java - Warum wird der Lambda-Rückgabetyp beim Kompilieren nicht überprüft?




generics type-inference (3)

Dies liegt daran, dass Ihr generischer Typparameter R als Objekt abgeleitet werden kann, dh, dass Folgendes kompiliert wird:

Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with((Function<MyInterface, Object>) MyInterface::getLength, "I am NOT an Integer");

Die verwendete Methodenreferenz hat den Rückgabetyp Integer. Im folgenden Beispiel ist jedoch eine inkompatible Zeichenfolge zulässig. Wie kann die "with" -Deklaration der Methode repariert werden, um den Referenztyp der Methode sicher zu erhalten, ohne sie manuell zu konvertieren?

import java.util.function.Function;

public class MinimalExample {
  static public class Builder<T> {
    final Class<T> clazz;

    Builder(Class<T> clazz) {
      this.clazz = clazz;
    }

    static <T> Builder<T> of(Class<T> clazz) {
      return new Builder<T>(clazz);
    }

    <R> Builder<T> with(Function<T, R> getter, R returnValue) {
      return null; //TODO
    }

  }

  static public interface MyInterface {
    Integer getLength();
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) {
// missing compiletimecheck is inaceptable:
    Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(MyInterface::getLength, "I am NOT an Integer");

// compile time error OK: 
    Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with((Function<MyInterface, Integer> )MyInterface::getLength, "I am NOT an Integer");
// The method with(Function<MinimalExample.MyInterface,R>, R) in the type MinimalExample.Builder<MinimalExample.MyInterface> is not applicable for the arguments (Function<MinimalExample.MyInterface,Integer>, String)
  }

}

USE CASE: Ein typsicherer, aber generischer Builder.

Ich habe versucht, einen generischen Builder ohne Annotation Processing (Autovalue) oder Compiler-Plugin (Lombok) zu implementieren.

import java.lang.reflect.Array;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationHandler;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.lang.reflect.Proxy;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicReference;
import java.util.function.Function;

public class BuilderExample {
  static public class Builder<T> implements InvocationHandler {
    final Class<T> clazz;
    HashMap<Method, Object> methodReturnValues = new HashMap<>();

    Builder(Class<T> clazz) {
      this.clazz = clazz;
    }

    static <T> Builder<T> of(Class<T> clazz) {
      return new Builder<T>(clazz);
    }

    Builder<T> withMethod(Method method, Object returnValue) {
      Class<?> returnType = method.getReturnType();
      if (returnType.isPrimitive()) {
        if (returnValue == null) {
          throw new IllegalArgumentException("Primitive value cannot be null:" + method);
        } else {
          try {
            boolean isConvertable = getDefaultValue(returnType).getClass().isAssignableFrom(returnValue.getClass());
            if (!isConvertable) {
              throw new ClassCastException(returnValue.getClass() + " cannot be cast to " + returnType + " for " + method);
            }
          } catch (IllegalArgumentException | SecurityException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
          }
        }
      } else if (returnValue != null && !returnType.isAssignableFrom(returnValue.getClass())) {
        throw new ClassCastException(returnValue.getClass() + " cannot be cast to " + returnType + " for " + method);
      }
      Object previuos = methodReturnValues.put(method, returnValue);
      if (previuos != null) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Value alread set for " + method);
      }
      return this;
    }

    static HashMap<Class, Object> defaultValues = new HashMap<>();

    private static <T> T getDefaultValue(Class<T> clazz) {
      if (clazz == null || !clazz.isPrimitive()) {
        return null;
      }
      @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
      T cachedDefaultValue = (T) defaultValues.get(clazz);
      if (cachedDefaultValue != null) {
        return cachedDefaultValue;
      }
      @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
      T defaultValue = (T) Array.get(Array.newInstance(clazz, 1), 0);
      defaultValues.put(clazz, defaultValue);
      return defaultValue;
    }

    public synchronized static <T> Method getMethod(Class<T> clazz, java.util.function.Function<T, ?> resolve) {
      AtomicReference<Method> methodReference = new AtomicReference<>();
      @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
      T proxy = (T) Proxy.newProxyInstance(clazz.getClassLoader(), new Class[] { clazz }, new InvocationHandler() {

        @Override
        public Object invoke(Object p, Method method, Object[] args) {

          Method oldMethod = methodReference.getAndSet(method);
          if (oldMethod != null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Method was already called " + oldMethod);
          }
          Class<?> returnType = method.getReturnType();
          return getDefaultValue(returnType);
        }
      });

      resolve.apply(proxy);
      Method method = methodReference.get();
      if (method == null) {
        throw new RuntimeException(new NoSuchMethodException());
      }
      return method;
    }

    // R will accep common type Object :-( // see https://stackoverflow.com/questions/58337639
    <R, V extends R> Builder<T> with(Function<T, R> getter, V returnValue) {
      Method method = getMethod(clazz, getter);
      return withMethod(method, returnValue);
    }

    //typesafe :-) but i dont want to avoid implementing all types
    Builder<T> withValue(Function<T, Long> getter, long returnValue) {
      return with(getter, returnValue);
    }

    Builder<T> withValue(Function<T, String> getter, String returnValue) {
      return with(getter, returnValue);
    }

    T build() {
      @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
      T proxy = (T) Proxy.newProxyInstance(clazz.getClassLoader(), new Class[] { clazz }, this);
      return proxy;
    }

    @Override
    public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) {
      Object returnValue = methodReturnValues.get(method);
      if (returnValue == null) {
        Class<?> returnType = method.getReturnType();
        return getDefaultValue(returnType);
      }
      return returnValue;
    }
  }

  static public interface MyInterface {
    String getName();

    long getLength();

    Long getNullLength();

    Long getFullLength();

    Number getNumber();
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    MyInterface x = Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(MyInterface::getName, "1").with(MyInterface::getLength, 1L).with(MyInterface::getNullLength, null).with(MyInterface::getFullLength, new Long(2)).with(MyInterface::getNumber, 3L).build();
    System.out.println("name:" + x.getName());
    System.out.println("length:" + x.getLength());
    System.out.println("nullLength:" + x.getNullLength());
    System.out.println("fullLength:" + x.getFullLength());
    System.out.println("number:" + x.getNumber());

    // java.lang.ClassCastException: class java.lang.String cannot be cast to long:
    // RuntimeException only :-(
    MyInterface y = Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(MyInterface::getLength, "NOT A NUMBER").build();

    // java.lang.ClassCastException: java.lang.String cannot be cast to java.lang.Long
    // RuntimeException only :-(
    System.out.println("length:" + y.getLength());
  }

}

Diese Antwort basiert auf den anderen Antworten, die erklären, warum es nicht wie erwartet funktioniert.

LÖSUNG

Der folgende Code löst das Problem, indem er die Bifunktion "mit" in zwei fließende Funktionen "mit" und "zurück" aufteilt:

class Builder<T> {
...
class BuilderMethod<R> {
  final Function<T, R> getter;

  BuilderMethod(Function<T, R> getter) {
    this.getter = getter;
  }

  Builder<T> returning(R returnValue) {
    return Builder.this.with(getter, returnValue);
  }
}

<R> BuilderMethod<R> with(Function<T, R> getter) {
  return new BuilderMethod<>(getter);
}
...
}

MyInterface z = Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(MyInterface::getLength).returning(1L).with(MyInterface::getNullLength).returning(null).build();
System.out.println("length:" + z.getLength());

// YIPPIE COMPILATION ERRROR:
// The method returning(Long) in the type BuilderExample.Builder<BuilderExample.MyInterface>.BuilderMethod<Long> is not applicable for the arguments (String)
MyInterface zz = Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(MyInterface::getLength).returning("NOT A NUMBER").build();
System.out.println("length:" + zz.getLength());

(ist etwas ungewohnt)


Im ersten Beispiel haben MyInterface::getLength und "I am NOT an Integer" beigetragen, die generischen Parameter T und R in MyInterface und Serializable & Comparable<? extends Serializable & Comparable<?>> MyInterface Serializable & Comparable<? extends Serializable & Comparable<?>> MyInterface Serializable & Comparable<? extends Serializable & Comparable<?>> Serializable & Comparable<? extends Serializable & Comparable<?>> .

// it compiles since String is a Serializable
Function<MyInterface, Serializable> function = MyInterface::getLength;
Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(function, "I am NOT an Integer");

MyInterface::getLength ist nicht immer eine Function<MyInterface, Integer> sei denn, Sie sagen dies ausdrücklich, was zu einem Fehler beim Kompilieren führen würde, wie das zweite Beispiel zeigt.

// it doesn't compile since String isn't an Integer
Function<MyInterface, Integer> function = MyInterface::getLength;
Builder.of(MyInterface.class).with(function, "I am NOT an Integer");




method-reference