c++ - unique_ptr - when to use std::move




What is std::move(), and when should it be used? (4)

Q: What is std::move?

A: std::move() is a function from the C++ Standard Library for casting to a rvalue reference.

Simplisticly std::move(t) is equivalent to:

static_cast<T&&>(t);

An rvalue is a temporary that does not persist beyond the expression that defines it, such as a intermediate function result which is never stored in a variable.

int a = 3; // 3 is a rvalue, does not exist after expression is evaluated
int b = a; // a is a lvalue, keeps existing after expression is evaluated

An implementation for std::move() is given in N2027: "A Brief Introduction to Rvalue References" as follows:

template <class T>
typename remove_reference<T>::type&&
std::move(T&& a)
{
    return a;
}

As you can see, std::move returns T&& no matter if called with a value (T), reference type (T&) or rvalue reference (T&&).

Q: What does it do?

A: As a cast, it does not do anything during runtime. It is only relevant at compile time to tell the compiler that you would like to continue considering the reference as an rvalue.

foo(3 * 5); // obviously, you are calling foo with a temporary (rvalue)

int a = 3 * 5;
foo(a);     // how to tell the compiler to treat `a` as an rvalue?
foo(std::move(a)); // will call `foo(int&& a)` rather than `foo(int a)` or `foo(int& a)`

What it does not do:

  • Make a copy of the argument
  • Call the copy constructor
  • Change the argument object

Q: When should it be used?

A: You should use std::move if you want to call functions which support move semantics with an argument which is not an rvalue (temporary expression).

This begs the following follow-up questions for me:

  • What are move semantics? Move semantics in contrast to copy semantics is a programming technique in which the members of a object are initialized by 'taking over' instead of copying another object's members. Such 'take over' makes only sense with pointers and resource handles, which can be cheaply transferred by copying the pointer or integer handle rather than the underlying data.

  • What kind of classes and objects support move semantics? It is up to you as a developer to implement move semantics in your own classes if these would benefit from transferring their members instead of copying them. Once you implement move semantics, you will directly benefit from work from many library programmers who have added support for handling classes with move semantics efficiently.

  • Why can't the compiler figure it out on its own? The compiler cannot just call another overload of a function unless you say so. You must help the compiler choose whether the regular or move version of function should be called.

  • In which situations would I want to tell the compiler that it should treat a variable as an rvalue? This will most likely happen in template or library functions, where you know that an intermediate result could be salvaged.

  1. What is it?
  2. What does it do?
  3. When should it be used?

Good links are appreciated.


1. "What is it?"

While std::move() is technically a function - I would say it isn't really a function. It's sort of a converter between ways the compiler considers an expression's value.

2. "What does it do?"

The first thing to note is that std::move() doesn't actually move anything.

If you've ever watched the animation series Bleach - it does the equivalent of Quincy Seele Schneider's Reishi softening.

Seriously, though, it converts an expression from being an lvalue or pure rvalue (such as a variable you might be using for a long time yet, or a temporary you're passing around for a while, respectively) to being an xvalue. An xvalue tells the compiler:

You can plunder me, move anything I'm holding and use it elsewhere (since I'm going to be destroyed soon anyway)".

in other words, when you use std::move(x), you're allowing the compiler to cannibalize x. Thus if x has, say, its own buffer in memory - after std::move()ing the compiler can have another object own it instead.

3. "When should it be used?"

Another way to ask this question is "What would I cannibalize an existing object's resources for?" well, if you're writing application code, you would probably not be messing around a lot with temporary objects created by the compiler. So mainly you would do this in places like constructors, operator methods, STL-algorithm-like functions etc. where objects get created and destroyed automagically alot. Of course, that's just a rule of thumb.

A typical use is 'moving' resources from one object to another instead of copying. @Guillaume links to this page which has a straightforward short example: swapping two objects with less copying.

template <class T>
swap(T& a, T& b) {
    T tmp(a);   // we now have two copies of a
    a = b;      // we now have two copies of b (+ discarded a copy of a)
    b = tmp;    // we now have two copies of tmp (+ discarded a copy of b)
}

using move allows you to swap the resources instead of copying them around:

template <class T>
swap(T& a, T& b) {
    T tmp(std::move(a));
    a = std::move(b);   
    b = std::move(tmp);
}

Think of what happens when T is, say, vector<int> of size n. In the first version you read and write 3*n elements, in the second version you basically read and write just the 3 pointers to the vectors' buffers. Of course, class T needs to know how to do the moving; you should have a move-assignment operator and a move-constructor for class T for this to work.


What is it? and What does it do? has been explained above.

I will give a example of when it should be used.

For example, we have a class with lots of resource like big array in it.

class ResHeavy{ //  ResHeavy means heavy resource
    public:
        ResHeavy(int len=10):_upInt(new int[len]),_len(len){
            cout<<"default ctor"<<endl;
        }

        ResHeavy(const ResHeavy& rhs):_upInt(new int[rhs._len]),_len(rhs._len){
            cout<<"copy ctor"<<endl;
        }

        ResHeavy& operator=(const ResHeavy& rhs){
            _upInt.reset(new int[rhs._len]);
            _len = rhs._len;
            cout<<"operator= ctor"<<endl;
        }

        ResHeavy(ResHeavy&& rhs){
            _upInt = std::move(rhs._upInt);
            _len = rhs._len;
            rhs._len = 0;
            cout<<"move ctor"<<endl;
        }

    // check array valid
    bool is_up_valid(){
        return _upInt != nullptr;
    }

    private:
        std::unique_ptr<int[]> _upInt; // heavy array resource
        int _len; // length of int array
};

Test code:

void test_std_move2(){
    ResHeavy rh; // only one int[]
    // operator rh

    // after some operator of rh, it becomes no-use
    // transform it to other object
    ResHeavy rh2 = std::move(rh); // rh becomes invalid

    // show rh, rh2 it valid
    if(rh.is_up_valid())
        cout<<"rh valid"<<endl;
    else
        cout<<"rh invalid"<<endl;

    if(rh2.is_up_valid())
        cout<<"rh2 valid"<<endl;
    else
        cout<<"rh2 invalid"<<endl;

    // new ResHeavy object, created by copy ctor
    ResHeavy rh3(rh2);  // two copy of int[]

    if(rh3.is_up_valid())
        cout<<"rh3 valid"<<endl;
    else
        cout<<"rh3 invalid"<<endl;
}

output as below:

default ctor
move ctor
rh invalid
rh2 valid
copy ctor
rh3 valid

We can see that std::move with move constructor makes transform resource easily.

Where else is std::move useful?

std::move can also be useful when sorting an array of elements. Many sorting algorithms (such as selection sort and bubble sort) work by swapping pairs of elements. In previous , we’ve had to resort to copy-semantics to do the swapping. Now we can use move semantics, which is more efficient.

It can also be useful if we want to move the contents managed by one smart pointer to another.

Cited:

https://www.learncpp.com/cpp-tutorial/15-4-stdmove/


You can use move when you need to "transfer" the content of an object somewhere else, without doing a copy (e.g the content is not duplicated, that's why it could be use on some non-copyable objects, like an unique_ptr). It's also possible for an object to take the content of a temporary object without doing a copy (and save a lot of time), with std::move.

This link really helped me out :

http://thbecker.net/articles/rvalue_references/section_01.html

I'm sorry if my answer is coming too late, but I was also looking for a good link for the std::move, and I found the links above a little bit "austere".

This put the emphasis on r-value reference, in which context you should use them, and I think it's more detailed, that's why I wanted to share this link here.





move-semantics