linux - you - read user input in shell script




How do I prompt for Yes/No/Cancel input in a Linux shell script? (18)

At least five answers for one generic question.

Depending on

  • posix compliant: could work on poor systems with generic shell environments
  • bash specific: using so called bashisms

and if you want

  • simple ``in line'' question / answer (generic solutions)
  • pretty formatted interfaces, like ncurses or more graphical using libgtk or libqt...
  • use powerful readline history capability

1. POSIX generic solutions

You could use the read command, followed by if ... then ... else:

echo -n "Is this a good question (y/n)? "
read answer

# if echo "$answer" | grep -iq "^y" ;then

if [ "$answer" != "${answer#[Yy]}" ] ;then
    echo Yes
else
    echo No
fi

(Thanks to Adam Katz's comment: Replaced the test above with one that is more portable and avoids one fork:)

POSIX, but single key feature

But if you don't want the user to have to hit Return, you could write:

(Edited: As @JonathanLeffler rightly suggest, saving stty's configuration could be better than simply force them to sane.)

echo -n "Is this a good question (y/n)? "
old_stty_cfg=$(stty -g)
stty raw -echo ; answer=$(head -c 1) ; stty $old_stty_cfg # Careful playing with stty
if echo "$answer" | grep -iq "^y" ;then
    echo Yes
else
    echo No
fi

Note: This was tested under sh, bash, ksh, dash and busybox!

Same, but waiting explicitly for y or n:

#/bin/sh
echo -n "Is this a good question (y/n)? "
old_stty_cfg=$(stty -g)
stty raw -echo
answer=$( while ! head -c 1 | grep -i '[ny]' ;do true ;done )
stty $old_stty_cfg
if echo "$answer" | grep -iq "^y" ;then
    echo Yes
else
    echo No
fi

Using dedicated tools

There are many tools which were built using libncurses, libgtk, libqt or other graphical libraries. For example, using whiptail:

if whiptail --yesno "Is this a good question" 20 60 ;then
    echo Yes
else
    echo No
fi

Depending on your system, you may need to replace whiptail with another similiar tool:

dialog --yesno "Is this a good question" 20 60 && echo Yes

gdialog --yesno "Is this a good question" 20 60 && echo Yes

kdialog --yesno "Is this a good question" 20 60 && echo Yes

where 20 is height of dialog box in number of lines and 60 is width of the dialog box. These tools all have near same syntax.

DIALOG=whiptail
if [ -x /usr/bin/gdialog ] ;then DIALOG=gdialog ; fi
if [ -x /usr/bin/xdialog ] ;then DIALOG=xdialog ; fi
...
$DIALOG --yesno ...

2. Bash specific solutions

Basic in line method

read -p "Is this a good question (y/n)? " answer
case ${answer:0:1} in
    y|Y )
        echo Yes
    ;;
    * )
        echo No
    ;;
esac

I prefer to use case so I could even test for yes | ja | si | oui if needed...

in line with single key feature

Under bash, we can specify the length of intended input for for the read command:

read -n 1 -p "Is this a good question (y/n)? " answer

Under bash, read command accepts a timeout parameter, which could be useful.

read -t 3 -n 1 -p "Is this a good question (y/n)? " answer
[ -z "$answer" ] && answer="Yes"  # if 'yes' have to be default choice

Some tricks for dedicated tools

More sophisticated dialog boxes, beyond simple yes - no purposes:

dialog --menu "Is this a good question" 20 60 12 y Yes n No m Maybe

Progress bar:

dialog --gauge "Filling the tank" 20 60 0 < <(
    for i in {1..100};do
        printf "XXX\n%d\n%(%a %b %T)T progress: %d\nXXX\n" $i -1 $i
        sleep .033
    done
) 

Little demo:

#!/bin/sh
while true ;do
    [ -x "$(which ${DIALOG%% *})" ] || DIALOG=dialog
    DIALOG=$($DIALOG --menu "Which tool for next run?" 20 60 12 2>&1 \
            whiptail       "dialog boxes from shell scripts" >/dev/tty \
            dialog         "dialog boxes from shell with ncurses" \
            gdialog        "dialog boxes from shell with Gtk" \
            kdialog        "dialog boxes from shell with Kde" ) || exit
    clear;echo "Choosed: $DIALOG."
    for i in `seq 1 100`;do
        date +"`printf "XXX\n%d\n%%a %%b %%T progress: %d\nXXX\n" $i $i`"
        sleep .0125
      done | $DIALOG --gauge "Filling the tank" 20 60 0
    $DIALOG --infobox "This is a simple info box\n\nNo action required" 20 60
    sleep 3
    if $DIALOG --yesno  "Do you like this demo?" 20 60 ;then
        AnsYesNo=Yes; else AnsYesNo=No; fi
    AnsInput=$($DIALOG --inputbox "A text:" 20 60 "Text here..." 2>&1 >/dev/tty)
    AnsPass=$($DIALOG --passwordbox "A secret:" 20 60 "First..." 2>&1 >/dev/tty)
    $DIALOG --textbox /etc/motd 20 60
    AnsCkLst=$($DIALOG --checklist "Check some..." 20 60 12 \
        Correct "This demo is useful"        off \
        Fun        "This demo is nice"        off \
        Strong        "This demo is complex"        on 2>&1 >/dev/tty)
    AnsRadio=$($DIALOG --radiolist "I will:" 20 60 12 \
        " -1" "Downgrade this answer"        off \
        "  0" "Not do anything"                on \
        " +1" "Upgrade this anser"        off 2>&1 >/dev/tty)
    out="Your answers:\nLike: $AnsYesNo\nInput: $AnsInput\nSecret: $AnsPass"
    $DIALOG --msgbox "$out\nAttribs: $AnsCkLst\nNote: $AnsRadio" 20 60
  done

More sample? Have a look at Using whiptail for choosing USB device and USB removable storage selector: USBKeyChooser

5. Using readline's history

Example:

#!/bin/bash

set -i
HISTFILE=~/.myscript.history
history -c
history -r

myread() {
    read -e -p '> ' $1
    history -s ${!1}
}
trap 'history -a;exit' 0 1 2 3 6

while myread line;do
    case ${line%% *} in
        exit )  break ;;
        *    )  echo "Doing something with '$line'" ;;
      esac
  done

This will create a file .myscript.history in your $HOME directory, than you could use readline's history commands, like Up, Down, Ctrl+r and others.

I want to pause input in a shell script, and prompt the user for choices. The standard 'Yes, No, or Cancel' type question. How do I accomplish this in a typical bash prompt?


Yes / No / Cancel

Function

#!/usr/bin/env bash
@confirm() {
  local message="$*"
  local result=''

  echo -n "> $message (Yes/No/Cancel) " >&2

  while [ -z "$result" ] ; do
    read -s -n 1 choice
    case "$choice" in
      y|Y ) result='Y' ;;
      n|N ) result='N' ;;
      c|C ) result='C' ;;
    esac
  done

  echo $result
}

Usage

case $(@confirm 'Confirm?') in
  Y ) echo "Yes" ;;
  N ) echo "No" ;;
  C ) echo "Cancel" ;;
esac

Confirm with clean user input

Function

#!/usr/bin/env bash
@confirm() {
  local message="$*"
  local result=3

  echo -n "> $message (y/n) " >&2

  while [[ $result -gt 1 ]] ; do
    read -s -n 1 choice
    case "$choice" in
      y|Y ) result=0 ;;
      n|N ) result=1 ;;
    esac
  done

  return $result
}

Usage

if @confirm 'Confirm?' ; then
  echo "Yes"
else
  echo "No"
fi

You want:

  • Bash builtin commands (i.e. portable)
  • Check TTY
  • Default answer
  • Timeout
  • Colored question

Snippet

do_xxxx=y                      # In batch mode => Default is Yes
[[ -t 0 ]] &&                  # If TTY => Prompt the question
read -n 1 -p $'\e[1;32m
Do xxxx? (Y/n)\e[0m ' do_xxxx  # Store the answer in $do_xxxx
if [[ $do_xxxx =~ ^(y|Y|)$ ]]  # Do if 'y' or 'Y' or empty
then
    xxxx
fi

Explanations

  • [[ -t 0 ]] && read ... => Call command read if TTY
  • read -n 1 => Wait for one character
  • $'\e[1;32m ... \e[0m ' => Print in green
    (green is fine because readable on both white/black backgrounds)
  • [[ $do_xxxx =~ ^(y|Y|)$ ]] => bash regex

Timeout => Default answer is No

do_xxxx=y
[[ -t 0 ]] && {                   # Timeout 5 seconds (read -t 5)
read -t 5 -n 1 -p $'\e[1;32m
Do xxxx? (Y/n)\e[0m ' do_xxxx ||  # read 'fails' on timeout
do_xxxx=n ; }                     # Timeout => answer No
if [[ $do_xxxx =~ ^(y|Y|)$ ]]
then
    xxxx
fi

As a friend of a one line command I used the following:

while [ -z $prompt ]; do read -p "Continue (y/n)?" choice;case "$choice" in y|Y ) prompt=true; break;; n|N ) exit 0;; esac; done; prompt=;

Written longform, it works like this:

while [ -z $prompt ];
  do read -p "Continue (y/n)?" choice;
  case "$choice" in
    y|Y ) prompt=true; break;;
    n|N ) exit 0;;
  esac;
done;
prompt=;

Here's something I put together:

#!/bin/sh

promptyn () {
    while true; do
        read -p "$1 " yn
        case $yn in
            [Yy]* ) return 0;;
            [Nn]* ) return 1;;
            * ) echo "Please answer yes or no.";;
        esac
    done
}

if promptyn "is the sky blue?"; then
    echo "yes"
else
    echo "no"
fi

I'm a beginner, so take this with a grain of salt, but it seems to work.


I noticed that no one posted an answer showing multi-line echo menu for such simple user input so here is my go at it:

#!/bin/bash

function ask_user() {    

echo -e "
#~~~~~~~~~~~~#
| 1.) Yes    |
| 2.) No     |
| 3.) Quit   |
#~~~~~~~~~~~~#\n"

read -e -p "Select 1: " choice

if [ "$choice" == "1" ]; then

    do_something

elif [ "$choice" == "2" ]; then

    do_something_else

elif [ "$choice" == "3" ]; then

    clear && exit 0

else

    echo "Please select 1, 2, or 3." && sleep 3
    clear && ask_user

fi
}

ask_user

This method was posted in the hopes that someone may find it useful and time-saving.


I've used the case statement a couple of times in such a scenario, using the case statment is a good way to go about it. A while loop, that ecapsulates the case block, that utilizes a boolean condition can be implemented in order to hold even more control of the program, and fulfill many other requirements. After the all the conditions have been met, a break can be used which will pass control back to the main part of the program. Also, to meet other conditions, of course conditional statements can be added to accompany the control structures: case statement and possible while loop.

Example of using a case statement to fulfill your request

#! /bin/sh 

# For potential users of BSD, or other systems who do not
# have a bash binary located in /bin the script will be directed to
# a bourne-shell, e.g. /bin/sh

# NOTE: It would seem best for handling user entry errors or
# exceptions, to put the decision required by the input 
# of the prompt in a case statement (case control structure), 

echo Would you like us to perform the option: "(Y|N)"

read inPut

case $inPut in
    # echoing a command encapsulated by 
    # backticks (``) executes the command
    "Y") echo `Do something crazy`
    ;;
    # depending on the scenario, execute the other option
    # or leave as default
    "N") echo `execute another option`
    ;;
esac

exit

In response to others:

You don't need to specify case in BASH4 just use the ',,' to make a var lowercase. Also I strongly dislike putting code inside of the read block, get the result and deal with it outside of the read block IMO. Also include a 'q' for quit IMO. Lastly why type 'yes' just use -n1 and have the press y.

Example: user can press y/n and also q to just quit.

ans=''
while true; do
    read -p "So is MikeQ the greatest or what (y/n/q) ?" -n1 ans
    case ${ans,,} in
        y|n|q) break;;
        *) echo "Answer y for yes / n for no  or q for quit.";;
    esac
done

echo -e "\nAnswer = $ans"

if [[ "${ans,,}" == "q" ]] ; then
        echo "OK Quitting, we will assume that he is"
        exit 0
fi

if [[ "${ans,,}" == "y" ]] ; then
        echo "MikeQ is the greatest!!"
else
        echo "No? MikeQ is not the greatest?"
fi

Multiple choice version:

ask () {                        # $1=question $2=options
    # set REPLY
    # options: x=..|y=..
    while $(true); do
        printf '%s [%s] ' "$1" "$2"
        stty cbreak
        REPLY=$(dd if=/dev/tty bs=1 count=1 2> /dev/null)
        stty -cbreak
        test "$REPLY" != "$(printf '\n')" && printf '\n'
        (
            IFS='|'
            for o in $2; do
                if [ "$REPLY" = "${o%%=*}" ]; then
                    printf '\n'
                    break
                fi
            done
        ) | grep ^ > /dev/null && return
    done
}

Example:

$ ask 'continue?' 'y=yes|n=no|m=maybe'
continue? [y=yes|n=no|m=maybe] g
continue? [y=yes|n=no|m=maybe] k
continue? [y=yes|n=no|m=maybe] y
$

It will set REPLY to y (inside the script).


One simple way to do this is with xargs -p or gnu parallel --interactive.

I like the behavior of xargs a little better for this because it executes each command immediately after the prompt like other interactive unix commands, rather than collecting the yesses to run at the end. (You can Ctrl-C after you get through the ones you wanted.)

e.g.,

echo *.xml | xargs -p -n 1 -J {} mv {} backup/

The easiest way to achieve this with the least number of lines is as follows:

read -p "<Your Friendly Message here> : y/n/cancel" CONDITION;

if [ "$CONDITION" == "y" ]; then
   # do something here!
fi

The if is just an example: it is up to you how to handle this variable.


The simplest and most widely available method to get user input at a shell prompt is the read command. The best way to illustrate its use is a simple demonstration:

while true; do
    read -p "Do you wish to install this program?" yn
    case $yn in
        [Yy]* ) make install; break;;
        [Nn]* ) exit;;
        * ) echo "Please answer yes or no.";;
    esac
done

Another method, pointed out by Steven Huwig, is Bash's select command. Here is the same example using select:

echo "Do you wish to install this program?"
select yn in "Yes" "No"; do
    case $yn in
        Yes ) make install; break;;
        No ) exit;;
    esac
done

With select you don't need to sanitize the input – it displays the available choices, and you type a number corresponding to your choice. It also loops automatically, so there's no need for a while true loop to retry if they give invalid input.

Also, please check out the excellent answer by F. Hauri.


To get a nice ncurses-like inputbox use the command dialog like this:

#!/bin/bash
if (dialog --title "Message" --yesno "Want to do something risky?" 6 25)
# message box will have the size 25x6 characters
then 
    echo "Let's do something risky"
    # do something risky
else 
    echo "Let's stay boring"
fi

The dialog package is installed by default at least with SUSE Linux.


Use the read command:

echo Would you like to install? "(Y or N)"

read x

# now check if $x is "y"
if [ "$x" = "y" ]; then
    # do something here!
fi

and then all of the other stuff you need


more generic would be:

function menu(){
    title="Question time"
    prompt="Select:"
    options=("Yes" "No" "Maybe")
    echo "$title"
    PS3="$prompt"
    select opt in "${options[@]}" "Quit/Cancel"; do
        case "$REPLY" in
            1 ) echo "You picked $opt which is option $REPLY";;
            2 ) echo "You picked $opt which is option $REPLY";;
            3 ) echo "You picked $opt which is option $REPLY";;
            $(( ${#options[@]}+1 )) ) clear; echo "Goodbye!"; exit;;
            *) echo "Invalid option. Try another one.";continue;;
         esac
     done
     return
}

echo "Please enter some input: "
read input_variable
echo "You entered: $input_variable"

read -e -p "Enter your choice: " choice

The -e option enables the user to edit the input using arrow keys.

If you want to use a suggestion as input:

read -e -i "yes" -p "Enter your choice: " choice

-i option prints a suggestive input.


read -p "Are you alright? (y/n) " RESP
if [ "$RESP" = "y" ]; then
  echo "Glad to hear it"
else
  echo "You need more bash programming"
fi




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