savedinstancestate - save instance state android fragment




Saving Android Activity state using Save Instance State (18)

Adding LiveData (Android Architecture Components) to your project

add the following dependency

implementation "android.arch.lifecycle:extensions:1.1.0"

LiveData takes in an observer and notifies it about data changes only when it is in STARTED or RESUMED state. The advantage with LiveData is that when your activity goes into any state other than STARTED or RESUMED it will not call the onChanged method on the observer.

private TextView mTextView;
private MutableLiveData<String> mMutableLiveData;

@Override
protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    mTextView = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.textView);
    mMutableLiveData = new MutableLiveData<>();
    mMutableLiveData.observe(this, new Observer<String>() {
        @Override
        public void onChanged(@Nullable String s) {
            mTextView.setText(s);
        }
    });

}

I've been working on Android SDK platform, and it is a little unclear how to save an application's state. So given this minor re-tooling of the 'Hello, Android' example:

package com.android.hello;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class HelloAndroid extends Activity {

  private TextView mTextView = null;

  /** Called when the activity is first created. */
  @Override
  public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

    mTextView = new TextView(this);

    if (savedInstanceState == null) {
       mTextView.setText("Welcome to HelloAndroid!");
    } else {
       mTextView.setText("Welcome back.");
    }

    setContentView(mTextView);
  }
}

I thought it would be enough for the simplest case, but it always responds with the first message, no matter how I navigate away from the app.

I'm sure the solution is as simple as overriding onPause or something like that, but I've been poking away in the documentation for 30 minutes or so and haven't found anything obvious.


onSaveInstanceState() for transient data (restored in onCreate()/onRestoreInstanceState()), onPause() for persistent data (restored in onResume()). From Android technical resources:

onSaveInstanceState() is called by Android if the Activity is being stopped and may be killed before it is resumed! This means it should store any state necessary to re-initialize to the same condition when the Activity is restarted. It is the counterpart to the onCreate() method, and in fact the savedInstanceState Bundle passed in to onCreate() is the same Bundle that you construct as outState in the onSaveInstanceState() method.

onPause() and onResume() are also complimentary methods. onPause() is always called when the Activity ends, even if we instigated that (with a finish() call for example). We will use this to save the current note back to the database. Good practice is to release any resources that can be released during an onPause() as well, to take up less resources when in the passive state.


Recreating an Activity

There are a few scenarios in which your activity is destroyed due to normal app behavior, such as when the user presses the Back button or your activity signals its own destruction by calling finish(). The system may also destroy your activity if it's currently stopped and hasn't been used in a long time or the foreground activity requires more resources so the system must shut down background processes to recover memory.

When your activity is destroyed because the user presses Back or the activity finishes itself, the system's concept of that Activity instance is gone forever because the behavior indicates the activity is no longer needed. However, if the system destroys the activity due to system constraints (rather than normal app behavior), then although the actual Activity instance is gone, the system remembers that it existed such that if the user navigates back to it, the system creates a new instance of the activity using a set of saved data that describes the state of the activity when it was destroyed. The saved data that the system uses to restore the previous state is called the "instance state" and is a collection of key-value pairs stored in a Bundle object.

To save additional data about the activity state, you must override the onSaveInstanceState() callback method. The system calls this method when the user is leaving your activity and passes it the Bundle object that will be saved in the event that your activity is destroyed unexpectedly. If the system must recreate the activity instance later, it passes the same Bundle object to both the onRestoreInstanceState() and onCreate() methods.

As the system begins to stop your activity, it calls onSaveInstanceState() (1) so you can specify additional state data you'd like to save in case the Activity instance must be recreated. If the activity is destroyed and the same instance must be recreated, the system passes the state data defined at (1) to both the onCreate() method (2) and the onRestoreInstanceState() method (3).

Save Your Activity State

As your activity begins to stop, the system calls onSaveInstanceState() so your activity can save state information with a collection of key-value pairs. The default implementation of this method saves information about the state of the activity's view hierarchy, such as the text in an EditText widget or the scroll position of a ListView.

To save additional state information for your activity, you must implement onSaveInstanceState() and add key-value pairs to the Bundle object. For example:

  static final String STATE_SCORE = "playerScore";
  static final String STATE_LEVEL = "playerLevel";

  @Override
  public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
  // Save the user's current game state
  savedInstanceState.putInt(STATE_SCORE, mCurrentScore);
  savedInstanceState.putInt(STATE_LEVEL, mCurrentLevel);

  // Always call the superclass so it can save the view hierarchy state
  super.onSaveInstanceState(savedInstanceState);
}

Caution: Always call the superclass implementation of onSaveInstanceState() so the default implementation can save the state of the view hierarchy.

Restore Your Activity State

When your activity is recreated after it was previously destroyed, you can recover your saved state from the Bundle that the system passes your activity. Both the onCreate() and onRestoreInstanceState() callback methods receive the same Bundle that contains the instance state information.

Because the onCreate() method is called whether the system is creating a new instance of your activity or recreating a previous one, you must check whether the state Bundle is null before you attempt to read it. If it is null, then the system is creating a new instance of the activity, instead of restoring a previous one that was destroyed.

For example, here's how you can restore some state data in onCreate():

 @Override
 protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
 super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); // Always call the superclass first

 // Check whether we're recreating a previously destroyed instance
 if (savedInstanceState != null) {
    // Restore value of members from saved state
    mCurrentScore = savedInstanceState.getInt(STATE_SCORE);
    mCurrentLevel = savedInstanceState.getInt(STATE_LEVEL);
 } else {
    // Probably initialize members with default values for a new instance
 }

 }

Instead of restoring the state during onCreate() you may choose to implement onRestoreInstanceState(), which the system calls after the onStart() method. The system calls onRestoreInstanceState() only if there is a saved state to restore, so you do not need to check whether the Bundle is null:

  public void onRestoreInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
  // Always call the superclass so it can restore the view hierarchy
  super.onRestoreInstanceState(savedInstanceState);

  // Restore state members from saved instance
  mCurrentScore = savedInstanceState.getInt(STATE_SCORE);
  mCurrentLevel = savedInstanceState.getInt(STATE_LEVEL);
}

Although the accepted answer is correct, there is a faster and easier method to save the Activity state on Android using a library called Icepick. Icepick is an annotation processor that takes care of all the boilerplate code used in saving and restoring state for you.

Doing something like this with Icepick:

class MainActivity extends Activity {
  @State String username; // These will be automatically saved and restored
  @State String password;
  @State int age;

  @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    Icepick.restoreInstanceState(this, savedInstanceState);
  }

  @Override public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle outState) {
    super.onSaveInstanceState(outState);
    Icepick.saveInstanceState(this, outState);
  }
}

Is the same as doing this:

class MainActivity extends Activity {
  String username;
  String password;
  int age;

  @Override
  public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onSaveInstanceState(savedInstanceState);
    savedInstanceState.putString("MyString", username);
    savedInstanceState.putString("MyPassword", password);
    savedInstanceState.putInt("MyAge", age); 
    /* remember you would need to actually initialize these variables before putting it in the
    Bundle */
  }

  @Override
  public void onRestoreInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onRestoreInstanceState(savedInstanceState);
    username = savedInstanceState.getString("MyString");
    password = savedInstanceState.getString("MyPassword");
    age = savedInstanceState.getInt("MyAge");
  }
}

Icepick will work with any object that saves its state with a Bundle.


Here is a comment from Steve Moseley's answer (by ToolmakerSteve) that puts things into perspective (in the whole onSaveInstanceState vs onPause, east cost vs west cost saga)

@VVK - I partially disagree. Some ways of exiting an app don't trigger onSaveInstanceState (oSIS). This limits the usefulness of oSIS. Its worth supporting, for minimal OS resources, but if an app wants to return the user to the state they were in, no matter how the app was exited, it is necessary to use a persistent storage approach instead. I use onCreate to check for bundle, and if it is missing, then check persistent storage. This centralizes the decision making. I can recover from a crash, or back button exit or custom menu item Exit, or get back to screen user was on many days later. – ToolmakerSteve Sep 19 '15 at 10:38


I think I found the answer. Let me tell what I have done in simple words:

Suppose I have two activities, activity1 and activity2 and I am navigating from activity1 to activity2 (I have done some works in activity2) and again back to activity 1 by clicking on a button in activity1. Now at this stage I wanted to go back to activity2 and I want to see my activity2 in the same condition when I last left activity2.

For the above scenario what I have done is that in the manifest I made some changes like this:

<activity android:name=".activity2"
          android:alwaysRetainTaskState="true"      
          android:launchMode="singleInstance">
</activity>

And in the activity1 on the button click event I have done like this:

Intent intent = new Intent();
intent.setFlags(Intent.FLAG_ACTIVITY_REORDER_TO_FRONT);
intent.setClassName(this,"com.mainscreen.activity2");
startActivity(intent);

And in activity2 on button click event I have done like this:

Intent intent=new Intent();
intent.setClassName(this,"com.mainscreen.activity1");
startActivity(intent);

Now what will happen is that whatever the changes we have made in the activity2 will not be lost, and we can view activity2 in the same state as we left previously.

I believe this is the answer and this works fine for me. Correct me if I am wrong.


Meanwhile I do in general no more use

Bundle savedInstanceState & Co

the live cycle is for most activities too complicated and not necessary. And google states itself, it is NOT even reliable.

My way is to save any changes immediately in the preferences

 SharedPreferences p;
 p.edit().put(..).commit()

in some way SharedPreferences work similar like Bundles. And naturally and at first such values have to be red from preferences.

In the case of complex data you may use Sqlite instead of using preferences.

When applying this concept, the activity just continues to use the last saved state, regardless whether it was an initial open with reboots in between or a reopen due to the back stack.


My colleague wrote an article explaining Application State on Android devices including explanations on Activity Lifecycle and State Information, How to Store State Information, and saving to State Bundle and SharedPreferences and take a look at here.

The article covers three approaches:

Store local varible/UI control data for application lifetime (ie temporarily) using Instance State Bundle

[Code sample – Store State in State Bundle]
@Override
public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) 
{
  // Store UI state to the savedInstanceState.
  // This bundle will be passed to onCreate on next call.  EditText txtName = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.txtName);
  String strName = txtName.getText().toString();

  EditText txtEmail = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.txtEmail);
  String strEmail = txtEmail.getText().toString();

  CheckBox chkTandC = (CheckBox)findViewById(R.id.chkTandC);
  boolean blnTandC = chkTandC.isChecked();

  savedInstanceState.putString(“Name”, strName);
  savedInstanceState.putString(“Email”, strEmail);
  savedInstanceState.putBoolean(“TandC”, blnTandC);

  super.onSaveInstanceState(savedInstanceState);
}

Store local varible/UI control data between application instances (ie permanently) using Shared Preferences

[Code sample – Store State in SharedPreferences]
@Override
protected void onPause() 
{
  super.onPause();

  // Store values between instances here
  SharedPreferences preferences = getPreferences(MODE_PRIVATE);
  SharedPreferences.Editor editor = preferences.edit();  // Put the values from the UI
  EditText txtName = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.txtName);
  String strName = txtName.getText().toString();

  EditText txtEmail = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.txtEmail);
  String strEmail = txtEmail.getText().toString();

  CheckBox chkTandC = (CheckBox)findViewById(R.id.chkTandC);
  boolean blnTandC = chkTandC.isChecked();

  editor.putString(“Name”, strName); // value to store
  editor.putString(“Email”, strEmail); // value to store
  editor.putBoolean(“TandC”, blnTandC); // value to store    
  // Commit to storage
  editor.commit();
}

Keeping object instances alive in memory between activities within application lifetime using Retained Non-Configuration Instance

[Code sample – store object instance]
private cMyClassType moInstanceOfAClass;// Store the instance of an object
@Override
public Object onRetainNonConfigurationInstance() 
{
  if (moInstanceOfAClass != null) // Check that the object exists
      return(moInstanceOfAClass);
  return super.onRetainNonConfigurationInstance();
}

Not sure if my solution is frowned upon or not but I use a bound service to persist ViewModel state. Whether you store it in memory in the service or persist and retrieve from a SqlLite database depends on your requirements. This is what services of any flavor do, they provide services such as maintaining application state and abstract common business logic.

Because of memory and processing constraints inherent on mobile devices, I treat Android views in a similar way to a web page. The page does not maintain state, it is purely a presentation layer component whose only purpose is to present application state and accept user input. Recent trends in web app architecture employ the use of the age old Model, View, Controller (MVC) pattern, where the page is the View, Domain data is the model and the controller sits behind a web service. The same pattern can be employed in android with the View being well ... the View, the model is your domain data and the Controller is implemented as an Android bound service. Whenever you want a view to interact with the controller, bind to it on start/resume and unbind on stop/pause.

This approach gives you the added bonus of enforcing the Separation of Concern design principle in that all of you application business logic can be moved into your service which reduces duplicated logic across multiple views and allows the view to enforce another important design principle, Single Responsibility.


Note that it is NOT safe to use onSaveInstanceState and onRestoreInstanceState for persistent data, according to the documentation on Activity states in http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/Activity.html.

The document states (in the 'Activity Lifecycle' section):

Note that it is important to save persistent data in onPause() instead of onSaveInstanceState(Bundle) because the later is not part of the lifecycle callbacks, so will not be called in every situation as described in its documentation.

In other words, put your save/restore code for persistent data in onPause() and onResume()!

EDIT: For further clarification, here's the onSaveInstanceState() documentation:

This method is called before an activity may be killed so that when it comes back some time in the future it can restore its state. For example, if activity B is launched in front of activity A, and at some point activity A is killed to reclaim resources, activity A will have a chance to save the current state of its user interface via this method so that when the user returns to activity A, the state of the user interface can be restored via onCreate(Bundle) or onRestoreInstanceState(Bundle).


Really onSaveInstance state callen when the Activity goes to background

Quote from the docs: "the method onSaveInstanceState(Bundle) is called before placing the activity in such a background state"


Saving state is a kludge at best as far as I'm concerned. If you need to save persistent data, just use an SQLite database. Android makes it SOOO easy.

Something like this:

import java.util.Date;
import android.content.Context;
import android.database.Cursor;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteOpenHelper;

public class dataHelper {

    private static final String DATABASE_NAME = "autoMate.db";
    private static final int DATABASE_VERSION = 1;

    private Context context;
    private SQLiteDatabase db;
    private OpenHelper oh ;

    public dataHelper(Context context) {
        this.context = context;
        this.oh = new OpenHelper(this.context);
        this.db = oh.getWritableDatabase();
    }

    public void close()
    {
        db.close();
        oh.close();
        db = null;
        oh = null;
        SQLiteDatabase.releaseMemory();
    }


    public void setCode(String codeName, Object codeValue, String codeDataType)
    {
        Cursor codeRow = db.rawQuery("SELECT * FROM code WHERE codeName = '"+  codeName + "'", null);
        String cv = "" ;

        if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("long") == true)
        {
            cv = String.valueOf(codeValue);
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("int") == true)
        {
            cv = String.valueOf(codeValue);
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("date") == true)
        {
            cv = String.valueOf(((Date)codeValue).getTime());
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("boolean") == true)
        {
            String.valueOf(codeValue);
        }
        else
        {
            cv = String.valueOf(codeValue);
        }

        if(codeRow.getCount() > 0) //exists-- update
        {
            db.execSQL("update code set codeValue = '" + cv +
                "' where codeName = '" + codeName + "'");
        }
        else // does not exist, insert
        {
            db.execSQL("INSERT INTO code (codeName, codeValue, codeDataType) VALUES(" +
                    "'" + codeName + "'," +
                    "'" + cv + "'," +
                    "'" + codeDataType + "')" );
        }
    }

    public Object getCode(String codeName, Object defaultValue)
    {
        //Check to see if it already exists
        String codeValue = "";
        String codeDataType = "";
        boolean found = false;
        Cursor codeRow  = db.rawQuery("SELECT * FROM code WHERE codeName = '"+  codeName + "'", null);
        if (codeRow.moveToFirst())
        {
            codeValue = codeRow.getString(codeRow.getColumnIndex("codeValue"));
            codeDataType = codeRow.getString(codeRow.getColumnIndex("codeDataType"));
            found = true;
        }

        if (found == false)
        {
            return defaultValue;
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("long") == true)
        {
            if (codeValue.equals("") == true)
            {
                return (long)0;
            }
            return Long.parseLong(codeValue);
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("int") == true)
        {
            if (codeValue.equals("") == true)
            {
                return (int)0;
            }
            return Integer.parseInt(codeValue);
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("date") == true)
        {
            if (codeValue.equals("") == true)
            {
                return null;
            }
            return new Date(Long.parseLong(codeValue));
        }
        else if (codeDataType.toLowerCase().trim().equals("boolean") == true)
        {
            if (codeValue.equals("") == true)
            {
                return false;
            }
            return Boolean.parseBoolean(codeValue);
        }
        else
        {
            return (String)codeValue;
        }
    }


    private static class OpenHelper extends SQLiteOpenHelper {

        OpenHelper(Context context) {
            super(context, DATABASE_NAME, null, DATABASE_VERSION);
        }

        @Override
        public void onCreate(SQLiteDatabase db) {
            db.execSQL("CREATE TABLE IF  NOT EXISTS code" +
            "(id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, codeName TEXT, codeValue TEXT, codeDataType TEXT)");
        }

        @Override
        public void onUpgrade(SQLiteDatabase db, int oldVersion, int newVersion) {
        }
    }
}

A simple call after that

dataHelper dh = new dataHelper(getBaseContext());
String status = (String) dh.getCode("appState", "safetyDisabled");
Date serviceStart = (Date) dh.getCode("serviceStartTime", null);
dh.close();
dh = null;

The onSaveInstanceState(bundle) and onRestoreInstanceState(bundle) methods are useful for data persistence merely while rotating the screen (orientation change).
They are not even good while switching between applications (since the onSaveInstanceState() method is called but onCreate(bundle) and onRestoreInstanceState(bundle) is not invoked again.
For more persistence use shared preferences. read this article


The savedInstanceState is only for saving state associated with a current instance of an Activity, for example current navigation or selection info, so that if Android destroys and recreates an Activity, it can come back as it was before. See the documentation for onCreate and onSaveInstanceState

For more long lived state, consider using a SQLite database, a file, or preferences. See Saving Persistent State.


This is a classic 'gotcha' of Android development. There are two issues here:

  • There is a subtle Android Framework bug which greatly complicates application stack management during development, at least on legacy versions (not entirely sure if/when/how it was fixed). I'll discuss this bug below.
  • The 'normal' or intended way to manage this issue is, itself, rather complicated with the duality of onPause/onResume and onSaveInstanceState/onRestoreInstanceState

Browsing across all these threads, I suspect that much of the time developers are talking about these two different issues simultaneously ... hence all the confusion and reports of "this doesn't work for me".

First, to clarify the 'intended' behavior: onSaveInstance and onRestoreInstance are fragile and only for transient state. The intended usage (afaict) is to handle Activity recreation when the phone is rotated (orientation change). In other words, the intended usage is when your Activity is still logically 'on top', but still must be reinstantiated by the system. The saved Bundle is not persisted outside of the process/memory/gc, so you cannot really rely on this if your activity goes to the background. Yes, perhaps your Activity's memory will survive its trip to the background and escape GC, but this is not reliable (nor is it predictable).

So if you have a scenario where there is meaningful 'user progress' or state that should be persisted between 'launches' of your application, the guidance is to use onPause and onResume. You must choose and prepare a persistent store yourself.

BUT - there is a very confusing bug which complicates all of this. Details are here:

http://code.google.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=2373

http://code.google.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=5277

Basically, if your application is launched with the SingleTask flag, and then later on you launch it from the home screen or launcher menu, then that subsequent invocation will create a NEW task ... you'll effectively have two different instances of your app inhabiting the same stack ... which gets very strange very fast. This seems to happen when you launch your app during development (i.e. from Eclipse or Intellij), so developers run into this a lot. But also through some of the app store update mechanisms (so it impacts your users as well).

I battled through these threads for hours before I realized that my main issue was this bug, not the intended framework behavior. A great writeup and workaround (UPDATE: see below) seems to be from user @kaciula in this answer:

Home key press behaviour

UPDATE June 2013: Months later, I have finally found the 'correct' solution. You don't need to manage any stateful startedApp flags yourself, you can detect this from the framework and bail appropriately. I use this near the beginning of my LauncherActivity.onCreate:

if (!isTaskRoot()) {
    Intent intent = getIntent();
    String action = intent.getAction();
    if (intent.hasCategory(Intent.CATEGORY_LAUNCHER) && action != null && action.equals(Intent.ACTION_MAIN)) {
        finish();
        return;
    }
}

To answer the original question directly. savedInstancestate is null because your Activity is never being re-created.

Your Activity will only be re-created with a state bundle when:

  • Configuration changes such as changing the orientation or phone language which may requires a new activity instance to be created.
  • You return to the app from the background after the OS has destroyed the activity.

Android will destroy background activities when under memory pressure or after they've been in the background for an extended period of time.

When testing your hello world example there are a few ways to leave and return to the Activity.

  • When you press the back button the Activity is finished. Re-launching the app is a brand new instance. You aren't resuming from the background at all.
  • When you press the home button or use the task switcher the Activity will go into the background. When navigating back to the application onCreate will only be called if the Activity had to be destroyed.

In most cases if you're just pressing home and then launching the app again the activity won't need to be re-created. It already exists in memory so onCreate() won't be called.

There is an option under Settings -> Developer Options called "Don't keep activities". When it's enabled Android will always destroy activities and recreate them when they're backgrounded. This is a great option to leave enabled when developing because it simulates the worst case scenario. ( A low memory device recycling your activities all the time ).

The other answers are valuable in that they teach you the correct ways to store state but I didn't feel they really answered WHY your code wasn't working in the way you expected.


To help reduce boilerplate I use the following interface and class to read/write to a Bundle for saving instance state.


First, create an interface that will be used to annotate your instance variables:

import java.lang.annotation.Documented;
import java.lang.annotation.ElementType;
import java.lang.annotation.Retention;
import java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy;
import java.lang.annotation.Target;

@Documented
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Target({
        ElementType.FIELD
})
public @interface SaveInstance {

}

Then, create a class where reflection will be used to save values to the bundle:

import android.app.Activity;
import android.app.Fragment;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Parcelable;
import android.util.Log;

import java.io.Serializable;
import java.lang.reflect.Field;

/**
 * Save and load fields to/from a {@link Bundle}. All fields should be annotated with {@link
 * SaveInstance}.</p>
 */
public class Icicle {

    private static final String TAG = "Icicle";

    /**
     * Find all fields with the {@link SaveInstance} annotation and add them to the {@link Bundle}.
     *
     * @param outState
     *         The bundle from {@link Activity#onSaveInstanceState(Bundle)} or {@link
     *         Fragment#onSaveInstanceState(Bundle)}
     * @param classInstance
     *         The object to access the fields which have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     * @see #load(Bundle, Object)
     */
    public static void save(Bundle outState, Object classInstance) {
        save(outState, classInstance, classInstance.getClass());
    }

    /**
     * Find all fields with the {@link SaveInstance} annotation and add them to the {@link Bundle}.
     *
     * @param outState
     *         The bundle from {@link Activity#onSaveInstanceState(Bundle)} or {@link
     *         Fragment#onSaveInstanceState(Bundle)}
     * @param classInstance
     *         The object to access the fields which have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     * @param baseClass
     *         Base class, used to get all superclasses of the instance.
     * @see #load(Bundle, Object, Class)
     */
    public static void save(Bundle outState, Object classInstance, Class<?> baseClass) {
        if (outState == null) {
            return;
        }
        Class<?> clazz = classInstance.getClass();
        while (baseClass.isAssignableFrom(clazz)) {
            String className = clazz.getName();
            for (Field field : clazz.getDeclaredFields()) {
                if (field.isAnnotationPresent(SaveInstance.class)) {
                    field.setAccessible(true);
                    String key = className + "#" + field.getName();
                    try {
                        Object value = field.get(classInstance);
                        if (value instanceof Parcelable) {
                            outState.putParcelable(key, (Parcelable) value);
                        } else if (value instanceof Serializable) {
                            outState.putSerializable(key, (Serializable) value);
                        }
                    } catch (Throwable t) {
                        Log.d(TAG, "The field '" + key + "' was not added to the bundle");
                    }
                }
            }
            clazz = clazz.getSuperclass();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Load all saved fields that have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     *
     * @param savedInstanceState
     *         The saved-instance {@link Bundle} from an {@link Activity} or {@link Fragment}.
     * @param classInstance
     *         The object to access the fields which have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     * @see #save(Bundle, Object)
     */
    public static void load(Bundle savedInstanceState, Object classInstance) {
        load(savedInstanceState, classInstance, classInstance.getClass());
    }

    /**
     * Load all saved fields that have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     *
     * @param savedInstanceState
     *         The saved-instance {@link Bundle} from an {@link Activity} or {@link Fragment}.
     * @param classInstance
     *         The object to access the fields which have the {@link SaveInstance} annotation.
     * @param baseClass
     *         Base class, used to get all superclasses of the instance.
     * @see #save(Bundle, Object, Class)
     */
    public static void load(Bundle savedInstanceState, Object classInstance, Class<?> baseClass) {
        if (savedInstanceState == null) {
            return;
        }
        Class<?> clazz = classInstance.getClass();
        while (baseClass.isAssignableFrom(clazz)) {
            String className = clazz.getName();
            for (Field field : clazz.getDeclaredFields()) {
                if (field.isAnnotationPresent(SaveInstance.class)) {
                    String key = className + "#" + field.getName();
                    field.setAccessible(true);
                    try {
                        Object fieldVal = savedInstanceState.get(key);
                        if (fieldVal != null) {
                            field.set(classInstance, fieldVal);
                        }
                    } catch (Throwable t) {
                        Log.d(TAG, "The field '" + key + "' was not retrieved from the bundle");
                    }
                }
            }
            clazz = clazz.getSuperclass();
        }
    }

}

Example usage:

public class MainActivity extends Activity {

    @SaveInstance
    private String foo;

    @SaveInstance
    private int bar;

    @SaveInstance
    private Intent baz;

    @SaveInstance
    private boolean qux;

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        Icicle.load(savedInstanceState, this);
    }

    @Override
    public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle outState) {
        super.onSaveInstanceState(outState);
        Icicle.save(outState, this);
    }

}

Note: This code was adapted from a library project named AndroidAutowire which is licensed under the MIT license.


When an activity is created it's onCreate() method is called.

   @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    }

savedInstanceState is an object of Bundle class which is null for the first time, but it contains values when it is recreated. To save Activity's state you have to override onSaveInstanceState().

   @Override
    protected void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle outState) {
      outState.putString("key","Welcome Back")
        super.onSaveInstanceState(outState);       //save state
    }

put your values in "outState" Bundle object like outState.putString("key","Welcome Back") and save by calling super. When activity will be destroyed it's state get saved in Bundle object and can be restored after recreation in onCreate() or onRestoreInstanceState(). Bundle received in onCreate() and onRestoreInstanceState() are same.

   @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

          //restore activity's state
         if(savedInstanceState!=null){
          String reStoredString=savedInstanceState.getString("key");
            }
    }

or

  //restores activity's saved state
 @Override
    protected void onRestoreInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
      String restoredMessage=savedInstanceState.getString("key");
    }






application-state