vim - what - write file without sudo




How does the vim “write with sudo” trick work? (4)

Many of you have probably seen the command that allows you to write on a file that needs root permission, even when you forgot to open vim with sudo:

:w !sudo tee %

The thing is that I don't get what is exactly happening here.

I have already figured this: w is for this

                                                        *:w_c* *:write_c*
:[range]w[rite] [++opt] !{cmd}
                        Execute {cmd} with [range] lines as standard input
                        (note the space in front of the '!').  {cmd} is
                        executed like with ":!{cmd}", any '!' is replaced with
                        the previous command |:!|.

so it passes all the lines as standard input.

The !sudo tee part calls tee with administrator privileges.

For all to make sense, the % should output the filename (as a parameter for tee), but I can't find references on the help for this behavior.

tl;dr Could someone help me dissect this command?


:w - Write a file.

!sudo - Call shell sudo command.

tee - The output of write (vim :w) command redirected using tee. The % is nothing but current file name i.e. /etc/apache2/conf.d/mediawiki.conf. In other words tee command is run as root and it takes standard input and write it to a file represented by %. However, this will prompt to reload file again (hit L to load changes in vim itself):

tutorial link


I'd like to suggest another approach to the "Oups I forgot to write sudo while opening my file" issue:

Instead of receiving a permission denied, and having to type :w!!, I find it more elegant to have a conditional vim command that does sudo vim if file owner is root.

This is as easy to implement (there might even be more elegant implementations, I'm clearly not a bash-guru):

function vim(){
  OWNER=$(stat -c '%U' $1)
  if [[ "$OWNER" == "root" ]]; then
    sudo /usr/bin/vim $*;
  else
    /usr/bin/vim $*;
  fi
}

And it works really well.

This is a more bash-centered approach than a vim-one so not everybody might like it.

Of course:

  • there are use cases where it will fail (when file owner is not root but requires sudo, but the function can be edited anyway)
  • it doesn't make sense when using vim for reading-only a file (as far as I'm concerned, I use tail or cat for small files)

But I find this brings a much better dev user experience, which is something that IMHO tends to be forgotten when using bash. :-)


In the executed command line, % stands for the current file name. This is documented in :help cmdline-special:

In Ex commands, at places where a file name can be used, the following
characters have a special meaning.
        %       Is replaced with the current file name.

As you've already found out, :w !cmd pipes the contents of the current buffer to another command. What tee does is copy standard input to one or more files, and also to standard output. Therefore, :w !sudo tee % > /dev/null effectively writes the contents of the current buffer to the current file while being root. Another command that can be used for this is dd:

:w !sudo dd of=% > /dev/null

As a shortcut, you can add this mapping to your .vimrc:

" Force saving files that require root permission 
cnoremap w!! w !sudo tee > /dev/null %

With the above you can type :w!!<Enter> to save the file as root.


The accepted answer covers it all, so I'll just give another example of a shortcut that I use, for the record.

Add it to your etc/vim/vimrc (or ~/.vimrc):

  • cnoremap w!! execute 'silent! write !sudo tee % >/dev/null' <bar> edit!

Where:

  • cnoremap: tells vim that the following shortcut is to be associated in the command line.
  • w!!: the shortcut itself.
  • execute '...': a command that execute the following string.
  • silent!: run it silently
  • write !sudo tee % >/dev/null: the OP question, added a redirection of messages to NULL to make a clean command
  • <bar> edit!: this trick is the cherry of the cake: it calls also the edit command to reload the buffer and then avoid messages such as the buffer has changed. <bar> is how to write the pipe symbol to separate two commands here.

Hope it helps. See also for other problems:





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