使用Java的Runtime.exec()时如何添加超时值?



Answers

如果您使用的是Java 8,则只需使用新的waitFor with timeout

Process p = ...
if(!p.waitFor(1, TimeUnit.MINUTES)) {
    //timeout - kill the process. 
    p.destroy(); // consider using destroyForcibly instead
}
Question

我有一个方法,我用来在本地主机上执行命令。 我想在方法中添加一个超时参数,这样如果被调用的命令没有在合理的时间内完成,那么该方法将返回错误代码。 这是迄今为止的样子,没有超时的能力:

public static int executeCommandLine(final String commandLine,
                                     final boolean printOutput,
                                     final boolean printError)
    throws IOException, InterruptedException
{
    Runtime runtime = Runtime.getRuntime();
    Process process = runtime.exec(commandLine);

    if (printOutput)
    {
        BufferedReader outputReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getInputStream()));
        System.out.println("Output:  " + outputReader.readLine());
    }

    if (printError)
    {
        BufferedReader errorReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getErrorStream()));
        System.out.println("Error:  " + errorReader.readLine());
    }

    return process.waitFor();
}

任何人都可以建议我实现超时参数的好方法吗?




实施为代理,如果超过您的阈值,则无法通过调用。




我使用建议的三种方法实现了这一点,它带有详细的代码示例(我是线程编程的新手,这些示例代码非常宝贵 - 如果只是用英语解释,我仍然会想到如何做到这一点没有代码)。

我实现了我正在使用的实用程序类,使用三种方法执行具有超时的命令,如下所示:

package com.abc.network.lifecycle.util;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.util.concurrent.Callable;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.Future;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;

import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;

/**
 * Utility class for performing process related functions such as command line processing.
 */
public class ProcessUtility
{

    static Log log = LogFactory.getLog(ProcessUtility.class);

    /**
     * Thread class to be used as a worker
     */
    private static class Worker
        extends Thread
    {
        private final Process process;
        private Integer exitValue;

        Worker(final Process process)
        {
            this.process = process;
        }

        public Integer getExitValue()
        {
            return exitValue;
        }

        @Override
        public void run()
        {
            try
            {
                exitValue = process.waitFor();
            }
            catch (InterruptedException ignore)
            {
                return;
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Executes a command.
     * 
     * @param command
     * @param printOutput
     * @param printError
     * @param timeOut
     * @return
     * @throws java.io.IOException
     * @throws java.lang.InterruptedException
     */
    public static int executeCommandWithExecutors(final String command,
                                                  final boolean printOutput,
                                                  final boolean printError,
                                                  final long timeOut)
    {
        // validate the system and command line and get a system-appropriate command line 
        String massagedCommand = validateSystemAndMassageCommand(command);

        try
        {
            // create the process which will run the command
            Runtime runtime = Runtime.getRuntime();
            final Process process = runtime.exec(massagedCommand);

            // consume and display the error and output streams
            StreamGobbler outputGobbler = new StreamGobbler(process.getInputStream(), "OUTPUT", printOutput);
            StreamGobbler errorGobbler = new StreamGobbler(process.getErrorStream(), "ERROR", printError);
            outputGobbler.start();
            errorGobbler.start();

            // create a Callable for the command's Process which can be called by an Executor 
            Callable<Integer> call = new Callable<Integer>()
            {
                public Integer call()
                    throws Exception
                {
                    process.waitFor();
                    return process.exitValue();
                }
            };

            // submit the command's call and get the result from a 
            Future<Integer> futureResultOfCall = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor().submit(call);
            try
            {
                int exitValue = futureResultOfCall.get(timeOut, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
                return exitValue;
            }
            catch (TimeoutException ex)
            {
                String errorMessage = "The command [" + command + "] timed out.";
                log.error(errorMessage, ex);
                throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage, ex);
            }
            catch (ExecutionException ex)
            {
                String errorMessage = "The command [" + command + "] did not complete due to an execution error.";
                log.error(errorMessage, ex);
                throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage, ex);
            }
        }
        catch (InterruptedException ex)
        {
            String errorMessage = "The command [" + command + "] did not complete due to an unexpected interruption.";
            log.error(errorMessage, ex);
            throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage, ex);
        }
        catch (IOException ex)
        {
            String errorMessage = "The command [" + command + "] did not complete due to an IO error.";
            log.error(errorMessage, ex);
            throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage, ex);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Executes a command.
     * 
     * @param command
     * @param printOutput
     * @param printError
     * @param timeOut
     * @return
     * @throws java.io.IOException
     * @throws java.lang.InterruptedException
     */
    public static int executeCommandWithSleep(final String command,
                                              final boolean printOutput,
                                              final boolean printError,
                                              final long timeOut)
    {
        // validate the system and command line and get a system-appropriate command line 
        String massagedCommand = validateSystemAndMassageCommand(command);

        try
        {
            // create the process which will run the command
            Runtime runtime = Runtime.getRuntime();
            Process process = runtime.exec(massagedCommand);

            // consume and display the error and output streams
            StreamGobbler outputGobbler = new StreamGobbler(process.getInputStream(), "OUTPUT", printOutput);
            StreamGobbler errorGobbler = new StreamGobbler(process.getErrorStream(), "ERROR", printError);
            outputGobbler.start();
            errorGobbler.start();

            // run a thread which will set a flag once it has slept for the timeout period
            final boolean[] flags = { true };
            new Thread()
            {
                @Override
                public void run()
                {
                    try
                    {
                        Thread.sleep(timeOut);
                    }
                    catch (InterruptedException ex)
                    {
                        String errorMessage = "Timeout loop thread unexpectedly interrupted.";
                        log.error(errorMessage, ex);
                        throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage, ex);
                    }
                    flags[0] = false;
                }
            }.start();

            // execute the command and wait 
            int returnValue = -1;
            while (flags[0] && (returnValue < 0))
            {
                returnValue = process.waitFor();
            }

            // if the command timed out then log it
            if (returnValue < 0)
            {
                log.warn("The command [" + command + "] did not complete before the timeout period expired (timeout: " +
                         timeOut + " ms)");
            }

            return returnValue;
        }
        catch (InterruptedException ex)
        {
            String errorMessage = "The command [" + command + "] did not complete due to an unexpected interruption.";
            log.error(errorMessage, ex);
            throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage, ex);
        }
        catch (IOException ex)
        {
            String errorMessage = "The command [" + command + "] did not complete due to an IO error.";
            log.error(errorMessage, ex);
            throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage, ex);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Executes a command.
     * 
     * @param command
     * @param printOutput
     * @param printError
     * @param timeOut
     * @return
     * @throws java.io.IOException
     * @throws java.lang.InterruptedException
     */
    public static int executeCommandWithWorker(final String command,
                                               final boolean printOutput,
                                               final boolean printError,
                                               final long timeOut)
    {
        // validate the system and command line and get a system-appropriate command line 
        String massagedCommand = validateSystemAndMassageCommand(command);

        try
        {
            // create the process which will run the command
            Runtime runtime = Runtime.getRuntime();
            Process process = runtime.exec(massagedCommand);

            // consume and display the error and output streams
            StreamGobbler outputGobbler = new StreamGobbler(process.getInputStream(), "OUTPUT", printOutput);
            StreamGobbler errorGobbler = new StreamGobbler(process.getErrorStream(), "ERROR", printError);
            outputGobbler.start();
            errorGobbler.start();

            // create and start a Worker thread which this thread will join for the timeout period 
            Worker worker = new Worker(process);
            worker.start();
            try
            {
                worker.join(timeOut);
                Integer exitValue = worker.getExitValue();
                if (exitValue != null)
                {
                    // the worker thread completed within the timeout period
                    return exitValue;
                }

                // if we get this far then we never got an exit value from the worker thread as a result of a timeout 
                String errorMessage = "The command [" + command + "] timed out.";
                log.error(errorMessage);
                throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage);
            }
            catch (InterruptedException ex)
            {
                worker.interrupt();
                Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
                throw ex;
            }
        }
        catch (InterruptedException ex)
        {
            String errorMessage = "The command [" + command + "] did not complete due to an unexpected interruption.";
            log.error(errorMessage, ex);
            throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage, ex);
        }
        catch (IOException ex)
        {
            String errorMessage = "The command [" + command + "] did not complete due to an IO error.";
            log.error(errorMessage, ex);
            throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage, ex);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Validates that the system is running a supported OS and returns a system-appropriate command line.
     * 
     * @param originalCommand
     * @return
     */
    private static String validateSystemAndMassageCommand(final String originalCommand)
    {
        // make sure that we have a command
        if (originalCommand.isEmpty() || (originalCommand.length() < 1))
        {
            String errorMessage = "Missing or empty command line parameter.";
            log.error(errorMessage);
            throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage);
        }

        // make sure that we are running on a supported system, and if so set the command line appropriately
        String massagedCommand;
        String osName = System.getProperty("os.name");
        if (osName.equals("Windows XP"))
        {
            massagedCommand = "cmd.exe /C " + originalCommand;
        }
        else if (osName.equals("Solaris") || osName.equals("SunOS") || osName.equals("Linux"))
        {
            massagedCommand = originalCommand;
        }
        else
        {
            String errorMessage = "Unable to run on this system which is not Solaris, Linux, or Windows XP (actual OS type: \'" +
                                  osName + "\').";
            log.error(errorMessage);
            throw new RuntimeException(errorMessage);
        }

        return massagedCommand;
    }
}

我创建了一个类来使用和显示命令的输出和错误流(取自http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-12-2000/jw-1229-traps.html?page=4 ):

package com.abc.network.lifecycle.util;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;

import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;

/**
 * Utility thread class which consumes and displays stream input.
 * 
 * Original code taken from http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-12-2000/jw-1229-traps.html?page=4
 */
class StreamGobbler
    extends Thread
{
    static private Log log = LogFactory.getLog(StreamGobbler.class);
    private InputStream inputStream;
    private String streamType;
    private boolean displayStreamOutput;

    /**
     * Constructor.
     * 
     * @param inputStream the InputStream to be consumed
     * @param streamType the stream type (should be OUTPUT or ERROR)
     * @param displayStreamOutput whether or not to display the output of the stream being consumed
     */
    StreamGobbler(final InputStream inputStream,
                  final String streamType,
                  final boolean displayStreamOutput)
    {
        this.inputStream = inputStream;
        this.streamType = streamType;
        this.displayStreamOutput = displayStreamOutput;
    }

    /**
     * Consumes the output from the input stream and displays the lines consumed if configured to do so.
     */
    @Override
    public void run()
    {
        try
        {
            InputStreamReader inputStreamReader = new InputStreamReader(inputStream);
            BufferedReader bufferedReader = new BufferedReader(inputStreamReader);
            String line = null;
            while ((line = bufferedReader.readLine()) != null)
            {
                if (displayStreamOutput)
                {
                    System.out.println(streamType + ">" + line);
                }
            }
        }
        catch (IOException ex)
        {
            log.error("Failed to successfully consume and display the input stream of type " + streamType + ".", ex);
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

我创建了一个测试命令,大约需要10秒才能完成:

#!/bin/bash
sleep 10
echo 'TEST COMMAND RAN OK'

然后我创建了一个测试程序来测试三种不同的方法,每个方法调用超时值5秒(命令应该失败)并且超时值为15秒(命令应该成功):

package com.abc.network.lifecycle.util;

public class ProcessUtilityTester
{

    /**
     * @param args
     */
    public static void main(final String[] args)
    {
        try
        {
            String command = args[0];
            int exitValue = -1;
            System.out.println("\n\n5000ms timeout With Executors:");
            try
            {
                exitValue = -1;
                exitValue = ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithExecutors(command, true, true, 5000);
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            }
            finally
            {
                System.out.println("\nExit value:" + exitValue);
            }
            System.out.println("\n\n5000ms timeout With Sleep:");
            try
            {
                exitValue = -1;
                exitValue = ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithSleep(command, true, true, 5000);
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            }
            finally
            {
                System.out.println("\nExit value:" + exitValue);
            }
            System.out.println("\n\n5000ms timeout With Worker:");
            try
            {
                exitValue = -1;
                exitValue = ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithWorker(command, true, true, 5000);
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            }
            finally
            {
                System.out.println("\nExit value:" + exitValue);
            }
            System.out.println("\n\n15000ms timeout With Executors:");
            try
            {
                exitValue = -1;
                exitValue = ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithExecutors(command, true, true, 15000);
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            }
            finally
            {
                System.out.println("\nExit value:" + exitValue);
            }
            System.out.println("\n\n15000ms timeout With Sleep:");
            try
            {
                exitValue = -1;
                exitValue = ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithSleep(command, true, true, 15000);
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            }
            finally
            {
                System.out.println("\nExit value:" + exitValue);
            }
            System.out.println("\n\n15000ms timeout With Worker:");
            try
            {
                exitValue = -1;
                exitValue = ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithWorker(command, true, true, 15000);
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            }
            finally
            {
                System.out.println("\nExit value:" + exitValue);
            }
        }
        catch (Exception ex)
        {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
        finally
        {
            System.exit(0);
        }
    }

}

这是我在运行测试程序时看到的内容:

5000ms timeout With Executors:
May 1, 2009 1:55:19 AM com.abc.network.lifecycle.util.ProcessUtility executeCommandWithExecutors
SEVERE: The command [/tmp/testcmd.sh] timed out.
java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException
        at java.util.concurrent.FutureTask$Sync.innerGet(FutureTask.java:228)
        at java.util.concurrent.FutureTask.get(FutureTask.java:91)
        at com.abc.network.lifecycle.util.ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithExecutors(ProcessUtility.java:179)
        at com.abc.network.lifecycle.util.ProcessUtilityTester.main(ProcessUtilityTester.java:19)
java.lang.RuntimeException: The command [/tmp/testcmd.sh] timed out.
        at com.abc.network.lifecycle.util.ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithExecutors(ProcessUtility.java:186)
        at com.abc.network.lifecycle.util.ProcessUtilityTester.main(ProcessUtilityTester.java:19)
Caused by: java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException
        at java.util.concurrent.FutureTask$Sync.innerGet(FutureTask.java:228)
        at java.util.concurrent.FutureTask.get(FutureTask.java:91)
        at com.abc.network.lifecycle.util.ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithExecutors(ProcessUtility.java:179)
        ... 1 more

Exit value:-1


5000ms timeout With Sleep:
OUTPUT>TEST COMMAND RAN OK
OUTPUT>TEST COMMAND RAN OK

Exit value:0


5000ms timeout With Worker:
May 1, 2009 1:55:34 AM com.abc.network.lifecycle.util.ProcessUtility executeCommandWithWorker
SEVERE: The command [/tmp/testcmd.sh] timed out.
java.lang.RuntimeException: The command [/tmp/testcmd.sh] timed out.
        at com.abc.network.lifecycle.util.ProcessUtility.executeCommandWithWorker(ProcessUtility.java:338)
        at com.abc.network.lifecycle.util.ProcessUtilityTester.main(ProcessUtilityTester.java:47)

Exit value:-1


15000ms timeout With Executors:
OUTPUT>TEST COMMAND RAN OK
OUTPUT>TEST COMMAND RAN OK

Exit value:0


15000ms timeout With Sleep:
OUTPUT>TEST COMMAND RAN OK

Exit value:0


15000ms timeout With Worker:
OUTPUT>TEST COMMAND RAN OK

Exit value:0

因此,从我可以看出使用Worker线程类的方法效果最好,因为它在两种情况下都给出了预期的结果。 使用Executors的方法也按预期工作,但需要注意的是它似乎在15000ms timout情况下运行命令两次(即我看到命令的输出两次)。 使用sleep()方法的方法不会在5000ms超时情况下按预期超时,并显示输出两次,但在15000ms超时情况下按预期运行命令。




这是StreamThread

public class CommandStreamThread extends Thread{
        private InputStream iStream;
        private String cPrompt;

        CommandStreamThread (InputStream is, String cPrompt)
        {
            this.iStream = is;
            this.cPrompt = cPrompt;
        }

        public void run()
        {
            try
            {
                InputStreamReader streamReader= new InputStreamReader(this.iStream);
                BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(streamReader);


                String linesep=System.getProperty("line.separator");
                String line=null;
                while ((line=reader.readLine())!=null){
                    System.out.println(line);
                    //Process the next line seperately in case this is EOF is not preceded by EOL
                    int in;
                    char[] buffer=new char[linesep.length()];
                    while ( (in = reader.read(buffer)) != -1){
                        String bufferValue=String.valueOf(buffer, 0, in);
                        System.out.print(bufferValue);
                        if (bufferValue.equalsIgnoreCase(linesep))
                            break;
                    }
                }

                //Or the easy way out with commons utils!
                //IOUtils.copy(this.iStream, System.out);


              } catch (Exception e){
                    e.printStackTrace();  
              }
        }

        public InputStream getIStream() {
            return iStream;
        }

        public void setIStream(InputStream stream) {
            iStream = stream;
        }

        public String getCPrompt() {
            return cPrompt;
        }

        public void setCPrompt(String prompt) {
            cPrompt = prompt;
        }


}



如果使用Java 8,我会选择AleksanderBlomskøld,回答iepwaitFor(1,TimeUnit.MINUTE)

否则,如果使用Java 6/7并使用Swing,则可以使用SwingWorker:

   final Process process = ...
   SwingWorker<Integer, Integer> sw = new SwingWorker<>() {
       @Override
       protected Integer doInBackground() throws Exception {
          process.waitFor();
          return process.exitValue();
       }
   };
   sw.execute();                
   int exitValue = sw.get(1, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
   if (exitValue == 0) {
       //everything was fine
   } else {
       //process exited with issues
   }



对于那些不能使用新的Java 8方法waitFor(long timeout, TimeUnit unit) (因为它们在Android上或根本无法升级)的人,您可以简单地从JDK源代码中删除它并将其添加到您的utils中的某处档案:

public boolean waitFor(long timeout, TimeUnit unit, final Process process)
            throws InterruptedException
    {
        long startTime = System.nanoTime();
        long rem = unit.toNanos(timeout);

        do {
            try {
                process.exitValue();
                return true;
            } catch(IllegalThreadStateException ex) {
                if (rem > 0)
                    Thread.sleep(
                            Math.min(TimeUnit.NANOSECONDS.toMillis(rem) + 1, 100));
            }
            rem = unit.toNanos(timeout) - (System.nanoTime() - startTime);
        } while (rem > 0);
        return false;
    }

我从JDK8源代码中对原来的唯一更改是添加了Process参数,以便我们可以从进程中调用exitValue方法。

如果进程尚未终止, exitValue方法将直接尝试返回或抛出IllegalThreadStateException 。 在这种情况下,我们等待收到的超时并终止。

该方法返回一个布尔值,因此如果返回false,则表示您需要手动终止该进程。

这种方式似乎比上面发布的任何东西都简单(期望直接调用waitFor肯定)。




首先是一些背景信息,我遇到问题是在运行命令时超时,因为我试图执行的程序永远不会打印出任何错误的调试或错误信息,并且会继续在内部重试,从而导致进程卡住因为在重试时从未出现错误或输出流。

所以在process.exec()process.start()

它将永远停留在这条线上,

BufferedReader input = new BufferedReader(newInputStreamReader(process.getInputStream()));

根据带有public boolean waitFor(long timeout,TimeUnit unit)方法的java 1.8,它应该在指定的超时后“理想地”超时但在我的情况下由于某种原因它永远不会超时可能是因为我正在运行应用程序作为Windows服务(我已经检查了用户权限和帐户上的所有内容,但它没有帮助)。

所以我尝试使用下面的逻辑来实现它,我们将继续使用input.ready()和一个超时标志来检查输入流。这个简单的解决方案就像魅力相比其他所有存在。

码:

public boolean runCommand() throws IOException, InterruptedException, Exception {
    StringBuilder rawResponse = new StringBuilder();
    System.out.println("Running Command " + Arrays.toString(command));
    ProcessBuilder processBuilder = new ProcessBuilder(Arrays.asList(command));
    processBuilder.redirectErrorStream(true);
    Process process = processBuilder.start(); //Executing the process
    BufferedReader input = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getInputStream()));
    waitForTimeout(input, process); //Waiting for Timout
    String line;
    while ((line = input.readLine()) != null) {
        rawResponse.append(line).append("\n");
    }
    return true;
}


//Timeout method 
private void waitForTimeout(BufferedReader input, Process process) throws InterruptedException, Exception {
    int timeout = 5;
    while (timeout > 0) {
        if (input.ready()) {
            break;
        } else {
            timeout--;
            Thread.sleep(1000);
            if (timeout == 0 && !input.ready()) {
                destroyProcess(process);
                throw new Exception("Timeout in executing the command "+Arrays.toString(command));
            }
        }
    }
}



有多种方法可以做到这一点,但我考虑使用Executor--它只是帮助您封装将线程中的退出值或异常传递回原始调用者。

    final Process p = ...        
    Callable<Integer> call = new Callable<Integer>() {
    public Integer call() throws Exception {
        p.waitFor();
        return p.exitValue();
      }
    };
    Future<Integer> ft = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor().submit(call);
    try {
      int exitVal = ft.get(2000L, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
      return exitVal;
    } catch (TimeoutException to) {
      p.destroy();
      throw to;
    }

我认为你不能绕过竞争条件,等待时间超时,然后进程在你调用destroy()之前终止。






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