css - vertical - webkit-fill-available height




Make a div fill the height of the remaining screen space (20)

I am currently working on a web application, where I want the content to fill the height of the entire screen.

The page has a header, which contains a logo, and account information. This could be an arbitrary height. I want the content div to fill the rest of the page to the bottom.

I have a header div and a content div. At the moment I am using a table for the layout like so:

CSS and HTML

#page {
    height: 100%; width: 100%
}

#tdcontent {
    height: 100%;
}

#content {
    overflow: auto; /* or overflow: hidden; */
}
<table id="page">
    <tr>
        <td id="tdheader">
            <div id="header">...</div>
        </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
        <td id="tdcontent">
            <div id="content">...</div>
        </td>
    </tr>
</table>

The entire height of the page is filled, and no scrolling is required.

For anything inside the content div, setting top: 0; will put it right underneath the header. Sometimes the content will be a real table, with it's height set to 100%. Putting header inside content will not allow this to work.

Is there a way to achieve the same effect without using the table?

Update:

Elements inside the content div will have heights set to percentages as well. So something at 100% inside the div will fill it to the bottom. As will two elements at 50%.

Update 2:

For instance, if the header takes up 20% of the screen's height, a table specified at 50% inside #content would take up 40% of the screen space. So far, wrapping the entire thing in a table is the only thing that works.


Disclaimer: The accepted answer gives the idea of the solution, but I'm finding it a bit bloated with an unnecessary wrapper and css rules. Below is a solution with very few css rules.

HTML 5

<body>
    <header>Header with an arbitrary height</header>
    <main>
        This container will grow so as to take the remaining height
    </main>
</body>

CSS

body {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
  min-height: 100vh;       /* body takes whole viewport's height */
}

main {
  flex: 1;                 /* this will make the container take the free space */
}

Solution above uses viewport units and flexbox, and is therefore IE10+, providing you use the old syntax for IE10.

Codepen to play with: link to codepen

Or this one, for those needing the main container to be scrollable in case of overflowing content: link to codepen


CSS only Approach (If height is known/fixed)

When you want the middle element to span across entire page vertically, you can use calc() which is introduced in CSS3.

Assuming we have a fixed height header and footer elements and we want the section tag to take entire available vertical height...

Demo

Assumed markup

<header>100px</header>
<section>Expand me for remaining space</section>
<footer>150px</footer>

So your CSS should be

html, body {
    height: 100%;
}

header {
    height: 100px;
    background: grey;
}

section {
    height: calc(100% - (100px + 150px)); 
    /* Adding 100px of header and 150px of footer */

    background: tomato;
}

footer {
    height: 150px;
    background-color: blue;
}

So here, what am doing is, adding up the height of elements and than deducting from 100% using calc() function.

Just make sure that you use height: 100%; for the parent elements.


CSS Grid Solution

Just defining the body with display:grid and the grid-template-rows using auto and the fr value property.

* {
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

html {
  height: 100%;
}

body {
  min-height: 100%;
  display: grid;
  grid-template-rows: auto 1fr auto;
}

header {
  padding: 1em;
  background: pink;
}

main {
  padding: 1em;
  background: lightblue;
}

footer {
  padding: 2em;
  background: lightgreen;
}

main:hover {
  height: 2000px;
  /* demos expansion of center element */
}
<header>HEADER</header>
<main>MAIN</main>
<footer>FOOTER</footer>

A Complete Guide to Grids @ CSS-Tricks.com


CSS3 Simple Way

height: calc(100% - 10px); // 10px is height of your first div...

all major browsers these days support it, so go ahead if you don't have requirement to support vintage browsers.


For mobile app i use only VH and VW

<div class="container">
  <div class="title">Title</div>
  <div class="content">Content</div>
  <div class="footer">Footer</div>
</div>

.container {
  width: 100vw;
  height: 100vh;
  font-size: 5vh;
}

.title {
  height: 20vh;
  background-color: red;
}

.content {
  height: 60vh;
  background: blue;
}

.footer {
  height: 20vh;
  background: green;
}

Demo - https://jsfiddle.net/u763ck92/


How about you simply use vh which stands for view height in CSS...

Look at the code snippet I created for you below and run it:

body {
  padding: 0;
  margin: 0;
}

.full-height {
  width: 100px;
  height: 100vh;
  background: red;
}
<div class="full-height">
</div>

Also, look at the image below which I created for you:


I had the same problem but I could not make work the solution with flexboxes above. So I created my own template, that includes:

  • a header with a fixed size element
  • a footer
  • a side bar with a scrollbar that occupies the remaining height
  • content

I used flexboxes but in a more simple way, using only properties display: flex and flex-direction: row|column:

I do use angular and I want my component sizes to be 100% of their parent element.

The key is to set the size (in percents) for all parents inorder to limit their size. In the following example myapp height has 100% of the viewport.

The main component has 90% of the viewport, because header and footer have 5%.

I posted my template here: https://jsfiddle.net/abreneliere/mrjh6y2e/3

       body{
        margin: 0;
        color: white;
        height: 100%;
    }
    div#myapp
    {
        display: flex;
        flex-direction: column;
        background-color: red; /* <-- painful color for your eyes ! */
        height: 100%; /* <-- if you remove this line, myapp has no limited height */
    }
    div#main /* parent div for sidebar and content */
    {
        display: flex;
        width: 100%;
        height: 90%; 
    }
    div#header {
        background-color: #333;
        height: 5%;
    }
    div#footer {
        background-color: #222;
        height: 5%;
    }
    div#sidebar {
        background-color: #666;
        width: 20%;
        overflow-y: auto;
     }
    div#content {
        background-color: #888;
        width: 80%;
        overflow-y: auto;
    }
    div.fized_size_element {
        background-color: #AAA;
        display: block;
        width: 100px;
        height: 50px;
        margin: 5px;
    }

Html:

<body>
<div id="myapp">
    <div id="header">
        HEADER
        <div class="fized_size_element"></div>

    </div>
    <div id="main">
        <div id="sidebar">
            SIDEBAR
            <div class="fized_size_element"></div>
            <div class="fized_size_element"></div>
            <div class="fized_size_element"></div>
            <div class="fized_size_element"></div>
            <div class="fized_size_element"></div>
            <div class="fized_size_element"></div>
            <div class="fized_size_element"></div>
            <div class="fized_size_element"></div>
        </div>
        <div id="content">
            CONTENT
        </div>
    </div>
    <div id="footer">
        FOOTER
    </div>
</div>
</body>

I wresteled with this for a while and ended up with the following:

Since it is easy to make the content DIV the same height as the parent but apparently difficult to make it the parent height minus the header height I decided to make content div full height but position it absolutely in the top left corner and then define a padding for the top which has the height of the header. This way the content displays neatly under the header and fills the whole remaining space:

body {
    padding: 0;
    margin: 0;
    height: 100%;
    overflow: hidden;
}

#header {
    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    height: 50px;
}

#content {
    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    padding-top: 50px;
    height: 100%;
}

If you can deal with not supporting old browsers (that is, MSIE 9 or older), you can do this with Flexible Box Layout Module which is already W3C CR. That module allows other nice tricks, too, such as re-ordering content.

Unfortunately, MSIE 9 or lesser do not support this and you have to use vendor prefix for the CSS property for every browser other than Firefox. Hopefully other vendors drop the prefix soon, too.

An another choice would be CSS Grid Layout but that has even less support from stable versions of browsers. In practice, only MSIE 10 supports this.


Instead of using tables in the markup, you could use CSS tables.

Markup

<body>    
    <div>hello </div>
    <div>there</div>
</body>

(Relevant) CSS

body
{
    display:table;
    width:100%;
}
div
{
    display:table-row;
}
div+ div
{
    height:100%;  
}

FIDDLE1 and FIDDLE2

Some advantages of this method are:

1) Less markup

2) Markup is more semantic than tables, because this is not tabular data.

3) Browser support is very good: IE8+, All modern browsers and mobile devices (caniuse)


Just for completeness, here are the equivalent Html elements to css properties for the The CSS table model
table    { display: table }
tr       { display: table-row }
thead    { display: table-header-group }
tbody    { display: table-row-group }
tfoot    { display: table-footer-group }
col      { display: table-column }
colgroup { display: table-column-group }
td, th   { display: table-cell }
caption  { display: table-caption } 


None of the solutions posted work when you need the bottom div to scroll when the content is too tall. Here's a solution that works in that case:

HTML:

<div class="table container">
  <div class="table-row header">
    <div>This is the header whose height is unknown</div>
    <div>This is the header whose height is unknown</div>
    <div>This is the header whose height is unknown</div>
  </div>
  <div class="table-row body">
    <div class="table-cell body-content-outer-wrapper">
      <div class="body-content-inner-wrapper">
        <div class="body-content">
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
          <div>This is the scrollable content whose height is unknown</div>
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
</div>

CSS:

.table {
  display: table;
}
.table-row {
  display: table-row;
}
.table-cell {
  display: table-cell;
}
.container {
  width: 400px;
  height: 300px;
}
.header {
  background: cyan;
}
.body {
  background: yellow;
  height: 100%;
}
.body-content-outer-wrapper {
  height: 100%;
}
.body-content-inner-wrapper {
  height: 100%;
  position: relative;
  overflow: auto;
}
.body-content {
  position: absolute;
  top: 0;
  bottom: 0;
  left: 0;
  right: 0;
}

Original source: Filling the Remaining Height of a Container While Handling Overflow in CSS

JSFiddle live preview


The original post is more than 3 years ago. I guess many people who come to this post like me are looking for an app-like layout solution, say a somehow fixed header, footer, and full height content taking up the rest screen. If so, this post may help, it works on IE7+, etc.

http://blog.stevensanderson.com/2011/10/05/full-height-app-layouts-a-css-trick-to-make-it-easier/

And here are some snippets from that post:

@media screen { 
  
  /* start of screen rules. */ 
  
  /* Generic pane rules */
  body { margin: 0 }
  .row, .col { overflow: hidden; position: absolute; }
  .row { left: 0; right: 0; }
  .col { top: 0; bottom: 0; }
  .scroll-x { overflow-x: auto; }
  .scroll-y { overflow-y: auto; }

  .header.row { height: 75px; top: 0; }
  .body.row { top: 75px; bottom: 50px; }
  .footer.row { height: 50px; bottom: 0; }
  
  /* end of screen rules. */ 
}
<div class="header row" style="background:yellow;">
    <h2>My header</h2>
</div> 
<div class="body row scroll-y" style="background:lightblue;">
    <p>The body</p>
</div> 
<div class="footer row" style="background:#e9e9e9;">
    My footer
</div>

There really isn't a sound, cross-browser way to do this in CSS. Assuming your layout has complexities, you need to use JavaScript to set the element's height. The essence of what you need to do is:

Element Height = Viewport height - element.offset.top - desired bottom margin

Once you can get this value and set the element's height, you need to attach event handlers to both the window onload and onresize so that you can fire your resize function.

Also, assuming your content could be larger than the viewport, you will need to set overflow-y to scroll.


Try this

var sizeFooter = function(){
    $(".webfooter")
        .css("padding-bottom", "0px")
        .css("padding-bottom", $(window).height() - $("body").height())
}
$(window).resize(sizeFooter);

Used: height: calc(100vh - 110px);

code:

  
.header { height: 60px; top: 0; background-color: green}
.body {
    height: calc(100vh - 110px); /*50+60*/
    background-color: gray;
}
.footer { height: 50px; bottom: 0; }
  
<div class="header">
    <h2>My header</h2>
</div> 
<div class="body">
    <p>The body</p>
</div> 
<div class="footer">
    My footer
</div>

What worked for me (with a div within another div and I assume in all other circumstances) is to set the bottom padding to 100%. That is, add this to your css / stylesheet:

padding-bottom: 100%;

Why not just like this?

html, body {
    height: 100%;
}

#containerInput {
    background-image: url('../img/edit_bg.jpg');
    height: 40%;
}

#containerControl {
    background-image: url('../img/control_bg.jpg');
    height: 60%;
}

Giving you html and body (in that order) a height and then just give your elements a height?

Works for me


it never worked for me in other way then with use of the JavaScript as NICCAI suggested in the very first answer. I am using that approach to rescale the <div> with the Google Maps.

Here is the full example how to do that (works in Safari/FireFox/IE/iPhone/Andorid (works with rotation)):

CSS

body {
  height: 100%;
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

.header {
  height: 100px;
  background-color: red;
}

.content {
  height: 100%;
  background-color: green;
}

JS

function resize() {
  // Get elements and necessary element heights
  var contentDiv = document.getElementById("contentId");
  var headerDiv = document.getElementById("headerId");
  var headerHeight = headerDiv.offsetHeight;

  // Get view height
  var viewportHeight = document.getElementsByTagName('body')[0].clientHeight;

  // Compute the content height - we want to fill the whole remaining area
  // in browser window
  contentDiv.style.height = viewportHeight - headerHeight;
}

window.onload = resize;
window.onresize = resize;

HTML

<body>
  <div class="header" id="headerId">Hello</div>
  <div class="content" id="contentId"></div>
</body>

 style="height:100vh"

solved the problem for me. In my case I applied this to the required div





html-table