     0.372    2.190    4.470    8.322   10.531
test1     0.405    2.237    4.616    8.645   10.707
test2     0.376    2.267    4.809    8.403   10.910
test7     0.473    2.448    5.668    9.790   12.125
test9     0.565    2.830    5.952   13.220   16.965
test4     0.808    5.012    8.813   13.939   17.407
test5     0.810    5.104    8.533   14.064   17.422
test8     5.173   12.499   17.351   24.671   30.403

所有的测试都在GitHub

Question

如果我有一个在Java中实现Map接口的对象,并且我希望迭代其中包含的每个对,那么通过该映射的最有效方式是什么?

元素的排序是否依赖于我为界面设计的特定映射实现?




做到这一点的正确方法是使用接受的答案,因为它是最有效的。 我发现下面的代码看起来有点干净。

for (String key: map.keySet()) {
   System.out.println(key + "/" + map.get(key));
}



使用迭代器和泛型的例子:

Iterator<Map.Entry<String, String>> entries = myMap.entrySet().iterator();
while (entries.hasNext()) {
  Map.Entry<String, String> entry = entries.next();
  String key = entry.getKey();
  String value = entry.getValue();
  // ...
}



Lambda Expression Java 8

在Java 1.8(Java 8)中,通过使用类似于Iterable Interface的迭代器的Aggregate操作( Stream操作 )中的forEach方法,这变得更容易。

只需将下面的语句粘贴到您的代码中,并将HashMap变量从hm重命名为您的HashMap变量以打印出键值对。

HashMap<Integer,Integer> hm = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();
/*
 *     Logic to put the Key,Value pair in your HashMap hm
 */

// Print the key value pair in one line.

hm.forEach((k,v) -> System.out.println("key: "+k+" value:"+v));

// Just copy and paste above line to your code.

以下是我尝试使用Lambda Expression的示例代码。 这东西太酷了。 一定要试。

HashMap<Integer,Integer> hm = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();
    Random rand = new Random(47);
    int i=0;
    while(i<5){
        i++;
        int key = rand.nextInt(20);
        int value = rand.nextInt(50);
        System.out.println("Inserting key: "+key+" Value: "+value);
        Integer imap =hm.put(key,value);
        if( imap == null){
            System.out.println("Inserted");
        }
        else{
            System.out.println("Replaced with "+imap);
        }               
    }

    hm.forEach((k,v) -> System.out.println("key: "+k+" value:"+v));

Output:

Inserting key: 18 Value: 5
Inserted
Inserting key: 13 Value: 11
Inserted
Inserting key: 1 Value: 29
Inserted
Inserting key: 8 Value: 0
Inserted
Inserting key: 2 Value: 7
Inserted
key: 1 value:29
key: 18 value:5
key: 2 value:7
key: 8 value:0
key: 13 value:11

同样可以使用Spliterator

Spliterator sit = hm.entrySet().spliterator();

UPDATE

包括Oracle Docs的文档链接。 有关Lambda的更多信息,请转到此link并阅读Aggregate Operations和Spliterator转到此link




如果你有一个通用的无类型映射,你可以使用:

Map map = new HashMap();
for (Map.Entry entry : ((Set<Map.Entry>) map.entrySet())) {
    System.out.println(entry.getKey() + "/" + entry.getValue());
}



有几种方法可以迭代地图。

这是通过在地图中存储一百万个关键值对并将迭代地图来比较他们在地图中存储的常见数据集的性能。

1)为每个循环使用entrySet()

for (Map.Entry<String,Integer> entry : testMap.entrySet()) {
    entry.getKey();
    entry.getValue();
}

50毫秒

2)对每个循环使用keySet()

for (String key : testMap.keySet()) {
    testMap.get(key);
}

76毫秒

3)使用entrySet()和迭代器

Iterator<Map.Entry<String,Integer>> itr1 = testMap.entrySet().iterator();
while(itr1.hasNext()) {
    Map.Entry<String,Integer> entry = itr1.next();
    entry.getKey();
    entry.getValue();
}

50毫秒

4)使用keySet()和迭代器

Iterator itr2 = testMap.keySet().iterator();
while(itr2.hasNext()) {
    String key = itr2.next();
    testMap.get(key);
}

75毫秒

我已经提到this link




是的,订单取决于具体的Map实现。

@ ScArcher2拥有更优雅的Java 1.5语法 。 在1.4中,我会做这样的事情:

Iterator entries = myMap.entrySet().iterator();
while (entries.hasNext()) {
  Entry thisEntry = (Entry) entries.next();
  Object key = thisEntry.getKey();
  Object value = thisEntry.getValue();
  // ...
}



尝试使用Java 1.4:

for( Iterator entries = myMap.entrySet().iterator(); entries.hasNext();){

  Entry entry = (Entry) entries.next();

  System.out.println(entry.getKey() + "/" + entry.getValue());

  //...
}



在Java 8中,我们获得了接受link forEach方法。 我们也有stream API。 考虑一张地图:

Map<String,String> sample = new HashMap<>();
sample.put("A","Apple");
sample.put("B", "Ball");

迭代密钥:

sample.keySet().forEach((k) -> System.out.println(k));

迭代值:

sample.values().forEach((v) -> System.out.println(v));

迭代条目(使用forEach和Streams):

sample.forEach((k,v) -> System.out.println(k + "=" + v)); 
sample.entrySet().stream().forEach((entry) -> {
            Object currentKey = entry.getKey();
            Object currentValue = entry.getValue();
            System.out.println(currentKey + "=" + currentValue);
        });

流的优点是它们可以很容易并行,以防万一我们想要。 我们只需要使用parallelStream()代替上面的stream()




Java 8:

你可以使用lambda表达式:

myMap.entrySet().stream().forEach((entry) -> {
    Object currentKey = entry.getKey();
    Object currentValue = entry.getValue();
});

有关更多信息,请按照this




它并不完全回答OP的问题,但可能对查找此页面的其他人有用:

如果你只需要值而不是键,你可以这样做:

Map<Ktype, Vtype> myMap = [...];
for (Vtype v: myMap.values()) {
  System.out.println("value: " + v);
}

KtypeVtype是伪代码。




你可以使用泛型来做到这一点:

Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();
Iterator<Map.Entry<Integer, Integer>> entries = map.entrySet().iterator();
while (entries.hasNext()) {
    Map.Entry<Integer, Integer> entry = entries.next();
    System.out.println("Key = " + entry.getKey() + ", Value = " + entry.getValue());
}



package com.test;

import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Map.Entry;
import java.util.Set;

public class Test {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<String, String>();
        map.put("ram", "ayodhya");
        map.put("krishan", "mathura");
        map.put("shiv", "kailash");

        System.out.println("********* Keys *********");
        Set<String> keys = map.keySet();
        for (String key : keys) {
            System.out.println(key);
        }

        System.out.println("********* Values *********");
        Collection<String> values = map.values();
        for (String value : values) {
            System.out.println(value);
        }

        System.out.println("***** Keys and Values (Using for each loop) *****");
        for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : map.entrySet()) {
            System.out.println("Key: " + entry.getKey() + "\t Value: "
                    + entry.getValue());
        }

        System.out.println("***** Keys and Values (Using while loop) *****");
        Iterator<Entry<String, String>> entries = map.entrySet().iterator();
        while (entries.hasNext()) {
            Map.Entry<String, String> entry = (Map.Entry<String, String>) entries
                    .next();
            System.out.println("Key: " + entry.getKey() + "\t Value: "
                    + entry.getValue());
        }

        System.out
                .println("** Keys and Values (Using java 8 using lambdas )***");
        map.forEach((k, v) -> System.out
                .println("Key: " + k + "\t value: " + v));
    }
}



排序总是取决于具体的地图实现。 使用Java 8,您可以使用以下任一项:

map.forEach((k,v) -> { System.out.println(k + ":" + v); });

要么:

map.entrySet().forEach((e) -> {
            System.out.println(e.getKey() + " : " + e.getValue());
        });

结果将是相同的(相同的顺序)。 The entrySet backed by the map so you are getting the same order. The second one is handy as it allows you to use lambdas, eg if you want only to print only Integer objects that are greater than 5:

map.entrySet()
    .stream()
    .filter(e-> e.getValue() > 5)
    .forEach(System.out::println);

The code below shows iteration through LinkedHashMap and normal HashMap (example). You will see difference in the order:

public class HMIteration {


    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Map<Object, Object> linkedHashMap = new LinkedHashMap<>();
        Map<Object, Object> hashMap = new HashMap<>();

        for (int i=10; i>=0; i--) {
            linkedHashMap.put(i, i);
            hashMap.put(i, i);
        }

        System.out.println("LinkedHashMap (1): ");
        linkedHashMap.forEach((k,v) -> { System.out.print(k + " (#="+k.hashCode() + "):" + v + ", "); });

        System.out.println("\nLinkedHashMap (2): ");

        linkedHashMap.entrySet().forEach((e) -> {
            System.out.print(e.getKey() + " : " + e.getValue() + ", ");
        });


        System.out.println("\n\nHashMap (1): ");
        hashMap.forEach((k,v) -> { System.out.print(k + " (#:"+k.hashCode() + "):" + v + ", "); });

        System.out.println("\nHashMap (2): ");

        hashMap.entrySet().forEach((e) -> {
            System.out.print(e.getKey() + " : " + e.getValue() + ", ");
        });
    }
}

LinkedHashMap (1):

10 (#=10):10, 9 (#=9):9, 8 (#=8):8, 7 (#=7):7, 6 (#=6):6, 5 (#=5):5, 4 (#=4):4, 3 (#=3):3, 2 (#=2):2, 1 (#=1):1, 0 (#=0):0,

LinkedHashMap (2):

10 : 10, 9 : 9, 8 : 8, 7 : 7, 6 : 6, 5 : 5, 4 : 4, 3 : 3, 2 : 2, 1 : 1, 0 : 0,

HashMap (1):

0 (#:0):0, 1 (#:1):1, 2 (#:2):2, 3 (#:3):3, 4 (#:4):4, 5 (#:5):5, 6 (#:6):6, 7 (#:7):7, 8 (#:8):8, 9 (#:9):9, 10 (#:10):10,

HashMap (2):

0 : 0, 1 : 1, 2 : 2, 3 : 3, 4 : 4, 5 : 5, 6 : 6, 7 : 7, 8 : 8, 9 : 9, 10 : 10,




           //Functional Oprations
            Map<String, String> mapString = new HashMap<>();
            mapString.entrySet().stream().map((entry) -> {
                String mapKey = entry.getKey();
                return entry;
            }).forEach((entry) -> {
                String mapValue = entry.getValue();
            });

            //Intrator
            Map<String, String> mapString = new HashMap<>();
            for (Iterator<Map.Entry<String, String>> it = mapString.entrySet().iterator(); it.hasNext();) {
                Map.Entry<String, String> entry = it.next();
                String mapKey = entry.getKey();
                String mapValue = entry.getValue();
            }

            //Simple for loop
            Map<String, String> mapString = new HashMap<>();
            for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : mapString.entrySet()) {
                String mapKey = entry.getKey();
                String mapValue = entry.getValue();

            }





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