我怎樣才能找到名稱或類型的WPF控件?


8 Answers

您還可以使用FrameworkElement.FindName(string)按名稱查找元素。

鑑於:

<UserControl ...>
    <TextBlock x:Name="myTextBlock" />
</UserControl>

在代碼隱藏文件中,您可以編寫:

var myTextBlock = (TextBlock)this.FindName("myTextBlock");

當然,因為它是用x:Name定義的,所以你可以引用生成的字段,但也許你想動態地查看而不是靜態地查看它。

這種方法也適用於模板,其中指定項目多次出現(每次使用模板一次)。

Question

我需要為WPF控件層次結構搜索匹配給定名稱或類型的控件。 我怎樣才能做到這一點?




這將消除一些元素 - 你應該像這樣擴展它,以便支持更廣泛的控制。 有關簡要討論,請看看here

 /// <summary>
 /// Helper methods for UI-related tasks.
 /// </summary>
 public static class UIHelper
 {
   /// <summary>
   /// Finds a parent of a given item on the visual tree.
   /// </summary>
   /// <typeparam name="T">The type of the queried item.</typeparam>
   /// <param name="child">A direct or indirect child of the
   /// queried item.</param>
   /// <returns>The first parent item that matches the submitted
   /// type parameter. If not matching item can be found, a null
   /// reference is being returned.</returns>
   public static T TryFindParent<T>(DependencyObject child)
     where T : DependencyObject
   {
     //get parent item
     DependencyObject parentObject = GetParentObject(child);

     //we've reached the end of the tree
     if (parentObject == null) return null;

     //check if the parent matches the type we're looking for
     T parent = parentObject as T;
     if (parent != null)
     {
       return parent;
     }
     else
     {
       //use recursion to proceed with next level
       return TryFindParent<T>(parentObject);
     }
   }

   /// <summary>
   /// This method is an alternative to WPF's
   /// <see cref="VisualTreeHelper.GetParent"/> method, which also
   /// supports content elements. Do note, that for content element,
   /// this method falls back to the logical tree of the element!
   /// </summary>
   /// <param name="child">The item to be processed.</param>
   /// <returns>The submitted item's parent, if available. Otherwise
   /// null.</returns>
   public static DependencyObject GetParentObject(DependencyObject child)
   {
     if (child == null) return null;
     ContentElement contentElement = child as ContentElement;

     if (contentElement != null)
     {
       DependencyObject parent = ContentOperations.GetParent(contentElement);
       if (parent != null) return parent;

       FrameworkContentElement fce = contentElement as FrameworkContentElement;
       return fce != null ? fce.Parent : null;
     }

     //if it's not a ContentElement, rely on VisualTreeHelper
     return VisualTreeHelper.GetParent(child);
   }
}



這是我的代碼,通過Type來控制我們進入層次結構的深度(maxDepth == 0意味著無限深)。

public static class FrameworkElementExtension
{
    public static object[] FindControls(
        this FrameworkElement f, Type childType, int maxDepth)
    {
        return RecursiveFindControls(f, childType, 1, maxDepth);
    }

    private static object[] RecursiveFindControls(
        object o, Type childType, int depth, int maxDepth = 0)
    {
        List<object> list = new List<object>();
        var attrs = o.GetType()
            .GetCustomAttributes(typeof(ContentPropertyAttribute), true);
        if (attrs != null && attrs.Length > 0)
        {
            string childrenProperty = (attrs[0] as ContentPropertyAttribute).Name;
            foreach (var c in (IEnumerable)o.GetType()
                .GetProperty(childrenProperty).GetValue(o, null))
            {
                if (c.GetType().FullName == childType.FullName)
                    list.Add(c);
                if (maxDepth == 0 || depth < maxDepth)
                    list.AddRange(RecursiveFindControls(
                        c, childType, depth + 1, maxDepth));
            }
        }
        return list.ToArray();
    }
}



要從代碼中查找給定類型的祖先,可以使用:

[CanBeNull]
public static T FindAncestor<T>(DependencyObject d) where T : DependencyObject
{
    while (true)
    {
        d = VisualTreeHelper.GetParent(d);

        if (d == null)
            return null;

        var t = d as T;

        if (t != null)
            return t;
    }
}

該實現使用迭代而不是遞歸,可以稍微快一點。

如果您使用的是C#7,則可以稍微縮短一點:

[CanBeNull]
public static T FindAncestor<T>(DependencyObject d) where T : DependencyObject
{
    while (true)
    {
        d = VisualTreeHelper.GetParent(d);

        if (d == null)
            return null;

        if (d is T t)
            return t;
    }
}



我編輯了CrimsonX的代碼,因為它不適用於超類的類型:

public static T FindChild<T>(DependencyObject depObj, string childName)
   where T : DependencyObject
{
    // Confirm obj is valid. 
    if (depObj == null) return null;

    // success case
    if (depObj is T && ((FrameworkElement)depObj).Name == childName)
        return depObj as T;

    for (int i = 0; i < VisualTreeHelper.GetChildrenCount(depObj); i++)
    {
        DependencyObject child = VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(depObj, i);

        //DFS
        T obj = FindChild<T>(child, childName);

        if (obj != null)
            return obj;
    }

    return null;
}



這是一個使用靈活謂詞的解決方案:

public static DependencyObject FindChild(DependencyObject parent, Func<DependencyObject, bool> predicate)
{
    if (parent == null) return null;

    int childrenCount = VisualTreeHelper.GetChildrenCount(parent);
    for (int i = 0; i < childrenCount; i++)
    {
        var child = VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(parent, i);

        if (predicate(child))
        {
            return child;
        }
        else
        {
            var foundChild = FindChild(child, predicate);
            if (foundChild != null)
                return foundChild;
        }
    }

    return null;
}

你可以舉例如下:

var child = FindChild(parent, child =>
{
    var textBlock = child as TextBlock;
    if (textBlock != null && textBlock.Name == "MyTextBlock")
        return true;
    else
        return false;
}) as TextBlock;



嘗試這個

<TextBlock x:Name="txtblock" FontSize="24" >Hai Welcom to this page
</TextBlock>

代碼在後面

var txtblock = sender as Textblock;
txtblock.Foreground = "Red"



我可能只是重複其他人,但我確實有一段很漂亮的代碼,它用一個方法FindChild()來擴展DependencyObject類,它將按類型和名稱為您提供子代。 只包括和使用。

public static class UIChildFinder
{
    public static DependencyObject FindChild(this DependencyObject reference, string childName, Type childType)
    {
        DependencyObject foundChild = null;
        if (reference != null)
        {
            int childrenCount = VisualTreeHelper.GetChildrenCount(reference);
            for (int i = 0; i < childrenCount; i++)
            {
                var child = VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(reference, i);
                // If the child is not of the request child type child
                if (child.GetType() != childType)
                {
                    // recursively drill down the tree
                    foundChild = FindChild(child, childName, childType);
                }
                else if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(childName))
                {
                    var frameworkElement = child as FrameworkElement;
                    // If the child's name is set for search
                    if (frameworkElement != null && frameworkElement.Name == childName)
                    {
                        // if the child's name is of the request name
                        foundChild = child;
                        break;
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    // child element found.
                    foundChild = child;
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        return foundChild;
    }
}

希望你覺得它有用。




我有這樣的序列函數(這是完全一般的):

    public static IEnumerable<T> SelectAllRecursively<T>(this IEnumerable<T> items, Func<T, IEnumerable<T>> func)
    {
        return (items ?? Enumerable.Empty<T>()).SelectMany(o => new[] { o }.Concat(SelectAllRecursively(func(o), func)));
    }

讓直系孩子:

    public static IEnumerable<DependencyObject> FindChildren(this DependencyObject obj)
    {
        return Enumerable.Range(0, VisualTreeHelper.GetChildrenCount(obj))
            .Select(i => VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(obj, i));
    }

尋找所有的兒童在這個層次樹:

    public static IEnumerable<DependencyObject> FindAllChildren(this DependencyObject obj)
    {
        return obj.FindChildren().SelectAllRecursively(o => o.FindChildren());
    }

你可以在Window上調用它來獲得所有的控件。

收集完成後,您可以使用LINQ(即OfType,Where)。




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