encoding - what - ’ php




“’” showing on page instead of “ ' ” (8)

So what's the problem,

It's a (RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK - U+2019) character which has been encoded as CP-1252 instead of UTF-8. If you check the encodings table, then you see that this character is in UTF-8 composed of bytes 0xE2, 0x80 and 0x99. If you check the CP-1252 code page layout, then you'll see that each of those bytes stand for the individual characters â, and .


and how can I fix it?

Use UTF-8 instead of CP-1252 to read, write, store, and display the characters.


I have the Content-Type set to UTF-8 in both my <head> tag and my HTTP headers:

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />

This only instructs the client which encoding to use to interpret and display the characters. This doesn't instruct your own program which encoding to use to read, write, store, and display the characters in. The exact answer depends on the server side platform / database / programming language used. Do note that the one set in HTTP response header has precedence over the HTML meta tag. The HTML meta tag would only be used when the page is opened from local disk file system instead of from HTTP.


In addition, my browser is set to Unicode (UTF-8):

This only forces the client which encoding to use to interpret and display the characters. But the actual problem is that you're already sending ’ (encoded in UTF-8) to the client instead of . The client is correctly displaying ’ using the UTF-8 encoding. If the client was misinstructed to use, for example ISO-8859-1, you would likely have seen ââ¬â¢ instead.


I am using ASP.NET 2.0 with a database.

This is most likely where your problem lies. You need to verify with an independent database tool what the data looks like.

If the character is there, then you aren't connecting to the database correctly. You need to tell the database connector to use UTF-8.

If your database contains ’, then it's your database that's messed up. Most probably the tables aren't configured to use UTF-8. Instead, they use the database's default encoding, which varies depending on the configuration. If this is your issue, then usually just altering the table to use UTF-8 is sufficient. If your database doesn't support that, you'll need to recreate the tables. It is good practice to set the encoding of the table when you create it.

You're most likely using SQL Server, but here is some MySQL code (copied from this article):

CREATE DATABASE db_name CHARACTER SET utf8;
CREATE TABLE tbl_name (...) CHARACTER SET utf8;

If your table is however already UTF-8, then you need to take a step back. Who or what put the data there. That's where the problem is. One example would be HTML form submitted values which are incorrectly encoded/decoded.


Here are some more links to learn more about the problem:

’ is showing on my page instead of '.

I have the Content-Type set to UTF-8 in both my <head> tag and my HTTP headers:

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />

In addition, my browser is set to Unicode (UTF-8):

So what's the problem, and how can I fix it?


(Unicode codepoint U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK) is encoded in UTF-8 as bytes:

0xE2 0x80 0x99.

’ (Unicode codepoints U+00E2 U+20AC U+2122) is encoded in UTF-8 as bytes:

0xC3 0xA2   0xE2 0x82 0xAC   0xE2 0x84 0xA2.

These are the bytes your browser is actually receiving in order to produce ’ when processed as UTF-8.

That means that your source data is going through two charset conversions before being sent to the browser:

  1. The source character (U+2019) is first encoded as UTF-8 bytes:

    0xE2 0x80 0x99

  2. those individual bytes were then being mis-interpreted and decoded to Unicode codepoints U+00E2 U+20AC U+2122 by one of the Windows-125X charsets (1252, 1254, 1256, and 1258 all map 0xE2 0x80 0x99 to U+00E2 U+20AC U+2122), and then those codepoints are being encoded as UTF-8 bytes:

    0xE2 -> U+00E2 -> 0xC3 0xA2
    0x80 -> U+20AC -> 0xE2 0x82 0xAC
    0x99 -> U+2122 -> 0xE2 0x84 0xA2

You need to find where the extra conversion in step 2 is being performed and remove it.


I have some documents where was showing as … and ê was showing as ê. This is how it got there (python code):

# Adam edits original file using windows-1252
windows = '\x85\xea' 
# that is HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS, LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX

# Beth reads it correctly as windows-1252 and writes it as utf-8
utf8 = windows.decode("windows-1252").encode("utf-8")
print(utf8)

# Charlie reads it *incorrectly* as windows-1252 writes a twingled utf-8 version
twingled = utf8.decode("windows-1252").encode("utf-8")
print(twingled)

# detwingle by reading as utf-8 and writing as windows-1252 (it's really utf-8)
detwingled = twingled.decode("utf-8").encode("windows-1252")

assert utf8==detwingled

To fix the problem, I used python code like this:

with open("dirty.html","rb") as f:
    dt = f.read()
ct = dt.decode("utf8").encode("windows-1252")
with open("clean.html","wb") as g:
    g.write(ct)

(Because someone had inserted the twingled version into a correct UTF-8 document, I actually had to extract only the twingled part, detwingle it and insert it back in. I used BeautifulSoup for this.)

It is far more likely that you have a Charlie in content creation than that the web server configuration is wrong. You can also force your web browser to twingle the page by selecting windows-1252 encoding for a utf-8 document. Your web browser cannot detwingle the document that Charlie saved.

Note: the same problem can happen with any other single-byte code page (e.g. latin-1) instead of windows-1252.


If someone gets this error on WordPress website, you need to change wp-config db charset:

define('DB_CHARSET', 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci');

instead of:

define('DB_CHARSET', 'utf8mb4');

Instead of Pound sign I used: & pound; without space. This resolved this issue for me.

For Euro: & euro; without space.


The same thing happened to me with the '–' character (long minus sign).
I used this simple replace so resolve it:

htmlText = htmlText.Replace('–', '-');

You have a mismatch in your character encoding; your string is encoded in one encoding (UTF-8) and whatever is interpreting this page is using another (say ASCII).

Always specify your encoding in your http headers and make sure this matches your framework's definition of encoding.

Sample http header:

Content-Type    text/html; charset=utf-8

Setting encoding in asp.net

<configuration>
  <system.web>
    <globalization
      fileEncoding="utf-8"
      requestEncoding="utf-8"
      responseEncoding="utf-8"
      culture="en-US"
      uiCulture="de-DE"
    />
  </system.web>
</configuration>

Setting encoding in jsp


You must have copy/paste text from Word Document. Word document use Smart Quotes. You can replace it with Special Character (&rsquo;) or simply type in your HTML editor (').

I'm sure this will solve your problem.





mojibake