query - sql if statement in select




SQL: IF clause within WHERE clause (8)

I think that where...like/=...case...then... can work with Booleans. I am using T-SQL.

Scenario: Let's say you want to get Person-30's hobbies if bool is false, and Person-42's hobbies if bool is true. (According to some, hobby-lookups comprise over 90% of business computation cycles, so pay close attn.).

CREATE PROCEDURE sp_Case
@bool   bit
AS
SELECT Person.Hobbies
FROM Person
WHERE Person.ID = 
    case @bool 
        when 0 
            then 30
        when 1
            then 42
    end;

Is it possible to use an IF clause within a WHERE clause in MS SQL?

Example:

WHERE
    IF IsNumeric(@OrderNumber) = 1
        OrderNumber = @OrderNumber
    ELSE
        OrderNumber LIKE '%' + @OrderNumber + '%'

The following example executes a query as part of the Boolean expression and then executes slightly different statement blocks based on the result of the Boolean expression. Each statement block starts with BEGIN and completes with END.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
DECLARE @AvgWeight decimal(8,2), @BikeCount int
IF 
(SELECT COUNT(*) FROM Production.Product WHERE Name LIKE 'Touring-3000%' ) > 5
BEGIN
   SET @BikeCount = 
        (SELECT COUNT(*) 
         FROM Production.Product 
         WHERE Name LIKE 'Touring-3000%');
   SET @AvgWeight = 
        (SELECT AVG(Weight) 
         FROM Production.Product 
         WHERE Name LIKE 'Touring-3000%');
   PRINT 'There are ' + CAST(@BikeCount AS varchar(3)) + ' Touring-3000 bikes.'
   PRINT 'The average weight of the top 5 Touring-3000 bikes is ' + CAST(@AvgWeight AS varchar(8)) + '.';
END
ELSE 
BEGIN
SET @AvgWeight = 
        (SELECT AVG(Weight)
         FROM Production.Product 
         WHERE Name LIKE 'Touring-3000%' );
   PRINT 'Average weight of the Touring-3000 bikes is ' + CAST(@AvgWeight AS varchar(8)) + '.' ;
END ;
GO

Using nested IF...ELSE statements The following example shows how an IF … ELSE statement can be nested inside another. Set the @Number variable to 5, 50, and 500 to test each statement.

DECLARE @Number int
SET @Number = 50
IF @Number > 100
   PRINT 'The number is large.'
ELSE 
   BEGIN
      IF @Number < 10
      PRINT 'The number is small'
   ELSE
      PRINT 'The number is medium'
   END ;
GO

Use a CASE statement instead of IF.


Use a CASE statement
UPDATE: The previous syntax (as pointed out by a few people) doesn't work. You can use CASE as follows:

WHERE OrderNumber LIKE
  CASE WHEN IsNumeric(@OrderNumber) = 1 THEN 
    @OrderNumber 
  ELSE
    '%' + @OrderNumber
  END

Or you can use an IF statement like @N. J. Reed points out.


You should be able to do this without any IF or CASE

 WHERE 
   (IsNumeric(@OrderNumber) AND
      (CAST OrderNumber AS VARCHAR) = (CAST @OrderNumber AS VARCHAR)
 OR
   (NOT IsNumeric(@OrderNumber) AND
       OrderNumber LIKE ('%' + @OrderNumber))

Depending on the flavour of SQL you may need to tweak the casts on the order number to an INT or VARCHAR depending on whether implicit casts are supported.

This is a very common technique in a WHERE clause. If you want to apply some "IF" logic in the WHERE clause all you need to do is add the extra condition with an boolean AND to the section where it needs to be applied.


You want the CASE statement

WHERE OrderNumber LIKE
CASE WHEN IsNumeric(@OrderNumber)=1 THEN @OrderNumber ELSE '%' + @OrderNumber END


USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
IF 
(SELECT COUNT(*) FROM Production.Product WHERE Name LIKE 'Touring-3000%' ) > 5
PRINT 'There are more than 5 Touring-3000 bicycles.'
ELSE PRINT 'There are 5 or less Touring-3000 bicycles.' ;
GO




tsql