sql server steht Tabelle kann nicht abgeschnitten werden, da auf sie von einer FOREIGN KEY-Einschränkung verwiesen wird?




die alter table anweisung steht in konflikt mit der foreign key same table einschränkung (20)

Richtig; Sie können eine Tabelle nicht abschneiden, die eine FK-Einschränkung enthält.

Typischerweise ist mein Prozess dafür:

  1. Löschen Sie die Einschränkungen
  2. Trunk den Tisch
  3. Erstellen Sie die Einschränkungen neu.

(Alles in einer Transaktion, natürlich.)

Dies gilt natürlich nur, wenn das Kind bereits abgeschnitten wurde. Ansonsten gehe ich eine andere Route, abhängig davon, wie meine Daten aussehen. (Zu viele Variablen, um hier hineinzukommen.)

Das Originalposter hat festgestellt, WARUM dies der Fall ist; Weitere Informationen finden Sie in dieser Antwort .

Kann ich mit MSSQL2005 eine Tabelle mit einer Fremdschlüsseleinschränkung abschneiden, wenn ich zuerst die untergeordnete Tabelle (die Tabelle mit dem Primärschlüssel der FK-Beziehung) abschneide?

Ich weiß, dass ich das auch kann

  • Verwenden Sie DELETE ohne where-Klausel und dann RESEED die Identität (oder)
  • Entferne den FK, trenne die Tabelle und erstelle den FK neu.

Ich dachte, solange ich die Kind-Tabelle vor dem Elternteil abgeschnitten habe, wäre ich in Ordnung, ohne eine der obigen Optionen zu tun, aber ich bekomme diesen Fehler:

Tabelle 'TableName' kann nicht abgeschnitten werden, da auf sie von einer FOREIGN KEY-Einschränkung verwiesen wird.


I write the following ways and tried to parameterized them, so you can Run them in a Query document Or Make a useful SP with them easily .

A) Delete

If your table has not millions of records this works good and hasn't any Alter commands :

---------------------------------------------------------------
------------------- Just Fill Parameters Value ----------------
---------------------------------------------------------------
DECLARE @DbName AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'MyDb'         --< Db Name
DECLARE @Schema AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'dbo'          --< Schema
DECLARE @TableName AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'Book'      --< Table Name
------------------ /Just Fill Parameters Value ----------------

DECLARE @Query AS NVARCHAR(500) = 'Delete FROM ' + @TableName

EXECUTE sp_executesql @Query
SET @[email protected]+'.'[email protected]+'.'[email protected]
DBCC CHECKIDENT (@Query,RESEED, 0)
  • In above answer of mine the method of resolve the mentioned problem in the question is based on @s15199d answer .

B) Truncate

If your table has millions of records or you hasn't any problem with Alter command in your codes, then use this one:

--   Book                               Student
--
--   |  BookId  | Field1 |              | StudentId |  BookId  |
--   ---------------------              ------------------------ 
--   |    1     |    A   |              |     2     |    1     |  
--   |    2     |    B   |              |     1     |    1     |
--   |    3     |    C   |              |     2     |    3     |  

---------------------------------------------------------------
------------------- Just Fill Parameters Value ----------------
---------------------------------------------------------------
DECLARE @DbName AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'MyDb'
DECLARE @Schema AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'dbo'
DECLARE @TableName_ToTruncate AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'Book'

DECLARE @TableName_OfOwnerOfConstraint AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'Student' --< Decelations About FK_Book_Constraint
DECLARE @Ref_ColumnName_In_TableName_ToTruncate AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'BookId' --< Decelations About FK_Book_Constraint
DECLARE @FK_ColumnName_In_TableOfOwnerOfConstraint AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'Fk_BookId' --< Decelations About FK_Book_Constraint
DECLARE @FK_ConstraintName AS NVARCHAR(30) = 'FK_Book_Constraint'                --< Decelations About FK_Book_Constraint
------------------ /Just Fill Parameters Value ----------------

DECLARE @Query AS NVARCHAR(2000)

SET @Query= 'ALTER TABLE '[email protected]_OfOwnerOfConstraint+' DROP CONSTRAINT '[email protected]_ConstraintName
EXECUTE sp_executesql @Query

SET @Query= 'Truncate Table '+ @TableName_ToTruncate
EXECUTE sp_executesql @Query

SET @Query= 'ALTER TABLE '[email protected]_OfOwnerOfConstraint+' ADD CONSTRAINT '[email protected]_ConstraintName+' FOREIGN KEY('[email protected]_ColumnName_In_TableOfOwnerOfConstraint+') REFERENCES '[email protected]_ToTruncate+'('[email protected]_ColumnName_In_TableName_ToTruncate+')'
EXECUTE sp_executesql @Query
  • In above answer of mine the method of resolve the mentioned problem in the question is based on @LauroWolffValenteSobrinho answer .

  • If you have more than one CONSTRAINT then you should append its codes like me to the above query

  • Also you can change the above code base @SerjSagan answer to disable an enable the constraint


DELETE FROM TABLENAME
DBCC CHECKIDENT ('DATABASENAME.dbo.TABLENAME',RESEED, 0)

Beachten Sie, dass dies wahrscheinlich nicht das ist, was Sie möchten, wenn Sie Millionen von Datensätzen haben, da es sehr langsam ist.


truncate hat bei mir nicht funktioniert, delete + seed ist der beste Weg raus. Falls es einige von Ihnen gibt, die über eine große Anzahl von Tabellen iterieren müssen, um delete + reseed zu machen, könnten Sie Probleme mit einigen Tabellen bekommen, die keine Identitätsspalte haben. Der folgende Code prüft, ob Identity-Spalte vor dem Versuch existiert neu seeden

    EXEC ('DELETE FROM [schemaName].[tableName]')
    IF EXISTS (Select * from sys.identity_columns where object_name(object_id) = 'tableName')
    BEGIN
        EXEC ('DBCC CHECKIDENT ([schemaName.tableName], RESEED, 0)')
    END

Sie können eine Tabelle nicht abschneiden, wenn Sie die Einschränkungen nicht löschen. Eine Deaktivierung funktioniert auch nicht. Sie müssen alles fallen lassen. Ich habe ein Skript gemacht, das alle Constraints fallen lässt und dann neu erstellt.

Achten Sie darauf, es in eine Transaktion zu verpacken;)

SET NOCOUNT ON
GO

DECLARE @table TABLE(
RowId INT PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY(1, 1),
ForeignKeyConstraintName NVARCHAR(200),
ForeignKeyConstraintTableSchema NVARCHAR(200),
ForeignKeyConstraintTableName NVARCHAR(200),
ForeignKeyConstraintColumnName NVARCHAR(200),
PrimaryKeyConstraintName NVARCHAR(200),
PrimaryKeyConstraintTableSchema NVARCHAR(200),
PrimaryKeyConstraintTableName NVARCHAR(200),
PrimaryKeyConstraintColumnName NVARCHAR(200)
)

INSERT INTO @table(ForeignKeyConstraintName, ForeignKeyConstraintTableSchema, ForeignKeyConstraintTableName, ForeignKeyConstraintColumnName)
SELECT
U.CONSTRAINT_NAME,
U.TABLE_SCHEMA,
U.TABLE_NAME,
U.COLUMN_NAME
FROM
INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE U
INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLE_CONSTRAINTS C
ON U.CONSTRAINT_NAME = C.CONSTRAINT_NAME
WHERE
C.CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'FOREIGN KEY'

UPDATE @table SET
PrimaryKeyConstraintName = UNIQUE_CONSTRAINT_NAME
FROM
@table T
INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS R
ON T.ForeignKeyConstraintName = R.CONSTRAINT_NAME

UPDATE @table SET
PrimaryKeyConstraintTableSchema = TABLE_SCHEMA,
PrimaryKeyConstraintTableName = TABLE_NAME
FROM @table T
INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLE_CONSTRAINTS C
ON T.PrimaryKeyConstraintName = C.CONSTRAINT_NAME

UPDATE @table SET
PrimaryKeyConstraintColumnName = COLUMN_NAME
FROM @table T
INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE U
ON T.PrimaryKeyConstraintName = U.CONSTRAINT_NAME

--DROP CONSTRAINT:

DECLARE @dynSQL varchar(MAX);

DECLARE cur CURSOR FOR
SELECT
'
ALTER TABLE [' + ForeignKeyConstraintTableSchema + '].[' + ForeignKeyConstraintTableName + ']
DROP CONSTRAINT ' + ForeignKeyConstraintName + '
'
FROM
@table

OPEN cur

FETCH cur into @dynSQL
WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0 
BEGIN
    exec(@dynSQL)
    print @dynSQL

    FETCH cur into @dynSQL
END
CLOSE cur
DEALLOCATE cur
---------------------



   --HERE GOES YOUR TRUNCATES!!!!!
   --HERE GOES YOUR TRUNCATES!!!!!
   --HERE GOES YOUR TRUNCATES!!!!!

    truncate table your_table

   --HERE GOES YOUR TRUNCATES!!!!!
   --HERE GOES YOUR TRUNCATES!!!!!
   --HERE GOES YOUR TRUNCATES!!!!!

---------------------
--ADD CONSTRAINT:

DECLARE cur2 CURSOR FOR
SELECT
'
ALTER TABLE [' + ForeignKeyConstraintTableSchema + '].[' + ForeignKeyConstraintTableName + ']
ADD CONSTRAINT ' + ForeignKeyConstraintName + ' FOREIGN KEY(' + ForeignKeyConstraintColumnName + ') REFERENCES [' + PrimaryKeyConstraintTableSchema + '].[' + PrimaryKeyConstraintTableName + '](' + PrimaryKeyConstraintColumnName + ')
'
FROM
@table

OPEN cur2

FETCH cur2 into @dynSQL
WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0 
BEGIN
    exec(@dynSQL)

    print @dynSQL

    FETCH cur2 into @dynSQL
END
CLOSE cur2
DEALLOCATE cur2

If none of these answers worked like in my case do this:

  1. Drop constraints
  2. Set all values to allow nulls
  3. Truncate table
  4. Add constraints that were dropped.

Viel Glück!


SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS = 0;

Tabelle abschneiden "tableName";

SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS = 1;


Hier ist ein Skript, das ich geschrieben habe, um den Prozess zu automatisieren. Ich hoffe, es hilft.

SET NOCOUNT ON

-- GLOBAL VARIABLES
DECLARE @i int
DECLARE @Debug bit
DECLARE @Recycle bit
DECLARE @Verbose bit
DECLARE @TableName varchar(80)
DECLARE @ColumnName varchar(80)
DECLARE @ReferencedTableName varchar(80)
DECLARE @ReferencedColumnName varchar(80)
DECLARE @ConstraintName varchar(250)

DECLARE @CreateStatement varchar(max)
DECLARE @DropStatement varchar(max)   
DECLARE @TruncateStatement varchar(max)
DECLARE @CreateStatementTemp varchar(max)
DECLARE @DropStatementTemp varchar(max)
DECLARE @TruncateStatementTemp varchar(max)
DECLARE @Statement varchar(max)

        -- 1 = Will not execute statements 
 SET @Debug = 0
        -- 0 = Will not create or truncate storage table
        -- 1 = Will create or truncate storage table
 SET @Recycle = 0
        -- 1 = Will print a message on every step
 set @Verbose = 1

 SET @i = 1
    SET @CreateStatement = 'ALTER TABLE [dbo].[<tablename>]  WITH NOCHECK ADD  CONSTRAINT [<constraintname>] FOREIGN KEY([<column>]) REFERENCES [dbo].[<reftable>] ([<refcolumn>])'
    SET @DropStatement = 'ALTER TABLE [dbo].[<tablename>] DROP CONSTRAINT [<constraintname>]'
    SET @TruncateStatement = 'TRUNCATE TABLE [<tablename>]'

-- Drop Temporary tables
DROP TABLE #FKs

-- GET FKs
SELECT ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id), clm1.name) as ID,
       OBJECT_NAME(constraint_object_id) as ConstraintName,
       OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id) as TableName,
       clm1.name as ColumnName, 
       OBJECT_NAME(referenced_object_id) as ReferencedTableName,
       clm2.name as ReferencedColumnName
  INTO #FKs
  FROM sys.foreign_key_columns fk
       JOIN sys.columns clm1 
         ON fk.parent_column_id = clm1.column_id 
            AND fk.parent_object_id = clm1.object_id
       JOIN sys.columns clm2
         ON fk.referenced_column_id = clm2.column_id 
            AND fk.referenced_object_id= clm2.object_id
 WHERE OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id) not in ('//tables that you do not wont to be truncated')
 ORDER BY OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id)


-- Prepare Storage Table
IF Not EXISTS(SELECT 1 FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'Internal_FK_Definition_Storage')
   BEGIN
        IF @Verbose = 1
     PRINT '1. Creating Process Specific Tables...'

  -- CREATE STORAGE TABLE IF IT DOES NOT EXISTS
  CREATE TABLE [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] 
  (
   ID int not null identity(1,1) primary key,
   FK_Name varchar(250) not null,
   FK_CreationStatement varchar(max) not null,
   FK_DestructionStatement varchar(max) not null,
   Table_TruncationStatement varchar(max) not null
  ) 
   END 
ELSE
   BEGIN
        IF @Recycle = 0
            BEGIN
                IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '1. Truncating Process Specific Tables...'

    -- TRUNCATE TABLE IF IT ALREADY EXISTS
    TRUNCATE TABLE [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]    
      END
      ELSE
         PRINT '1. Process specific table will be recycled from previous execution...'
   END

IF @Recycle = 0
   BEGIN

  IF @Verbose = 1
     PRINT '2. Backing up Foreign Key Definitions...'

  -- Fetch and persist FKs             
  WHILE (@i <= (SELECT MAX(ID) FROM #FKs))
   BEGIN
    SET @ConstraintName = (SELECT ConstraintName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @TableName = (SELECT TableName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @ColumnName = (SELECT ColumnName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @ReferencedTableName = (SELECT ReferencedTableName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @ReferencedColumnName = (SELECT ReferencedColumnName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)

    SET @DropStatementTemp = REPLACE(REPLACE(@DropStatement,'<tablename>',@TableName),'<constraintname>',@ConstraintName)
    SET @CreateStatementTemp = REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(@CreateStatement,'<tablename>',@TableName),'<column>',@ColumnName),'<constraintname>',@ConstraintName),'<reftable>',@ReferencedTableName),'<refcolumn>',@ReferencedColumnName)
    SET @TruncateStatementTemp = REPLACE(@TruncateStatement,'<tablename>',@TableName) 

    INSERT INTO [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]
                        SELECT @ConstraintName, @CreateStatementTemp, @DropStatementTemp, @TruncateStatementTemp

    SET @i = @i + 1

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '  > Backing up [' + @ConstraintName + '] from [' + @TableName + ']'

   END
    END   
    ELSE 
       PRINT '2. Backup up was recycled from previous execution...'

       IF @Verbose = 1
     PRINT '3. Dropping Foreign Keys...'

    -- DROP FOREING KEYS
    SET @i = 1
    WHILE (@i <= (SELECT MAX(ID) FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]))
          BEGIN
             SET @ConstraintName = (SELECT FK_Name FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @Statement = (SELECT FK_DestructionStatement FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WITH (NOLOCK) WHERE ID = @i)

    IF @Debug = 1 
       PRINT @Statement
    ELSE
       EXEC(@Statement)

    SET @i = @i + 1

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '  > Dropping [' + @ConstraintName + ']'
             END     

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '4. Truncating Tables...'

    -- TRUNCATE TABLES
    SET @i = 1
    WHILE (@i <= (SELECT MAX(ID) FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]))
          BEGIN
    SET @Statement = (SELECT Table_TruncationStatement FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WHERE ID = @i)

    IF @Debug = 1 
       PRINT @Statement
    ELSE
       EXEC(@Statement)

    SET @i = @i + 1

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '  > ' + @Statement
          END

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '5. Re-creating Foreign Keys...'

    -- CREATE FOREING KEYS
    SET @i = 1
    WHILE (@i <= (SELECT MAX(ID) FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]))
          BEGIN
             SET @ConstraintName = (SELECT FK_Name FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @Statement = (SELECT FK_CreationStatement FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WHERE ID = @i)

    IF @Debug = 1 
       PRINT @Statement
    ELSE
       EXEC(@Statement)

    SET @i = @i + 1

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '  > Re-creating [' + @ConstraintName + ']'
          END

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '6. Process Completed'

An anderer Stelle im Internet gefunden

EXEC sp_MSForEachTable 'ALTER TABLE ? NOCHECK CONSTRAINT ALL'
EXEC sp_MSForEachTable 'ALTER TABLE ? DISABLE TRIGGER ALL'
-- EXEC sp_MSForEachTable 'DELETE FROM ?' -- Uncomment to execute
EXEC sp_MSForEachTable 'ALTER TABLE ? CHECK CONSTRAINT ALL'
EXEC sp_MSForEachTable 'ALTER TABLE ? ENABLE TRIGGER ALL'

I have just found that you can use TRUNCATE table on a parent table with foreign key constraints on a child as long as you DISABLE the constraints on the child table first. Z.B

Foreign key CONSTRAINT child_par_ref on child table, references PARENT_TABLE

ALTER TABLE CHILD_TABLE DISABLE CONSTRAINT child_par_ref;
TRUNCATE TABLE CHILD_TABLE;
TRUNCATE TABLE PARENT_TABLE;
ALTER TABLE CHILD_TABLE ENABLE CONSTRAINT child_par_ref;

Es ist meine Lösung dieses Problems. Ich habe es benutzt, um PK zu verändern, aber die Idee ist dasselbe. Hoffe, das wird nützlich sein)

PRINT 'Script starts'

DECLARE @foreign_key_name varchar(255)
DECLARE @keycnt int
DECLARE @foreign_table varchar(255)
DECLARE @foreign_column_1 varchar(255)
DECLARE @foreign_column_2 varchar(255)
DECLARE @primary_table varchar(255)
DECLARE @primary_column_1 varchar(255)
DECLARE @primary_column_2 varchar(255)
DECLARE @TablN varchar(255)

-->> Type the primary table name
SET @TablN = ''
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    ------------------------------
--Here will be created the temporary table with all reference FKs
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRINT 'Creating the temporary table'
select cast(f.name  as varchar(255)) as foreign_key_name
    , r.keycnt
    , cast(c.name as  varchar(255)) as foreign_table
    , cast(fc.name as varchar(255)) as  foreign_column_1
    , cast(fc2.name as varchar(255)) as foreign_column_2
    , cast(p.name as varchar(255)) as primary_table
    , cast(rc.name as varchar(255))  as primary_column_1
    , cast(rc2.name as varchar(255)) as  primary_column_2
    into #ConTab
    from sysobjects f
    inner join sysobjects c on  f.parent_obj = c.id 
    inner join sysreferences r on f.id =  r.constid
    inner join sysobjects p on r.rkeyid = p.id
    inner  join syscolumns rc on r.rkeyid = rc.id and r.rkey1 = rc.colid
    inner  join syscolumns fc on r.fkeyid = fc.id and r.fkey1 = fc.colid
    left join  syscolumns rc2 on r.rkeyid = rc2.id and r.rkey2 = rc.colid
    left join  syscolumns fc2 on r.fkeyid = fc2.id and r.fkey2 = fc.colid
    where f.type =  'F' and p.name = @TablN
 ORDER BY cast(p.name as varchar(255))
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Cursor, below, will drop all reference FKs
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DECLARE @CURSOR CURSOR
/*Fill in cursor*/

PRINT 'Cursor 1 starting. All refernce FK will be droped'

SET @CURSOR  = CURSOR SCROLL
FOR
select foreign_key_name
    , keycnt
    , foreign_table
    , foreign_column_1
    , foreign_column_2
    , primary_table
    , primary_column_1
    , primary_column_2
    from #ConTab

OPEN @CURSOR

FETCH NEXT FROM @CURSOR INTO @foreign_key_name, @keycnt, @foreign_table,         @foreign_column_1, @foreign_column_2, 
                        @primary_table, @primary_column_1, @primary_column_2

WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN

    EXEC ('ALTER TABLE ['[email protected]_table+'] DROP CONSTRAINT ['[email protected]_key_name+']')

FETCH NEXT FROM @CURSOR INTO @foreign_key_name, @keycnt, @foreign_table, @foreign_column_1, @foreign_column_2, 
                         @primary_table, @primary_column_1, @primary_column_2
END
CLOSE @CURSOR
PRINT 'Cursor 1 finished work'
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Here you should provide the chainging script for the primary table
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PRINT 'Altering primary table begin'

TRUNCATE TABLE table_name

PRINT 'Altering finished'

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Cursor, below, will add again all reference FKs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PRINT 'Cursor 2 starting. All refernce FK will added'
SET @CURSOR  = CURSOR SCROLL
FOR
select foreign_key_name
    , keycnt
    , foreign_table
    , foreign_column_1
    , foreign_column_2
    , primary_table
    , primary_column_1
    , primary_column_2
    from #ConTab

OPEN @CURSOR

FETCH NEXT FROM @CURSOR INTO @foreign_key_name, @keycnt, @foreign_table, @foreign_column_1, @foreign_column_2, 
                         @primary_table, @primary_column_1, @primary_column_2

WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN

    EXEC ('ALTER TABLE [' [email protected]_table+ '] WITH NOCHECK ADD  CONSTRAINT [' [email protected]_key_name+ '] FOREIGN KEY(['[email protected]_column_1+'])
        REFERENCES [' [email protected]_table+'] (['[email protected]_column_1+'])')

    EXEC ('ALTER TABLE [' [email protected]_table+ '] CHECK CONSTRAINT [' [email protected]_key_name+']')

FETCH NEXT FROM @CURSOR INTO @foreign_key_name, @keycnt, @foreign_table, @foreign_column_1, @foreign_column_2, 
                         @primary_table, @primary_column_1, @primary_column_2
END
CLOSE @CURSOR
PRINT 'Cursor 2 finished work'
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRINT 'Temporary table droping'
drop table #ConTab
PRINT 'Finish'

Die obige Lösung @denver_citizen funktionierte nicht für mich, aber ich mochte den Geist davon, also änderte ich ein paar Dinge:

  • machte es zu einer gespeicherten Prozedur
  • hat die Art und Weise geändert, wie die Fremdschlüssel ausgefüllt und neu erstellt werden
  • Das ursprüngliche Skript schneidet alle referenzierten Tabellen ab. Dies kann einen Fremdschlüsselverletzungsfehler verursachen, wenn die referenzierte Tabelle andere Fremdschlüsselverweise enthält. Dieses Skript schneidet nur die als Parameter angegebene Tabelle ab. Es liegt in der Verantwortung des Benutzers, diese gespeicherte Prozedur mehrfach in der richtigen Reihenfolge für alle Tabellen aufzurufen

Zum Vorteil der Öffentlichkeit hier ist das aktualisierte Skript:

CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[truncate_non_empty_table]

  @TableToTruncate                 VARCHAR(64)

AS 

BEGIN

SET NOCOUNT ON

-- GLOBAL VARIABLES
DECLARE @i int
DECLARE @Debug bit
DECLARE @Recycle bit
DECLARE @Verbose bit
DECLARE @TableName varchar(80)
DECLARE @ColumnName varchar(80)
DECLARE @ReferencedTableName varchar(80)
DECLARE @ReferencedColumnName varchar(80)
DECLARE @ConstraintName varchar(250)

DECLARE @CreateStatement varchar(max)
DECLARE @DropStatement varchar(max)   
DECLARE @TruncateStatement varchar(max)
DECLARE @CreateStatementTemp varchar(max)
DECLARE @DropStatementTemp varchar(max)
DECLARE @TruncateStatementTemp varchar(max)
DECLARE @Statement varchar(max)

        -- 1 = Will not execute statements 
 SET @Debug = 0
        -- 0 = Will not create or truncate storage table
        -- 1 = Will create or truncate storage table
 SET @Recycle = 0
        -- 1 = Will print a message on every step
 set @Verbose = 1

 SET @i = 1
    SET @CreateStatement = 'ALTER TABLE [dbo].[<tablename>]  WITH NOCHECK ADD  CONSTRAINT [<constraintname>] FOREIGN KEY([<column>]) REFERENCES [dbo].[<reftable>] ([<refcolumn>])'
    SET @DropStatement = 'ALTER TABLE [dbo].[<tablename>] DROP CONSTRAINT [<constraintname>]'
    SET @TruncateStatement = 'TRUNCATE TABLE [<tablename>]'

-- Drop Temporary tables

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#FKs') IS NOT NULL
    DROP TABLE #FKs

-- GET FKs
SELECT ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id), clm1.name) as ID,
       OBJECT_NAME(constraint_object_id) as ConstraintName,
       OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id) as TableName,
       clm1.name as ColumnName, 
       OBJECT_NAME(referenced_object_id) as ReferencedTableName,
       clm2.name as ReferencedColumnName
  INTO #FKs
  FROM sys.foreign_key_columns fk
       JOIN sys.columns clm1 
         ON fk.parent_column_id = clm1.column_id 
            AND fk.parent_object_id = clm1.object_id
       JOIN sys.columns clm2
         ON fk.referenced_column_id = clm2.column_id 
            AND fk.referenced_object_id= clm2.object_id
 --WHERE OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id) not in ('//tables that you do not wont to be truncated')
 WHERE OBJECT_NAME(referenced_object_id) = @TableToTruncate
 ORDER BY OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id)


-- Prepare Storage Table
IF Not EXISTS(SELECT 1 FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'Internal_FK_Definition_Storage')
   BEGIN
        IF @Verbose = 1
     PRINT '1. Creating Process Specific Tables...'

  -- CREATE STORAGE TABLE IF IT DOES NOT EXISTS
  CREATE TABLE [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] 
  (
   ID int not null identity(1,1) primary key,
   FK_Name varchar(250) not null,
   FK_CreationStatement varchar(max) not null,
   FK_DestructionStatement varchar(max) not null,
   Table_TruncationStatement varchar(max) not null
  ) 
   END 
ELSE
   BEGIN
        IF @Recycle = 0
            BEGIN
                IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '1. Truncating Process Specific Tables...'

    -- TRUNCATE TABLE IF IT ALREADY EXISTS
    TRUNCATE TABLE [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]    
      END
      ELSE
         PRINT '1. Process specific table will be recycled from previous execution...'
   END


IF @Recycle = 0
   BEGIN

  IF @Verbose = 1
     PRINT '2. Backing up Foreign Key Definitions...'

  -- Fetch and persist FKs             
  WHILE (@i <= (SELECT MAX(ID) FROM #FKs))
   BEGIN
    SET @ConstraintName = (SELECT ConstraintName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @TableName = (SELECT TableName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @ColumnName = (SELECT ColumnName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @ReferencedTableName = (SELECT ReferencedTableName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @ReferencedColumnName = (SELECT ReferencedColumnName FROM #FKs WHERE ID = @i)

    SET @DropStatementTemp = REPLACE(REPLACE(@DropStatement,'<tablename>',@TableName),'<constraintname>',@ConstraintName)
    SET @CreateStatementTemp = REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(@CreateStatement,'<tablename>',@TableName),'<column>',@ColumnName),'<constraintname>',@ConstraintName),'<reftable>',@ReferencedTableName),'<refcolumn>',@ReferencedColumnName)
    SET @TruncateStatementTemp = REPLACE(@TruncateStatement,'<tablename>',@TableName) 

    INSERT INTO [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]
                        SELECT @ConstraintName, @CreateStatementTemp, @DropStatementTemp, @TruncateStatementTemp

    SET @i = @i + 1

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '  > Backing up [' + @ConstraintName + '] from [' + @TableName + ']'

    END   
    END   
    ELSE 
       PRINT '2. Backup up was recycled from previous execution...'

       IF @Verbose = 1
     PRINT '3. Dropping Foreign Keys...'

    -- DROP FOREING KEYS
    SET @i = 1
    WHILE (@i <= (SELECT MAX(ID) FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]))
          BEGIN
             SET @ConstraintName = (SELECT FK_Name FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @Statement = (SELECT FK_DestructionStatement FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WITH (NOLOCK) WHERE ID = @i)

    IF @Debug = 1 
       PRINT @Statement
    ELSE
       EXEC(@Statement)

    SET @i = @i + 1


    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '  > Dropping [' + @ConstraintName + ']'

             END     


    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '4. Truncating Tables...'

    -- TRUNCATE TABLES
-- SzP: commented out as the tables to be truncated might also contain tables that has foreign keys
-- to resolve this the stored procedure should be called recursively, but I dont have the time to do it...          
 /*
    SET @i = 1
    WHILE (@i <= (SELECT MAX(ID) FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]))
          BEGIN

    SET @Statement = (SELECT Table_TruncationStatement FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WHERE ID = @i)

    IF @Debug = 1 
       PRINT @Statement
    ELSE
       EXEC(@Statement)

    SET @i = @i + 1

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '  > ' + @Statement
          END
*/          


    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '  > TRUNCATE TABLE [' + @TableToTruncate + ']'

    IF @Debug = 1 
        PRINT 'TRUNCATE TABLE [' + @TableToTruncate + ']'
    ELSE
        EXEC('TRUNCATE TABLE [' + @TableToTruncate + ']')


    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '5. Re-creating Foreign Keys...'

    -- CREATE FOREING KEYS
    SET @i = 1
    WHILE (@i <= (SELECT MAX(ID) FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage]))
          BEGIN
             SET @ConstraintName = (SELECT FK_Name FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WHERE ID = @i)
    SET @Statement = (SELECT FK_CreationStatement FROM [Internal_FK_Definition_Storage] WHERE ID = @i)

    IF @Debug = 1 
       PRINT @Statement
    ELSE
       EXEC(@Statement)

    SET @i = @i + 1


    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '  > Re-creating [' + @ConstraintName + ']'

          END

    IF @Verbose = 1
       PRINT '6. Process Completed'


END

Wenn ich es richtig verstehe, möchte ich eine saubere Umgebung für die DB mit Integrationstests einrichten.

Mein Ansatz hier wäre, das gesamte Schema zu löschen und später neu zu erstellen.

Gründe dafür:

  1. Sie haben wahrscheinlich bereits ein "create schema" -Skript. Die Wiederverwendung für die Testisolierung ist einfach.
  2. Das Erstellen eines Schemas ist ziemlich schnell.
  3. Mit diesem Ansatz ist es ziemlich einfach, Ihr Skript so einzurichten, dass jedes Gerät ein NEUES Schema (mit einem temporären Namen) erstellt, und dann können Sie test-fixtures parallel ausführen, wodurch der langsamste Teil Ihrer Testsuite viel schneller wird .

For MS SQL , at least the newer versions, you can just disable the constrains with code like this:

ALTER TABLE Orders
NOCHECK CONSTRAINT [FK_dbo.Orders_dbo.Customers_Customer_Id]
GO

TRUNCATE TABLE Customers
GO

ALTER TABLE Orders
WITH CHECK CHECK CONSTRAINT [FK_dbo.Orders_dbo.Customers_Customer_Id]
GO

Ohne ALTER TABLE

-- Delete all records
DELETE FROM [TableName]
-- Set current ID to "1"
-- If table already contains data, use "0"
-- If table is empty and never insert data, use "1"
-- Use SP https://github.com/reduardo7/TableTruncate
DBCC CHECKIDENT ([TableName], RESEED, [0|1])

Als gespeicherte Prozedur

https://github.com/reduardo7/TableTruncate

Beachten Sie, dass dies wahrscheinlich nicht das ist, was Sie möchten, wenn Sie Millionen von Datensätzen haben, da es sehr langsam ist.


Nun, da ich keine Beispiele für die sehr einfache Lösung fand, die ich verwendet habe, nämlich:

  1. Drop Fremdschlüssel;
  2. Tabelle abschneiden
  3. Erstelle den Fremdschlüssel neu

Hier kommt's:

1) Finden Sie den Namen des Fremdschlüssels, der den Fehler verursacht (zB: FK_PROBLEM_REASON, mit Feld- ID , aus der Tabelle TABLE_OWNING_CONSTRAINT ) 2) Entfernen Sie diesen Schlüssel aus der Tabelle:

ALTER TABLE TABLE_OWNING_CONSTRAINT DROP CONSTRAINT FK_PROBLEM_REASON

3) Kürzen Sie die gewünschte Tabelle

TRUNCATE TABLE TABLE_TO_TRUNCATE

4) Fügen Sie den Schlüssel zu dieser ersten Tabelle hinzu:

ALTER TABLE TABLE_OWNING_CONSTRAINT ADD CONSTRAINT FK_PROBLEM_REASON FOREIGN KEY(ID) REFERENCES TABLE_TO_TRUNCATE (ID)

Das ist es.


Das Folgende funktioniert für mich auch mit FK-Einschränkungen und kombiniert die folgenden Antworten, um nur die angegebenen Tabellen zu löschen :

  • Automatischer Rollback der Transaktion
  • Durch die kommagetrennte Liste blättern
  • Dynamisches SQL ausführen (mit Tabellennamen aus Variable)
  • share (in diesem Thread)
USE [YourDB];

DECLARE @TransactionName varchar(20) = 'stopdropandroll';

BEGIN TRAN @TransactionName;
set xact_abort on; /* automatic rollback https://.com/a/1749788/1037948 */
    -- ===== DO WORK // =====

    -- dynamic sql placeholder
    DECLARE @SQL varchar(300);

    -- LOOP: https://.com/a/10031803/1037948
    -- list of things to loop
    DECLARE @delim char = ';';
    DECLARE @foreach varchar(MAX) = 'Table;Names;Separated;By;Delimiter' + @delim + 'AnotherName' + @delim + 'Still Another';
    DECLARE @token varchar(MAX);
    WHILE len(@foreach) > 0
    BEGIN
        -- set current loop token
        SET @token = left(@foreach, charindex(@delim, @[email protected])-1)
        -- ======= DO WORK // ===========

        -- dynamic sql (parentheses are required): https://.com/a/989111/1037948
        SET @SQL = 'DELETE FROM [' + @token + ']; DBCC CHECKIDENT (''' + @token + ''',RESEED, 0);'; -- https://.com/a/11784890
        PRINT @SQL;
        EXEC (@SQL);

        -- ======= // END WORK ===========
        -- continue loop, chopping off token
        SET @foreach = stuff(@foreach, 1, charindex(@delim, @[email protected]), '')
    END

    -- ===== // END WORK =====
-- review and commit
SELECT @@TRANCOUNT as TransactionsPerformed, @@ROWCOUNT as LastRowsChanged;
COMMIT TRAN @TransactionName;

Hinweis:

Ich denke, es hilft immer noch, die Tabellen in der Reihenfolge zu deklarieren, in der sie gelöscht werden sollen (dh zuerst Abhängigkeiten killen). Wie in dieser Antwort gezeigt , können Sie anstelle von spezifischen Namen alle Tabellen durch ersetzen

EXEC sp_MSForEachTable 'DELETE FROM ?; DBCC CHECKIDENT (''?'',RESEED, 0);';

Da TRUNCATE TABLE ein DDL-Befehl ist , kann er nicht überprüfen, ob die Datensätze in der Tabelle von einem Datensatz in der TRUNCATE TABLE Tabelle referenziert werden.

Dies ist der Grund, warum DELETE funktioniert und TRUNCATE TABLE nicht: weil die Datenbank sicherstellen kann, dass sie nicht von einem anderen Datensatz referenziert wird.


The easiest way:
1 - Enter in phpmyadmin
2 - Click on table name in left column
3 - Click in Operation (top menu)
4 - Click "Empty the table (TRUNCATE)
5 - Disable box "Enable foreign key checks"
6 - Done!

Link to image tutorial
Tutorial: http://www.imageno.com/wz6gv1wuqajrpic.html
(sorry, I don't have enough reputation to upload images here :P)








foreign-keys