php - has - wp super cache curl error 60: ssl certificate problem: unable to get local issuer certificate

cURL error 60: SSL certificate: unable to get local issuer certificate (12)

I use WAMP on a local development environment and am trying to charge a credit card but get the error message:

cURL error 60: SSL certificate problem: unable to get local issuer certificate

I searched a lot on Google and lots of people are suggesting that I download this file: cacert.pem , put it somewhere and reference it in my php.ini. This is the part in my php.ini:

curl.cainfo = "C:\Windows\cacert.pem"

Yet, even after restarting my server several times and changing the path, I get the same error message.

I use WAMP from the Apache Modules and have the ssl_module enabled. And from the PGP extensions I have php_curl enabled.

Still the same error message. Why is that happening?

Now I am following this fix: How to fix PHP CURL Error 60 SSL

Which suggests that I add these lines to my cURL options:

curl_setopt($process, CURLOPT_CAINFO, dirname(__FILE__) . '/cacert.pem');
curl_setopt($process, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, true);

Where do I add options to my cURL? Apparently not through the command line, since my CLI doesn't find the command "curl_setopt"


This is the code I am running:

public function chargeStripe()
    $stripe = new Stripe;
    $stripe = Stripe::make(env('STRIPE_PUBLIC_KEY'));

    $charge = $stripe->charges()->create([
        'amount'   => 2900,
        'customer' => Input::get('stripeEmail'),
        'currency' => 'EUR',


    // echo $charge[Input::get('stripeToken')];

    return Redirect::route('step1');

All of the answers are correct ; but the most important thing is You have to find the right php.ini file. check this command in cmd " php --ini " is not the right answer for finding the right php.ini file.

if you edit

curl.cainfo ="PATH/cacert.pem"

and check


then curl.cainfo should have a value. if not then that's not right php.ini file;

*I recommend you to search *.ini in wamp/bin or xxamp/bin or any server you use and change them one by one and check it. *

As you are using Windows, I think your path separator is '\' (and '/' on Linux). Try using the constant DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR . Your code will be more portable.


curl_setopt($process, CURLOPT_CAINFO, dirname(__FILE__) . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR . 'cacert.pem');

EDIT: and write the full path. I had some issues with relative paths (perhaps curl is executed from another base directory?)

Be sure that you open the php.ini file directly by your Window Explorer. (in my case: C:\DevPrograms\wamp64\bin\php\php5.6.25 ).

Don't use the shortcut to php.ini in the Wamp/Xamp icon's menu in the System Tray. This shortcut doesn't work in this case.

Then edit that php.ini :

curl.cainfo ="C:/DevPrograms/wamp64/bin/php/cacert.pem" 



After saving php.ini you don't need to "Restart All Services" in Wamp icon or close/re-open CMD.

Guzzle, which is used by cartalyst/stripe , will do the following to find a proper certificate archive to check a server certificate against:

  1. Check if openssl.cafile is set in your php.ini file.
  2. Check if curl.cainfo is set in your php.ini file.
  3. Check if /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt exists (Red Hat, CentOS, Fedora; provided by the ca-certificates package)
  4. Check if /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt exists (Ubuntu, Debian; provided by the ca-certificates package)
  5. Check if /usr/local/share/certs/ca-root-nss.crt exists (FreeBSD; provided by the ca_root_nss package)
  6. Check if /usr/local/etc/openssl/cert.pem (OS X; provided by homebrew)
  7. Check if C:\windows\system32\curl-ca-bundle.crt exists (Windows)
  8. Check if C:\windows\curl-ca-bundle.crt exists (Windows)

You will want to make sure that the values for the first two settings are properly defined by doing a simple test:

echo "openssl.cafile: ", ini_get('openssl.cafile'), "\n";
echo "curl.cainfo: ", ini_get('curl.cainfo'), "\n";

Alternatively, try to write the file into the locations indicated by #7 or #8.

I found a solution that worked for me. I downgraded from the latest guzzle to version ~4.0 and it worked.

In composer.json add "guzzlehttp/guzzle": "~4.0"

Hope it helps someone

I had this problem appear out-of-the-blue one day, when a Guzzle(5) script was attempting to connect to a host over SSL. Sure, I could disable the VERIFY option in Guzzle/Curl, but that's clearly not the correct way to go.

I tried everything listed here and in similar threads, then eventually went to terminal with openssl to test against the domain with which I was trying to connect:

openssl s_client -connect 

... and received first few lines indicating:

depth=0 CN =
verify error:num=20:unable to get local issuer certificate
verify return:1
depth=0 CN =
verify error:num=21:unable to verify the first certificate
verify return:1 

... while everything worked fine when trying other destinations (ie:, etc)

This prompted me to contact the domain I had been trying to connect to, and indeed, they had a problem on THEIR END that had crept up. It was resolved and my script went back to working.

So... if you're pulling your hair out, give openssl a shot and see if there's anything up with the response from the location you are attempting to connect. Maybe the issue isn't so 'local' after all sometimes.

I spent too much time to figure out this problem for me.

I had PHP version 5.5 and I needed to upgrade to 5.6.

In versions < 5.6 Guzzle will use it's own cacert.pem file, but in higher versions of PHP it will use system's cacert.pem file.

I also downloaded file from here and set it in php.ini.

Answer found in Guzzles StreamHandler.php file

        // PHP 5.6 or greater will find the system cert by default. When
        // < 5.6, use the Guzzle bundled cacert.

If you are using PHP 5.6 with Guzzle, Guzzle has switched to using the PHP libraries autodetect for certificates rather than it's process ( ref ). PHP outlines the changes here .

Finding out Where PHP/Guzzle is Looking for Certificates

You can to dump where PHP is looking using:


Getting a Certificate Bundle

For OS X testing, you can use homebrew to install openssl brew install openssl and then use openssl.cafile=/usr/local/etc/openssl/cert.pem in your php.ini or Zend Server settings (under OpenSSL).

A certificate bundle is also available from curl/Mozilla on the curl website:

Telling PHP Where the Certificates Are

Once you have a bundle, either place it where PHP is already looking (which you found out above) or update openssl.cafile in php.ini. (Generally, /etc/php.ini or /etc/php/7.0/cli/php.ini or /etc/php/php.ini on Unix.)

This might be an edge case, but in my case the problem was not the client conf (I already had curl.cainfo configured in php.ini ), but rather the remote server not being configured properly:

It did not send any intermediate certs in the chain. There was no error browsing the site using Chrome, but with PHP I got following error.

cURL error 60

After including the Intermediate Certs in the remote webserver configuration it worked.

You can use this site to check the SSL configuration of your server:

What i did was use var_dump(openssl_get_cert_locations()); die; in any php script, which gave me the information about defaults that my local php was using:

array (size=8)
  'default_cert_file' => string 'c:/openssl-1.0.1c/ssl/cert.pem' (length=30)
  'default_cert_file_env' => string 'SSL_CERT_FILE' (length=13)
  'default_cert_dir' => string 'c:/openssl-1.0.1c/ssl/certs' (length=27)
  'default_cert_dir_env' => string 'SSL_CERT_DIR' (length=12)
  'default_private_dir' => string 'c:/openssl-1.0.1c/ssl/private' (length=29)
  'default_default_cert_area' => string 'c:/openssl-1.0.1c/ssl' (length=21)
  'ini_cafile' => string 'E:\xampp\php\extras\ssl\cacert.pem' (length=34)
  'ini_capath' => string '' (length=0)

As you can notice, i have set the ini_cafile or the ini option curl.cainfo. But in my case, curl would try to use the "default_cert_file" which did not exist.

I copied the file from into the location for "default_cert_file" (c:/openssl-1.0.1c/ssl/cert.pem) and i was able to get it to work.

This was the only solution for me.

when I run 'var_dump(php_ini_loaded_file());' I get this output on my page 'C:\Development\bin\apache\apache2.4.33\bin\php.ini' (length=50)'

and to get php to load my cert file I had to edit the php.ini in this path 'C:\Development\bin\apache\apache2.4.33\bin\php.ini' and add openssl.cafile="C:/Development/bin/php/php7.2.4/extras/ssl/cacert.pem" where I had downloaded and place my cert file from

am on windows 10, using drupal 8, wamp and php7.2.4

working solution:

  • Assuming On windows

XAMPP server

similar for other environment - download and extract for cacert.pem here (a clean file format/data)

  • put it here


  • in your php.ini put this line in this section ("c:\xampp\php\php.ini"):
; php.ini Options  ;

curl.cainfo = "C:\xampp\php\extras\ssl\cacert.pem"
  • restart your webserver/apache

Problem solved!

(source: )