switch PHP und Aufzählungen




symfony enum (24)

Ich weiß, dass PHP keine nativen Enumerations hat. Aber ich habe mich aus der Java-Welt an sie gewöhnt. Ich würde gerne Enums verwenden, um vordefinierte Werte zu geben, die die Autovervollständigungsfunktionen von IDEs verstehen könnten.

Konstanten machen den Trick, aber da ist das Namespace-Kollisionsproblem und (oder eigentlich, weil ) sie global sind. Arrays haben kein Namespace-Problem, aber sie sind zu vage, sie können zur Laufzeit überschrieben werden, und IDEs wissen selten (nie?), Wie sie ihre Schlüssel automatisch füllen können.

Gibt es Lösungen / Workarounds, die Sie häufig verwenden? Erinnert sich jemand daran, dass die PHP-Leute irgendwelche Gedanken oder Entscheidungen um enums herum hatten?


Die gängigste Lösung, die ich in PHP gesehen habe, war, eine generische Enum-Klasse zu erstellen und sie dann zu erweitern. Vielleicht sehen Sie sich das an.

UPDATE: Alternativ habe ich this von phpclasses.org gefunden.


I made a library based on Brian Cline's answer, it is named greg0ire/enum Enjoy!


I realize this is a very-very-very old thread but I had a thought about this and wanted to know what people thought.

Notes: I was playing around with this and realized that if I just modified the __call() function that you can get even closer to actual enums . The __call() function handles all unknown function calls. So let's say you wan to make three enums RED_LIGHT, YELLOW_LIGHT, and GREEN_LIGHT. You can do so now by just doing the following:

$c->RED_LIGHT();
$c->YELLOW_LIGHT();
$c->GREEN_LIGHT();

Once defined all you have to do is to call them again to get the values:

echo $c->RED_LIGHT();
echo $c->YELLOW_LIGHT();
echo $c->GREEN_LIGHT();

and you should get 0, 1, and 2. Have fun! This is also now up on GitHub.

Update: I've made it so both the __get() and __set() functions are now used. These allow you to not have to call a function unless you want to. Instead, now you can just say:

$c->RED_LIGHT;
$c->YELLOW_LIGHT;
$c->GREEN_LIGHT;

For both the creation and getting of the values. Because the variables haven't been defined initially, the __get() function is called (because there isn't a value specified) which sees that the entry in the array hasn't been made. So it makes the entry, assigns it the last value given plus one(+1), increments the last value variable, and returns TRUE. If you set the value:

$c->RED_LIGHT = 85;

Then the __set() function is called and the last value is then set to the new value plus one (+1). So now we have a fairly good way to do enums and they can be created on the fly.

<?php
################################################################################
#   Class ENUMS
#
#       Original code by Mark Manning.
#       Copyrighted (c) 2015 by Mark Manning.
#       All rights reserved.
#
#       This set of code is hereby placed into the free software universe
#       via the GNU greater license thus placing it under the Copyleft
#       rules and regulations with the following modifications:
#
#       1. You may use this work in any other work.  Commercial or otherwise.
#       2. You may make as much money as you can with it.
#       3. You owe me nothing except to give me a small blurb somewhere in
#           your program or maybe have pity on me and donate a dollar to
#           [email protected]  :-)
#
#   Blurb:
#
#       PHP Class Enums by Mark Manning (markem-AT-sim1-DOT-us).
#       Used with permission.
#
#   Notes:
#
#       VIM formatting.  Set tabs to four(4) spaces.
#
################################################################################
class enums
{
    private $enums;
    private $clear_flag;
    private $last_value;

################################################################################
#   __construct(). Construction function.  Optionally pass in your enums.
################################################################################
function __construct()
{
    $this->enums = array();
    $this->clear_flag = false;
    $this->last_value = 0;

    if( func_num_args() > 0 ){
        return $this->put( func_get_args() );
        }

    return true;
}
################################################################################
#   put(). Insert one or more enums.
################################################################################
function put()
{
    $args = func_get_args();
#
#   Did they send us an array of enums?
#   Ex: $c->put( array( "a"=>0, "b"=>1,...) );
#   OR  $c->put( array( "a", "b", "c",... ) );
#
    if( is_array($args[0]) ){
#
#   Add them all in
#
        foreach( $args[0] as $k=>$v ){
#
#   Don't let them change it once it is set.
#   Remove the IF statement if you want to be able to modify the enums.
#
            if( !isset($this->enums[$k]) ){
#
#   If they sent an array of enums like this: "a","b","c",... then we have to
#   change that to be "A"=>#. Where "#" is the current count of the enums.
#
                if( is_numeric($k) ){
                    $this->enums[$v] = $this->last_value++;
                    }
#
#   Else - they sent "a"=>"A", "b"=>"B", "c"=>"C"...
#
                    else {
                        $this->last_value = $v + 1;
                        $this->enums[$k] = $v;
                        }
                }
            }
        }
#
#   Nope!  Did they just sent us one enum?
#
        else {
#
#   Is this just a default declaration?
#   Ex: $c->put( "a" );
#
            if( count($args) < 2 ){
#
#   Again - remove the IF statement if you want to be able to change the enums.
#
                if( !isset($this->enums[$args[0]]) ){
                    $this->enums[$args[0]] = $this->last_value++;
                    }
#
#   No - they sent us a regular enum
#   Ex: $c->put( "a", "This is the first enum" );
#
                    else {
#
#   Again - remove the IF statement if you want to be able to change the enums.
#
                        if( !isset($this->enums[$args[0]]) ){
                            $this->last_value = $args[1] + 1;
                            $this->enums[$args[0]] = $args[1];
                            }
                        }
                }
            }

    return true;
}
################################################################################
#   get(). Get one or more enums.
################################################################################
function get()
{
    $num = func_num_args();
    $args = func_get_args();
#
#   Is this an array of enums request? (ie: $c->get(array("a","b","c"...)) )
#
    if( is_array($args[0]) ){
        $ary = array();
        foreach( $args[0] as $k=>$v ){
            $ary[$v] = $this->enums[$v];
            }

        return $ary;
        }
#
#   Is it just ONE enum they want? (ie: $c->get("a") )
#
        else if( ($num > 0) && ($num < 2) ){
            return $this->enums[$args[0]];
            }
#
#   Is it a list of enums they want? (ie: $c->get( "a", "b", "c"...) )
#
        else if( $num > 1 ){
            $ary = array();
            foreach( $args as $k=>$v ){
                $ary[$v] = $this->enums[$v];
                }

            return $ary;
            }
#
#   They either sent something funky or nothing at all.
#
    return false;
}
################################################################################
#   clear(). Clear out the enum array.
#       Optional.  Set the flag in the __construct function.
#       After all, ENUMS are supposed to be constant.
################################################################################
function clear()
{
    if( $clear_flag ){
        unset( $this->enums );
        $this->enums = array();
        }

    return true;
}
################################################################################
#   __call().  In case someone tries to blow up the class.
################################################################################
function __call( $name, $arguments )
{
    if( isset($this->enums[$name]) ){ return $this->enums[$name]; }
        else if( !isset($this->enums[$name]) && (count($arguments) > 0) ){
            $this->last_value = $arguments[0] + 1;
            $this->enums[$name] = $arguments[0];
            return true;
            }
        else if( !isset($this->enums[$name]) && (count($arguments) < 1) ){
            $this->enums[$name] = $this->last_value++;
            return true;
            }

    return false;
}
################################################################################
#   __get(). Gets the value.
################################################################################
function __get($name)
{
    if( isset($this->enums[$name]) ){ return $this->enums[$name]; }
        else if( !isset($this->enums[$name]) ){
            $this->enums[$name] = $this->last_value++;
            return true;
            }

    return false;
}
################################################################################
#   __set().  Sets the value.
################################################################################
function __set( $name, $value=null )
{
    if( isset($this->enums[$name]) ){ return false; }
        else if( !isset($this->enums[$name]) && !is_null($value) ){
            $this->last_value = $value + 1;
            $this->enums[$name] = $value;
            return true;
            }
        else if( !isset($this->enums[$name]) && is_null($value) ){
            $this->enums[$name] = $this->last_value++;
            return true;
            }

    return false;
}
################################################################################
#   __destruct().  Deconstruct the class.  Remove the list of enums.
################################################################################
function __destruct()
{
    unset( $this->enums );
    $this->enums = null;

    return true;
}

}
#
#   Test code
#
#   $c = new enums();
#   $c->RED_LIGHT(85);
#   $c->YELLOW_LIGHT = 23;
#   $c->GREEN_LIGHT;
#
#   echo $c->RED_LIGHT . "\n";
#   echo $c->YELLOW_LIGHT . "\n";
#   echo $c->GREEN_LIGHT . "\n";

?>

Ich benutze interface statt class :

interface DaysOfWeek
{
    const Sunday = 0;
    const Monday = 1;
    // etc.
}

var $today = DaysOfWeek::Sunday;

Some good solutions on here!

Here's my version.

  • It's strongly typed
  • It works with IDE auto-completion
  • Enums are defined by a code and a description, where the code can be an integer, a binary value, a short string, or basically anything else you want. The pattern could easily be extended to support orther properties.
  • It asupports value (==) and reference (===) comparisons and works in switch statements.

I think the main disadvantage is that enum members do have to be separately declared and instantiated, due to the descriptions and PHP's inability to construct objects at static member declaration time. I guess a way round this might be to use reflection with parsed doc comments instead.

The abstract enum looks like this:

<?php

abstract class AbstractEnum
{
    /** @var array cache of all enum instances by class name and integer value */
    private static $allEnumMembers = array();

    /** @var mixed */
    private $code;

    /** @var string */
    private $description;

    /**
     * Return an enum instance of the concrete type on which this static method is called, assuming an instance
     * exists for the passed in value.  Otherwise an exception is thrown.
     *
     * @param $code
     * @return AbstractEnum
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static function getByCode($code)
    {
        $concreteMembers = &self::getConcreteMembers();

        if (array_key_exists($code, $concreteMembers)) {
            return $concreteMembers[$code];
        }

        throw new Exception("Value '$code' does not exist for enum '".get_called_class()."'");
    }

    public static function getAllMembers()
    {
        return self::getConcreteMembers();
    }

    /**
     * Create, cache and return an instance of the concrete enum type for the supplied primitive value.
     *
     * @param mixed $code code to uniquely identify this enum
     * @param string $description
     * @throws Exception
     * @return AbstractEnum
     */
    protected static function enum($code, $description)
    {
        $concreteMembers = &self::getConcreteMembers();

        if (array_key_exists($code, $concreteMembers)) {
            throw new Exception("Value '$code' has already been added to enum '".get_called_class()."'");
        }

        $concreteMembers[$code] = $concreteEnumInstance = new static($code, $description);

        return $concreteEnumInstance;
    }

    /**
     * @return AbstractEnum[]
     */
    private static function &getConcreteMembers() {
        $thisClassName = get_called_class();

        if (!array_key_exists($thisClassName, self::$allEnumMembers)) {
            $concreteMembers = array();
            self::$allEnumMembers[$thisClassName] = $concreteMembers;
        }

        return self::$allEnumMembers[$thisClassName];
    }

    private function __construct($code, $description)
    {
        $this->code = $code;
        $this->description = $description;
    }

    public function getCode()
    {
        return $this->code;
    }

    public function getDescription()
    {
        return $this->description;
    }
}

Here's an example concrete enum:

<?php

require('AbstractEnum.php');

class EMyEnum extends AbstractEnum
{
    /** @var EMyEnum */
    public static $MY_FIRST_VALUE;
    /** @var EMyEnum */
    public static $MY_SECOND_VALUE;
    /** @var EMyEnum */
    public static $MY_THIRD_VALUE;

    public static function _init()
    {
        self::$MY_FIRST_VALUE = self::enum(1, 'My first value');
        self::$MY_SECOND_VALUE = self::enum(2, 'My second value');
        self::$MY_THIRD_VALUE = self::enum(3, 'My third value');
    }
}

EMyEnum::_init();

Which can be used like this:

<?php

require('EMyEnum.php');

echo EMyEnum::$MY_FIRST_VALUE->getCode().' : '.EMyEnum::$MY_FIRST_VALUE->getDescription().PHP_EOL.PHP_EOL;

var_dump(EMyEnum::getAllMembers());

echo PHP_EOL.EMyEnum::getByCode(2)->getDescription().PHP_EOL;

And produces this output:

1 : My first value

array(3) {
[1]=>
object(EMyEnum)#1 (2) {
["code":"AbstractEnum":private]=>
int(1)
["description":"AbstractEnum":private]=>
string(14) "My first value"
}
[2]=>
object(EMyEnum)#2 (2) {
["code":"AbstractEnum":private]=>
int(2)
["description":"AbstractEnum":private]=>
string(15) "My second value"
}
[3]=>
object(EMyEnum)#3 (2) {
["code":"AbstractEnum":private]=>
int(3)
["description":"AbstractEnum":private]=>
string(14) "My third value"
}
}

My second value


abstract class Enumeration
{
    public static function enum() 
    {
        $reflect = new ReflectionClass( get_called_class() );
        return $reflect->getConstants();
    }
}


class Test extends Enumeration
{
    const A = 'a';
    const B = 'b';    
}


foreach (Test::enum() as $key => $value) {
    echo "$key -> $value<br>";
}

Nun, für ein einfaches Java wie Enum in PHP verwende ich:

class SomeTypeName {
    private static $enum = array(1 => "Read", 2 => "Write");

    public function toOrdinal($name) {
        return array_search($name, self::$enum);
    }

    public function toString($ordinal) {
        return self::$enum[$ordinal];
    }
}

Und es zu nennen:

SomeTypeName::toOrdinal("Read");
SomeTypeName::toString(1);

Aber ich bin ein PHP-Anfänger, der mit der Syntax kämpft, so dass dies nicht der beste Weg ist. Ich habe etwas mit Klassenkonstanten experimentiert, indem ich Reflection benutzt habe, um den konstanten Namen von seinem Wert zu bekommen, könnte es besser sein.


Vier Jahre später stieß ich wieder darauf. Mein aktueller Ansatz ist dies, da es die Code-Vervollständigung in der IDE sowie die Typsicherheit erlaubt:

Basisklasse:

abstract class TypedEnum
{
    private static $_instancedValues;

    private $_value;
    private $_name;

    private function __construct($value, $name)
    {
        $this->_value = $value;
        $this->_name = $name;
    }

    private static function _fromGetter($getter, $value)
    {
        $reflectionClass = new ReflectionClass(get_called_class());
        $methods = $reflectionClass->getMethods(ReflectionMethod::IS_STATIC | ReflectionMethod::IS_PUBLIC);    
        $className = get_called_class();

        foreach($methods as $method)
        {
            if ($method->class === $className)
            {
                $enumItem = $method->invoke(null);

                if ($enumItem instanceof $className && $enumItem->$getter() === $value)
                {
                    return $enumItem;
                }
            }
        }

        throw new OutOfRangeException();
    }

    protected static function _create($value)
    {
        if (self::$_instancedValues === null)
        {
            self::$_instancedValues = array();
        }

        $className = get_called_class();

        if (!isset(self::$_instancedValues[$className]))
        {
            self::$_instancedValues[$className] = array();
        }

        if (!isset(self::$_instancedValues[$className][$value]))
        {
            $debugTrace = debug_backtrace();
            $lastCaller = array_shift($debugTrace);

            while ($lastCaller['class'] !== $className && count($debugTrace) > 0)
            {
                $lastCaller = array_shift($debugTrace);
            }

            self::$_instancedValues[$className][$value] = new static($value, $lastCaller['function']);
        }

        return self::$_instancedValues[$className][$value];
    }

    public static function fromValue($value)
    {
        return self::_fromGetter('getValue', $value);
    }

    public static function fromName($value)
    {
        return self::_fromGetter('getName', $value);
    }

    public function getValue()
    {
        return $this->_value;
    }

    public function getName()
    {
        return $this->_name;
    }
}

Beispiel Enum:

final class DaysOfWeek extends TypedEnum
{
    public static function Sunday() { return self::_create(0); }    
    public static function Monday() { return self::_create(1); }
    public static function Tuesday() { return self::_create(2); }   
    public static function Wednesday() { return self::_create(3); }
    public static function Thursday() { return self::_create(4); }  
    public static function Friday() { return self::_create(5); }
    public static function Saturday() { return self::_create(6); }      
}

Beispielverwendung:

function saveEvent(DaysOfWeek $weekDay, $comment)
{
    // store week day numeric value and comment:
    $myDatabase->save('myeventtable', 
       array('weekday_id' => $weekDay->getValue()),
       array('comment' => $comment));
}

// call the function, note: DaysOfWeek::Monday() returns an object of type DaysOfWeek
saveEvent(DaysOfWeek::Monday(), 'some comment');

Beachten Sie, dass alle Instanzen desselben Enum-Eintrags identisch sind:

$monday1 = DaysOfWeek::Monday();
$monday2 = DaysOfWeek::Monday();
$monday1 === $monday2; // true

Sie können es auch in einer switch-Anweisung verwenden:

function getGermanWeekDayName(DaysOfWeek $weekDay)
{
    switch ($weekDay)
    {
        case DaysOfWeek::Monday(): return 'Montag';
        case DaysOfWeek::Tuesday(): return 'Dienstag';
        // ...
}

Sie können einen Enumerationseintrag auch nach Name oder Wert erstellen:

$monday = DaysOfWeek::fromValue(2);
$tuesday = DaysOfWeek::fromName('Tuesday');

Oder Sie können nur den Namen (dh den Funktionsnamen) von einem bestehenden Enum-Eintrag erhalten:

$wednesday = DaysOfWeek::Wednesday()
echo $wednesDay->getName(); // Wednesday

Was ist mit Klassenkonstanten?

<?php

class YourClass
{
    const SOME_CONSTANT = 1;

    public function echoConstant()
    {
        echo self::SOME_CONSTANT;
    }
}

echo YourClass::SOME_CONSTANT;

$c = new YourClass;
$c->echoConstant();

Pointed out solution works well. Clean and smooth.

However, if you want strongly typed enumerations, you can use this:

class TestEnum extends Enum
{
    public static $TEST1;
    public static $TEST2;
}
TestEnum::init(); // Automatically initializes enum values

With an Enum class looking like:

class Enum
{
    public static function parse($enum)
    {
        $class = get_called_class();
        $vars = get_class_vars($class);
        if (array_key_exists($enum, $vars)) {
            return $vars[$enum];
        }
        return null;
    }

    public static function init()
    {
        $className = get_called_class();
        $consts = get_class_vars($className);
        foreach ($consts as $constant => $value) {
            if (is_null($className::$$constant)) {
                $constantValue = $constant;
                $constantValueName = $className . '::' . $constant . '_VALUE';
                if (defined($constantValueName)) {
                    $constantValue = constant($constantValueName);
                }
                $className::$$constant = new $className($constantValue);
            }
        }
    }

    public function __construct($value)
    {
        $this->value = $value;
    }
}

This way, enum values are strongly typed and

TestEnum::$TEST1 === TestEnum::parse('TEST1') // true statement


Ich habe einige der anderen Antworten hier kommentiert, also dachte ich mir, ich würde auch einrechnen. Am Ende des Tages, da PHP keine typisierten Enumerationen unterstützt, können Sie eine von zwei Möglichkeiten wählen: Ausgegebene Enumerationen aushacken oder mit der Tatsache leben, dass sie extrem schwierig effektiv zu hacken sind.

Ich ziehe es vor, mit der Tatsache zu leben, und verwende stattdessen die const Methode, die andere Antworten hier auf die eine oder andere Weise benutzt haben:

abstract class Enum
{

    const NONE = null;

    final private function __construct()
    {
        throw new NotSupportedException(); // 
    }

    final private function __clone()
    {
        throw new NotSupportedException();
    }

    final public static function toArray()
    {
        return (new ReflectionClass(static::class))->getConstants();
    }

    final public static function isValid($value)
    {
        return in_array($value, static::toArray());
    }

}

Eine Beispielaufzählung:

final class ResponseStatusCode extends Enum
{

    const OK                         = 200;
    const CREATED                    = 201;
    const ACCEPTED                   = 202;
    // ...
    const SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE        = 503;
    const GATEWAY_TIME_OUT           = 504;
    const HTTP_VERSION_NOT_SUPPORTED = 505;

}

Die Verwendung von Enum als Basisklasse, von der alle anderen Enumerationen toArray , ermöglicht isValid wie toArray , isValid usw. Für mich sind getippte Enumerationen ( und das Verwalten ihrer Instanzen ) einfach zu unordentlich.

Hypothetisch

Wenn es eine __getStatic magische Methode ( und vorzugsweise auch eine __equals magische Methode ) __equals , könnte vieles davon mit einer Art Multiton-Muster gemildert werden.

( Das Folgende ist hypothetisch; es wird nicht funktionieren, obwohl es vielleicht eines Tages wird )

final class TestEnum
{

    private static $_values = [
        'FOO' => 1,
        'BAR' => 2,
        'QUX' => 3,
    ];
    private static $_instances = [];

    public static function __getStatic($name)
    {
        if (isset(static::$_values[$name]))
        {
            if (empty(static::$_instances[$name]))
            {
                static::$_instances[$name] = new static($name);
            }
            return static::$_instances[$name];
        }
        throw new Exception(sprintf('Invalid enumeration value, "%s"', $name));
    }

    private $_value;

    public function __construct($name)
    {
        $this->_value = static::$_values[$name];
    }

    public function __equals($object)
    {
        if ($object instanceof static)
        {
            return $object->_value === $this->_value;
        }
        return $object === $this->_value;
    }

}

$foo = TestEnum::$FOO; // object(TestEnum)#1 (1) {
                       //   ["_value":"TestEnum":private]=>
                       //   int(1)
                       // }

$zap = TestEnum::$ZAP; // Uncaught exception 'Exception' with message
                       // 'Invalid enumeration member, "ZAP"'

$qux = TestEnum::$QUX;
TestEnum::$QUX == $qux; // true
'hello world!' == $qux; // false

Hier ist eine Github-Bibliothek für die Handhabung von typsicheren Enumerationen in PHP:

Diese Bibliothek behandelt Klassengenerierung, Klassencaching und implementiert das Entwurfsmuster für sichere Typenauflistung mit mehreren Hilfsmethoden für den Umgang mit Aufzählungen, wie das Abrufen einer Ordnungszahl für die Sortierung von Aufzählungszeichen oder das Abrufen eines Binärwerts für Aufzählungskombinationen.

Der generierte Code verwendet eine einfache alte PHP-Vorlagedatei, die ebenfalls konfigurierbar ist, sodass Sie Ihre eigene Vorlage bereitstellen können.

Es ist voller Test mit phpunit abgedeckt.

php-enums auf github (zögern Sie nicht)

Verwendung: (@see usage.php, oder Unit-Tests für weitere Details)

<?php
//require the library
require_once __DIR__ . '/src/Enum.func.php';

//if you don't have a cache directory, create one
@mkdir(__DIR__ . '/cache');
EnumGenerator::setDefaultCachedClassesDir(__DIR__ . '/cache');

//Class definition is evaluated on the fly:
Enum('FruitsEnum', array('apple' , 'orange' , 'rasberry' , 'bannana'));

//Class definition is cached in the cache directory for later usage:
Enum('CachedFruitsEnum', array('apple' , 'orange' , 'rasberry' , 'bannana'), '\my\company\name\space', true);

echo 'FruitsEnum::APPLE() == FruitsEnum::APPLE(): ';
var_dump(FruitsEnum::APPLE() == FruitsEnum::APPLE()) . "\n";

echo 'FruitsEnum::APPLE() == FruitsEnum::ORANGE(): ';
var_dump(FruitsEnum::APPLE() == FruitsEnum::ORANGE()) . "\n";

echo 'FruitsEnum::APPLE() instanceof Enum: ';
var_dump(FruitsEnum::APPLE() instanceof Enum) . "\n";

echo 'FruitsEnum::APPLE() instanceof FruitsEnum: ';
var_dump(FruitsEnum::APPLE() instanceof FruitsEnum) . "\n";

echo "->getName()\n";
foreach (FruitsEnum::iterator() as $enum)
{
  echo "  " . $enum->getName() . "\n";
}

echo "->getValue()\n";
foreach (FruitsEnum::iterator() as $enum)
{
  echo "  " . $enum->getValue() . "\n";
}

echo "->getOrdinal()\n";
foreach (CachedFruitsEnum::iterator() as $enum)
{
  echo "  " . $enum->getOrdinal() . "\n";
}

echo "->getBinary()\n";
foreach (CachedFruitsEnum::iterator() as $enum)
{
  echo "  " . $enum->getBinary() . "\n";
}

Ausgabe:

FruitsEnum::APPLE() == FruitsEnum::APPLE(): bool(true)
FruitsEnum::APPLE() == FruitsEnum::ORANGE(): bool(false)
FruitsEnum::APPLE() instanceof Enum: bool(true)
FruitsEnum::APPLE() instanceof FruitsEnum: bool(true)
->getName()
  APPLE
  ORANGE
  RASBERRY
  BANNANA
->getValue()
  apple
  orange
  rasberry
  bannana
->getValue() when values have been specified
  pig
  dog
  cat
  bird
->getOrdinal()
  1
  2
  3
  4
->getBinary()
  1
  2
  4
  8

Ich habe Klassen mit Konstanten verwendet:

class Enum {
    const NAME       = 'aaaa';
    const SOME_VALUE = 'bbbb';
}

print Enum::NAME;

// My Enumeration Class
class Enum
{
    protected $m_actions = array();

    public function __construct($actions)
    {
        $this->init($actions);
    }

    public function init($actions)
    {
        $this->m_actions = array();
        for($i = 0; $i < count($actions); ++$i)
        {
            $this->m_actions[$actions[$i]] = ($i + 1); 
            define($actions[$i], ($i + 1));
        }
    }

    public function toString($index)
    {
        $keys = array_keys($this->m_actions);
        for($i = 0; $i < count($keys); ++$i)
        {
            if($this->m_actions[$keys[$i]] == $index)
            {
                return $keys[$i];
            }
        }

        return "undefined";
    }

    public function fromString($str)
    {
        return $this->m_actions[$str];
    }
}

// Enumeration creation
$actions = new Enum(array("CREATE", "READ", "UPDATE", "DELETE"));

// Examples
print($action_objects->toString(DELETE));
print($action_objects->fromString("DELETE"));

if($action_objects->fromString($_POST["myAction"]) == CREATE)
{
    print("CREATE");
}

This is my take on "dynamic" enum... so that i can call it with variables, ex. from a form.

look at updated verison below this codeblock...

$value = "concert";
$Enumvalue = EnumCategory::enum($value);
//$EnumValue = 1

class EnumCategory{
    const concert = 1;
    const festival = 2;
    const sport = 3;
    const nightlife = 4;
    const theatre = 5;
    const musical = 6;
    const cinema = 7;
    const charity = 8;
    const museum = 9;
    const other = 10;

    public function enum($string){
        return constant('EnumCategory::'.$string);
    }
}

UPDATE: Better way of doing it...

class EnumCategory {

    static $concert = 1;
    static $festival = 2;
    static $sport = 3;
    static $nightlife = 4;
    static $theatre = 5;
    static $musical = 6;
    static $cinema = 7;
    static $charity = 8;
    static $museum = 9;
    static $other = 10;

}

Call with

EnumCategory::${$category};

Je nach Anwendungsfall verwende ich normalerweise etwas Einfaches wie das Folgende:

abstract class DaysOfWeek
{
    const Sunday = 0;
    const Monday = 1;
    // etc.
}

$today = DaysOfWeek::Sunday;

Andere Anwendungsfälle erfordern jedoch möglicherweise eine größere Validierung von Konstanten und Werten. Basierend auf den folgenden Kommentaren zur Reflektion und ein paar anderen Anmerkungen , ist hier ein erweitertes Beispiel, das möglicherweise einem viel breiteren Bereich von Fällen dient:

abstract class BasicEnum {
    private static $constCacheArray = NULL;

    private static function getConstants() {
        if (self::$constCacheArray == NULL) {
            self::$constCacheArray = [];
        }
        $calledClass = get_called_class();
        if (!array_key_exists($calledClass, self::$constCacheArray)) {
            $reflect = new ReflectionClass($calledClass);
            self::$constCacheArray[$calledClass] = $reflect->getConstants();
        }
        return self::$constCacheArray[$calledClass];
    }

    public static function isValidName($name, $strict = false) {
        $constants = self::getConstants();

        if ($strict) {
            return array_key_exists($name, $constants);
        }

        $keys = array_map('strtolower', array_keys($constants));
        return in_array(strtolower($name), $keys);
    }

    public static function isValidValue($value, $strict = true) {
        $values = array_values(self::getConstants());
        return in_array($value, $values, $strict);
    }
}

Durch das Erstellen einer einfachen Enum-Klasse, die BasicEnum erweitert, haben Sie jetzt die Möglichkeit, Methoden zur einfachen Eingabevalidierung zu verwenden:

abstract class DaysOfWeek extends BasicEnum {
    const Sunday = 0;
    const Monday = 1;
    const Tuesday = 2;
    const Wednesday = 3;
    const Thursday = 4;
    const Friday = 5;
    const Saturday = 6;
}

DaysOfWeek::isValidName('Humpday');                  // false
DaysOfWeek::isValidName('Monday');                   // true
DaysOfWeek::isValidName('monday');                   // true
DaysOfWeek::isValidName('monday', $strict = true);   // false
DaysOfWeek::isValidName(0);                          // false

DaysOfWeek::isValidValue(0);                         // true
DaysOfWeek::isValidValue(5);                         // true
DaysOfWeek::isValidValue(7);                         // false
DaysOfWeek::isValidValue('Friday');                  // false

Als Randnotiz kann ich jedes Mal, wenn ich die Reflektion mindestens einmal in einer statischen / const-Klasse verwende, wo sich die Daten nicht ändern (wie in einer Enumeration), die Ergebnisse dieser Reflektionsaufrufe zwischenspeichern, da jedes Mal neue Reflexionsobjekte verwendet werden wird sich schließlich bemerkbar auswirken (gespeichert in einem assoziativen Array für mehrere Enums).

Jetzt, wo die meisten Leute endlich auf mindestens 5.3 aufgerüstet haben und SplEnum verfügbar ist, ist das sicherlich auch eine praktikable Option - solange Sie die traditionell nicht intuitive Vorstellung von tatsächlichen Enum- Instanziierungen in Ihrer Codebasis nicht stört. Im obigen Beispiel können BasicEnum und DaysOfWeek überhaupt nicht instanziiert werden und auch nicht sein.


class DayOfWeek {
    static $values = array(
        self::MONDAY,
        self::TUESDAY,
        // ...
    );

    const MONDAY  = 0;
    const TUESDAY = 1;
    // ...
}

$today = DayOfWeek::MONDAY;

// If you want to check if a value is valid
assert( in_array( $today, DayOfWeek::$values ) );

Don't use reflection. It makes it extremely difficult to reason about your code and track down where something is being used, and tends to break static analysis tools (eg what's built into your IDE).


My attempt to create an enum with PHP...it's extremely limited since it doesn't support objects as the enum values but still somewhat useful...

class ProtocolsEnum {

    const HTTP = '1';
    const HTTPS = '2';
    const FTP = '3';

    /**
     * Retrieve an enum value
     * @param string $name
     * @return string
     */
    public static function getValueByName($name) {
        return constant('self::'. $name);
    } 

    /**
     * Retrieve an enum key name
     * @param string $code
     * @return string
     */
    public static function getNameByValue($code) {
        foreach(get_class_constants() as $key => $val) {
            if($val == $code) {
                return $key;
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Retrieve associate array of all constants (used for creating droplist options)
     * @return multitype:
     */
    public static function toArray() {      
        return array_flip(self::get_class_constants());
    }

    private static function get_class_constants()
    {
        $reflect = new ReflectionClass(__CLASS__);
        return $reflect->getConstants();
    }
}

Ich mag enums auch aus Java und aus diesem Grund schreibe ich meine enums auf diese Weise, ich denke, das ist das ähnlichste Verhalten wie in Java enums, natürlich, wenn einige mehr Methoden aus Java verwenden wollen, sollten sie es hier oder in schreiben abstrakte Klasse aber Kernidee ist in Code unten eingebettet


class FruitsEnum {

    static $APPLE = null;
    static $ORANGE = null;

    private $value = null;

    public static $map;

    public function __construct($value) {
        $this->value = $value;
    }

    public static function init () {
        self::$APPLE  = new FruitsEnum("Apple");
        self::$ORANGE = new FruitsEnum("Orange");
        //static map to get object by name - example Enum::get("INIT") - returns Enum::$INIT object;
        self::$map = array (
            "Apple" => self::$APPLE,
            "Orange" => self::$ORANGE
        );
    }

    public static function get($element) {
        if($element == null)
            return null;
        return self::$map[$element];
    }

    public function getValue() {
        return $this->value;
    }

    public function equals(FruitsEnum $element) {
        return $element->getValue() == $this->getValue();
    }

    public function __toString () {
        return $this->value;
    }
}
FruitsEnum::init();

var_dump(FruitsEnum::$APPLE->equals(FruitsEnum::$APPLE)); //true
var_dump(FruitsEnum::$APPLE->equals(FruitsEnum::$ORANGE)); //false
var_dump(FruitsEnum::$APPLE instanceof FruitsEnum); //true
var_dump(FruitsEnum::get("Apple")->equals(FruitsEnum::$APPLE)); //true - enum from string
var_dump(FruitsEnum::get("Apple")->equals(FruitsEnum::get("Orange"))); //false


Yesterday I wrote this class on my blog . I think it's maybe be easy for use in php scripts:

final class EnumException extends Exception{}

abstract class Enum
{
    /**
     * @var array ReflectionClass
     */
    protected static $reflectorInstances = array();
    /**
     * Массив конфигурированного объекта-константы enum
     * @var array
     */
    protected static $enumInstances = array();
    /**
     * Массив соответствий значение->ключ используется для проверки - 
     * если ли константа с таким значением
     * @var array
     */
    protected static $foundNameValueLink = array();

    protected $constName;
    protected $constValue;

    /**
     * Реализует паттерн "Одиночка"
     * Возвращает объект константы, но но как объект его использовать не стоит, 
     * т.к. для него реализован "волшебный метод" __toString()
     * Это должно использоваться только для типизачии его как параметра
     * @paradm Node
     */
    final public static function get($value)
    {
        // Это остается здесь для увеличения производительности (по замерам ~10%)
        $name = self::getName($value);
        if ($name === false)
            throw new EnumException("Неизвестая константа");
        $className = get_called_class();    
        if (!isset(self::$enumInstances[$className][$name]))
        {
            $value = constant($className.'::'.$name);
            self::$enumInstances[$className][$name] = new $className($name, $value);
        }

        return self::$enumInstances[$className][$name];
    }

    /**
     * Возвращает массив констант пар ключ-значение всего перечисления
     * @return array 
     */
    final public static function toArray()
    {
        $classConstantsArray = self::getReflectorInstance()->getConstants();
        foreach ($classConstantsArray as $k => $v)
            $classConstantsArray[$k] = (string)$v;
        return $classConstantsArray;
    }

    /**
     * Для последующего использования в toArray для получения массива констант ключ->значение 
     * @return ReflectionClass
     */
    final private static function getReflectorInstance()
    {
        $className = get_called_class();
        if (!isset(self::$reflectorInstances[$className]))
        {
            self::$reflectorInstances[$className] = new ReflectionClass($className);
        }
        return self::$reflectorInstances[$className];
    }

    /**
     * Получает имя константы по её значению
     * @param string $value
     */
    final public static function getName($value)
    {
        $className = (string)get_called_class();

        $value = (string)$value;
        if (!isset(self::$foundNameValueLink[$className][$value]))
        {
            $constantName = array_search($value, self::toArray(), true);
            self::$foundNameValueLink[$className][$value] = $constantName;
        }
        return self::$foundNameValueLink[$className][$value];
    }

    /**
     * Используется ли такое имя константы в перечислении
     * @param string $name
     */
    final public static function isExistName($name)
    {
        $constArray = self::toArray();
        return isset($constArray[$name]);
    }

    /**
     * Используется ли такое значение константы в перечислении
     * @param string $value
     */
    final public static function isExistValue($value)
    {
        return self::getName($value) === false ? false : true;
    }   


    final private function __clone(){}

    final private function __construct($name, $value)
    {
        $this->constName = $name;
        $this->constValue = $value;
    }

    final public function __toString()
    {
        return (string)$this->constValue;
    }
}

Verwendung:

class enumWorkType extends Enum
{
        const FULL = 0;
        const SHORT = 1;
}

Wenn Sie Enums verwenden müssen, die global einzigartig sind (dh auch wenn Sie Elemente zwischen verschiedenen Enums vergleichen) und einfach zu verwenden sind, können Sie den folgenden Code verwenden. Ich habe auch einige Methoden hinzugefügt, die ich nützlich finde. Sie finden Beispiele in den Kommentaren ganz oben im Code.

<?php

/**
 * Class Enum
 * 
 * @author Christopher Fox <[email protected]>
 *
 * @version 1.0
 *
 * This class provides the function of an enumeration.
 * The values of Enum elements are unique (even between different Enums)
 * as you would expect them to be.
 *
 * Constructing a new Enum:
 * ========================
 *
 * In the following example we construct an enum called "UserState"
 * with the elements "inactive", "active", "banned" and "deleted".
 * 
 * <code>
 * Enum::Create('UserState', 'inactive', 'active', 'banned', 'deleted');
 * </code>
 *
 * Using Enums:
 * ============
 *
 * The following example demonstrates how to compare two Enum elements
 *
 * <code>
 * var_dump(UserState::inactive == UserState::banned); // result: false
 * var_dump(UserState::active == UserState::active); // result: true
 * </code>
 *
 * Special Enum methods:
 * =====================
 *
 * Get the number of elements in an Enum:
 *
 * <code>
 * echo UserState::CountEntries(); // result: 4
 * </code>
 *
 * Get a list with all elements of the Enum:
 *
 * <code>
 * $allUserStates = UserState::GetEntries();
 * </code>
 *
 * Get a name of an element:
 *
 * <code>
 * echo UserState::GetName(UserState::deleted); // result: deleted
 * </code>
 *
 * Get an integer ID for an element (e.g. to store as a value in a database table):
 * This is simply the index of the element (beginning with 1).
 * Note that this ID is only unique for this Enum but now between different Enums.
 *
 * <code>
 * echo UserState::GetDatabaseID(UserState::active); // result: 2
 * </code>
 */
class Enum
{

    /**
     * @var Enum $instance The only instance of Enum (Singleton)
     */
    private static $instance;

    /**
     * @var array $enums    An array of all enums with Enum names as keys
     *          and arrays of element names as values
     */
    private $enums;

    /**
     * Constructs (the only) Enum instance
     */
    private function __construct()
    {
        $this->enums = array();
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new enum
     *
     * @param string $name The class name for the enum
     * @param mixed $_ A list of strings to use as names for enum entries
     */
    public static function Create($name, $_)
    {
        // Create (the only) Enum instance if this hasn't happened yet
        if (self::$instance===null)
        {
            self::$instance = new Enum();
        }

        // Fetch the arguments of the function
        $args = func_get_args();
        // Exclude the "name" argument from the array of function arguments,
        // so only the enum element names remain in the array
        array_shift($args);
        self::$instance->add($name, $args);
    }

    /**
     * Creates an enumeration if this hasn't happened yet
     * 
     * @param string $name The class name for the enum
     * @param array $fields The names of the enum elements
     */
    private function add($name, $fields)
    {
        if (!array_key_exists($name, $this->enums))
        {
            $this->enums[$name] = array();

            // Generate the code of the class for this enumeration
            $classDeclaration =     "class " . $name . " {\n"
                        . "private static \$name = '" . $name . "';\n"
                        . $this->getClassConstants($name, $fields)
                        . $this->getFunctionGetEntries($name)
                        . $this->getFunctionCountEntries($name)
                        . $this->getFunctionGetDatabaseID()
                        . $this->getFunctionGetName()
                        . "}";

            // Create the class for this enumeration
            eval($classDeclaration);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns the code of the class constants
     * for an enumeration. These are the representations
     * of the elements.
     * 
     * @param string $name The class name for the enum
     * @param array $fields The names of the enum elements
     *
     * @return string The code of the class constants
     */
    private function getClassConstants($name, $fields)
    {
        $constants = '';

        foreach ($fields as $field)
        {
            // Create a unique ID for the Enum element
            // This ID is unique because class and variables
            // names can't contain a semicolon. Therefore we
            // can use the semicolon as a separator here.
            $uniqueID = $name . ";" . $field;
            $constants .=   "const " . $field . " = '". $uniqueID . "';\n";
            // Store the unique ID
            array_push($this->enums[$name], $uniqueID);
        }

        return $constants;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the code of the function "GetEntries()"
     * for an enumeration
     * 
     * @param string $name The class name for the enum
     *
     * @return string The code of the function "GetEntries()"
     */
    private function getFunctionGetEntries($name) 
    {
        $entryList = '';        

        // Put the unique element IDs in single quotes and
        // separate them with commas
        foreach ($this->enums[$name] as $key => $entry)
        {
            if ($key > 0) $entryList .= ',';
            $entryList .= "'" . $entry . "'";
        }

        return  "public static function GetEntries() { \n"
            . " return array(" . $entryList . ");\n"
            . "}\n";
    }

    /**
     * Returns the code of the function "CountEntries()"
     * for an enumeration
     * 
     * @param string $name The class name for the enum
     *
     * @return string The code of the function "CountEntries()"
     */
    private function getFunctionCountEntries($name) 
    {
        // This function will simply return a constant number (e.g. return 5;)
        return  "public static function CountEntries() { \n"
            . " return " . count($this->enums[$name]) . ";\n"
            . "}\n";
    }

    /**
     * Returns the code of the function "GetDatabaseID()"
     * for an enumeration
     * 
     * @return string The code of the function "GetDatabaseID()"
     */
    private function getFunctionGetDatabaseID()
    {
        // Check for the index of this element inside of the array
        // of elements and add +1
        return  "public static function GetDatabaseID(\$entry) { \n"
            . "\$key = array_search(\$entry, self::GetEntries());\n"
            . " return \$key + 1;\n"
            . "}\n";
    }

    /**
     * Returns the code of the function "GetName()"
     * for an enumeration
     *
     * @return string The code of the function "GetName()"
     */
    private function getFunctionGetName()
    {
        // Remove the class name from the unique ID 
        // and return this value (which is the element name)
        return  "public static function GetName(\$entry) { \n"
            . "return substr(\$entry, strlen(self::\$name) + 1 , strlen(\$entry));\n"
            . "}\n";
    }

}


?>

The accepted answer is the way to go and is actually what I am doing for simplicity. Most advantages of enumeration are offered (readable, fast, etc.). One concept is missing, however: type safety. In most languages, enumerations are also used to restrict allowed values. Below is an example of how type safety can also be obtained by using private constructors, static instantiation methods and type checking:

class DaysOfWeek{
 const Sunday = 0;
 const Monday = 1;
 // etc.

 private $intVal;
 private function __construct($intVal){
   $this->intVal = $intVal;
 }

 //static instantiation methods
 public static function MONDAY(){
   return new self(self::Monday);
 }
 //etc.
}

//function using type checking
function printDayOfWeek(DaysOfWeek $d){ //compiler can now use type checking
  // to something with $d...
}

//calling the function is safe!
printDayOfWeek(DaysOfWeek::MONDAY());

We could even go further: using constants in the DaysOfWeek class might lead to misusage: eg one might mistakenly use it this way:

printDayOfWeek(DaysOfWeek::Monday); //triggers a compiler error.

which is wrong (calls integer constant). We can prevent this using private static variables instead of constants:

class DaysOfWeeks{

  private static $monday = 1;
  //etc.

  private $intVal;
  //private constructor
  private function __construct($intVal){
    $this->intVal = $intVal;
  }

  //public instantiation methods
  public static function MONDAY(){
    return new self(self::$monday);
  }
  //etc.


  //convert an instance to its integer value
  public function intVal(){
    return $this->intVal;
  }

}

Of course, it is not possible to access integer constants (this was actually the purpose). The intVal method allows to convert a DaysOfWeek object to its integer representation.

Note that we could even go further by implementing a caching mechanism in instantiation methods to save memory in the case enumerations are extensively used...

Hoffe, das wird helfen



Ich weiß, dass dies ein alter Thread ist, aber keine der Workarounds, die ich gesehen habe, sah wirklich wie enums aus, da fast alle Problemumgehungen erfordern, dass Sie den enum-Elementen manuell Werte zuweisen, oder Sie müssen ein Array von enum-Schlüsseln an a übergeben Funktion. Also habe ich meine eigene Lösung dafür geschaffen.

Um eine Enum-Klasse mit meiner Lösung zu erstellen, kann man einfach diese Enum-Klasse erweitern, eine Menge statischer Variablen erstellen (sie müssen nicht initialisiert werden) und einen Aufruf von yourEnumClass :: init () direkt unterhalb der Definition Ihrer Enum-Klasse machen .

edit: Das funktioniert nur in php> = 5.3, aber es kann wahrscheinlich so modifiziert werden, dass es auch in älteren Versionen funktioniert

/**
 * A base class for enums. 
 * 
 * This class can be used as a base class for enums. 
 * It can be used to create regular enums (incremental indices), but it can also be used to create binary flag values.
 * To create an enum class you can simply extend this class, and make a call to <yourEnumClass>::init() before you use the enum.
 * Preferably this call is made directly after the class declaration. 
 * Example usages:
 * DaysOfTheWeek.class.php
 * abstract class DaysOfTheWeek extends Enum{
 *      static $MONDAY = 1;
 *      static $TUESDAY;
 *      static $WEDNESDAY;
 *      static $THURSDAY;
 *      static $FRIDAY;
 *      static $SATURDAY;
 *      static $SUNDAY;
 * }
 * DaysOfTheWeek::init();
 * 
 * example.php
 * require_once("DaysOfTheWeek.class.php");
 * $today = date('N');
 * if ($today == DaysOfTheWeek::$SUNDAY || $today == DaysOfTheWeek::$SATURDAY)
 *      echo "It's weekend!";
 * 
 * Flags.class.php
 * abstract class Flags extends Enum{
 *      static $FLAG_1;
 *      static $FLAG_2;
 *      static $FLAG_3;
 * }
 * Flags::init(Enum::$BINARY_FLAG);
 * 
 * example2.php
 * require_once("Flags.class.php");
 * $flags = Flags::$FLAG_1 | Flags::$FLAG_2;
 * if ($flags & Flags::$FLAG_1)
 *      echo "Flag_1 is set";
 * 
 * @author Tiddo Langerak
 */
abstract class Enum{

    static $BINARY_FLAG = 1;
    /**
     * This function must be called to initialize the enumeration!
     * 
     * @param bool $flags If the USE_BINARY flag is provided, the enum values will be binary flag values. Default: no flags set.
     */ 
    public static function init($flags = 0){
        //First, we want to get a list of all static properties of the enum class. We'll use the ReflectionClass for this.
        $enum = get_called_class();
        $ref = new ReflectionClass($enum);
        $items = $ref->getStaticProperties();
        //Now we can start assigning values to the items. 
        if ($flags & self::$BINARY_FLAG){
            //If we want binary flag values, our first value should be 1.
            $value = 1;
            //Now we can set the values for all items.
            foreach ($items as $key=>$item){
                if (!isset($item)){                 
                    //If no value is set manually, we should set it.
                    $enum::$$key = $value;
                    //And we need to calculate the new value
                    $value *= 2;
                } else {
                    //If there was already a value set, we will continue starting from that value, but only if that was a valid binary flag value.
                    //Otherwise, we will just skip this item.
                    if ($key != 0 && ($key & ($key - 1) == 0))
                        $value = 2 * $item;
                }
            }
        } else {
            //If we want to use regular indices, we'll start with index 0.
            $value = 0;
            //Now we can set the values for all items.
            foreach ($items as $key=>$item){
                if (!isset($item)){
                    //If no value is set manually, we should set it, and increment the value for the next item.
                    $enum::$$key = $value;
                    $value++;
                } else {
                    //If a value was already set, we'll continue from that value.
                    $value = $item+1;
                }
            }
        }
    }
}




enumeration