java without - Mocking static methods with Mockito




powermock c# (9)

Observation : When you call static method within a static entity, you need to change the class in @PrepareForTest.

For e.g. :

securityAlgo = MessageDigest.getInstance(SECURITY_ALGORITHM);

For the above code if you need to mock MessageDigest class, use

@PrepareForTest(MessageDigest.class)

While if you have something like below :

public class CustomObjectRule {

    object = DatatypeConverter.printHexBinary(MessageDigest.getInstance(SECURITY_ALGORITHM)
             .digest(message.getBytes(ENCODING)));

}

then, you'd need to prepare the class this code resides in.

@PrepareForTest(CustomObjectRule.class)

And then mock the method :

PowerMockito.mockStatic(MessageDigest.class);
PowerMockito.when(MessageDigest.getInstance(Mockito.anyString()))
      .thenThrow(new RuntimeException());

I've written a factory to produce java.sql.Connection objects:

public class MySQLDatabaseConnectionFactory implements DatabaseConnectionFactory {

    @Override public Connection getConnection() {
        try {
            return DriverManager.getConnection(...);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
        }
    }
}

I'd like to validate the parameters passed to DriverManager.getConnection, but I don't know how to mock a static method. I'm using JUnit 4 and Mockito for my test cases. Is there a good way to mock/verify this specific use-case?


Use PowerMockito on top of Mockito.

Example code:

@RunWith(PowerMockRunner.class)
@PrepareForTest(DriverManager.class)
public class Mocker {

    @Test
    public void testName() throws Exception {

        //given
        PowerMockito.mockStatic(DriverManager.class);
        BDDMockito.given(DriverManager.getConnection(...)).willReturn(...);

        //when
        sut.execute();

        //then
        PowerMockito.verifyStatic();
        DriverManager.getConnection(...);

    }

More information:


Use JMockit framework. It worked for me. You don't have to write statements for mocking DBConenction.getConnection() method. Just the below code is enough.

@Mock below is mockit.Mock package

Connection jdbcConnection = Mockito.mock(Connection.class);

MockUp<DBConnection> mockUp = new MockUp<DBConnection>() {

            DBConnection singleton = new DBConnection();

            @Mock
            public DBConnection getInstance() { 
                return singleton;
            }

            @Mock
            public Connection getConnection() {
                return jdbcConnection;
            }
         };

I had a similar issue. The accepted answer did not work for me, until I made the change: @PrepareForTest(TheClassThatContainsStaticMethod.class), according to PowerMock's documentation for mockStatic.

And I don't have to use BDDMockito.

My class:

public class SmokeRouteBuilder {
    public static String smokeMessageId() {
        try {
            return InetAddress.getLocalHost().getHostAddress();
        } catch (UnknownHostException e) {
            log.error("Exception occurred while fetching localhost address", e);
            return UUID.randomUUID().toString();
        }
    }
}

My test class:

@RunWith(PowerMockRunner.class)
@PrepareForTest(SmokeRouteBuilder.class)
public class SmokeRouteBuilderTest {
    @Test
    public void testSmokeMessageId_exception() throws UnknownHostException {
        UUID id = UUID.randomUUID();

        mockStatic(InetAddress.class);
        mockStatic(UUID.class);
        when(InetAddress.getLocalHost()).thenThrow(UnknownHostException.class);
        when(UUID.randomUUID()).thenReturn(id);

        assertEquals(id.toString(), SmokeRouteBuilder.smokeMessageId());
    }
}

You can do it with a little bit of refactoring:

public class MySQLDatabaseConnectionFactory implements DatabaseConnectionFactory {

    @Override public Connection getConnection() {
        try {
            return _getConnection(...some params...);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
        }
    }

    //method to forward parameters, enabling mocking, extension, etc
    Connection _getConnection(...some params...) throws SQLException {
        return DriverManager.getConnection(...some params...);
    }
}

Then you can extend your class MySQLDatabaseConnectionFactory to return a mocked connection, do assertions on the parameters, etc.

The extended class can reside within the test case, if it's located in the same package (which I encourage you to do)

public class MockedConnectionFactory extends MySQLDatabaseConnectionFactory {

    Connection _getConnection(...some params...) throws SQLException {
        if (some param != something) throw new InvalidParameterException();

        //consider mocking some methods with when(yourMock.something()).thenReturn(value)
        return Mockito.mock(Connection.class);
    }
}

As mentioned before you can not mock static methods with mockito.

If changing your testing framework is not an option you can do the following:

Create an interface for DriverManager, mock this interface, inject it via some kind of dependency injection and verify on that mock.


Mockito cannot capture static methods, but since Mockito 2.14.0 you can simulate it by creating invocation instances of static methods.

Example (extracted from their tests):

public class StaticMockingExperimentTest extends TestBase {

    Foo mock = Mockito.mock(Foo.class);
    MockHandler handler = Mockito.mockingDetails(mock).getMockHandler();
    Method staticMethod;
    InvocationFactory.RealMethodBehavior realMethod = new InvocationFactory.RealMethodBehavior() {
        @Override
        public Object call() throws Throwable {
            return null;
        }
    };

    @Before
    public void before() throws Throwable {
        staticMethod = Foo.class.getDeclaredMethod("staticMethod", String.class);
    }

    @Test
    public void verify_static_method() throws Throwable {
        //register staticMethod call on mock
        Invocation invocation = Mockito.framework().getInvocationFactory().createInvocation(mock, withSettings().build(Foo.class), staticMethod, realMethod,
                "some arg");
        handler.handle(invocation);

        //verify staticMethod on mock
        //Mockito cannot capture static methods so we will simulate this scenario in 3 steps:
        //1. Call standard 'verify' method. Internally, it will add verificationMode to the thread local state.
        //  Effectively, we indicate to Mockito that right now we are about to verify a method call on this mock.
        verify(mock);
        //2. Create the invocation instance using the new public API
        //  Mockito cannot capture static methods but we can create an invocation instance of that static invocation
        Invocation verification = Mockito.framework().getInvocationFactory().createInvocation(mock, withSettings().build(Foo.class), staticMethod, realMethod,
                "some arg");
        //3. Make Mockito handle the static method invocation
        //  Mockito will find verification mode in thread local state and will try verify the invocation
        handler.handle(verification);

        //verify zero times, method with different argument
        verify(mock, times(0));
        Invocation differentArg = Mockito.framework().getInvocationFactory().createInvocation(mock, withSettings().build(Foo.class), staticMethod, realMethod,
                "different arg");
        handler.handle(differentArg);
    }

    @Test
    public void stubbing_static_method() throws Throwable {
        //register staticMethod call on mock
        Invocation invocation = Mockito.framework().getInvocationFactory().createInvocation(mock, withSettings().build(Foo.class), staticMethod, realMethod,
                "foo");
        handler.handle(invocation);

        //register stubbing
        when(null).thenReturn("hey");

        //validate stubbed return value
        assertEquals("hey", handler.handle(invocation));
        assertEquals("hey", handler.handle(invocation));

        //default null value is returned if invoked with different argument
        Invocation differentArg = Mockito.framework().getInvocationFactory().createInvocation(mock, withSettings().build(Foo.class), staticMethod, realMethod,
                "different arg");
        assertEquals(null, handler.handle(differentArg));
    }

    static class Foo {

        private final String arg;

        public Foo(String arg) {
            this.arg = arg;
        }

        public static String staticMethod(String arg) {
            return "";
        }

        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "foo:" + arg;
        }
    }
}

Their goal is not to directly support static mocking, but to improve its public APIs so that other libraries, like Powermockito, don't have to rely on internal APIs or directly have to duplicate some Mockito code. (source)

Disclaimer: Mockito team thinks that the road to hell is paved with static methods. However, Mockito's job is not to protect your code from static methods. If you don’t like your team doing static mocking, stop using Powermockito in your organization. Mockito needs to evolve as a toolkit with an opinionated vision on how Java tests should be written (e.g. don't mock statics!!!). However, Mockito is not dogmatic. We don't want to block unrecommended use cases like static mocking. It's just not our job.


The typical strategy for dodging static methods that you have no way of avoiding using, is by creating wrapped objects and using the wrapper objects instead.

The wrapper objects become facades to the real static classes, and you do not test those.

A wrapper object could be something like

public class Slf4jMdcWrapper {
    public static final Slf4jMdcWrapper SINGLETON = new Slf4jMdcWrapper();

    public String myApisToTheSaticMethodsInSlf4jMdcStaticUtilityClass() {
        return MDC.getWhateverIWant();
    }
}

Finally, your class under test can use this singleton object by, for example, having a default constructor for real life use:

public class SomeClassUnderTest {
    final Slf4jMdcWrapper myMockableObject;

    /** constructor used by CDI or whatever real life use case */
    public myClassUnderTestContructor() {
        this.myMockableObject = Slf4jMdcWrapper.SINGLETON;
    }

    /** constructor used in tests*/
    myClassUnderTestContructor(Slf4jMdcWrapper myMock) {
        this.myMockableObject = myMock;
    }
}

And here you have a class that can easily be tested, because you do not directly use a class with static methods.

If you are using CDI and can make use of the @Inject annotation then it is even easier. Just make your Wrapper bean @ApplicationScoped, get that thing injected as a collaborator (you do not even need messy constructors for testing), and go on with the mocking.


With Java 8's lambdas, a convenient way is to use

org.mockito.invocation.InvocationOnMock

when(client.deleteByQuery(anyString(), anyString())).then(invocationOnMock -> {
    assertEquals("myCollection", invocationOnMock.getArgument(0));
    assertThat(invocationOnMock.getArgument(1), Matchers.startsWith("id:"));
}






java unit-testing mocking mockito