php - with - strpos array




How do I check if a string contains a specific word? (20)

Consider:

$a = 'How are you?';

if ($a contains 'are')
    echo 'true';

Suppose I have the code above, what is the correct way to write the statement if ($a contains 'are')?


Check if string contains specific words?

This means the string has to be resolved into words (see note below).

One way to do this and to specify the separators is using preg_split (doc):

<?php

function contains_word($str, $word) {
  // split string into words
  // separators are substrings of at least one non-word character
  $arr = preg_split('/\W+/', $str, NULL, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);

  // now the words can be examined each
  foreach ($arr as $value) {
    if ($value === $word) {
      return true;
    }
  }
  return false;
}

function test($str, $word) {
  if (contains_word($str, $word)) {
    echo "string '" . $str . "' contains word '" . $word . "'\n";
  } else {
    echo "string '" . $str . "' does not contain word '" . $word . "'\n" ;
  }
}

$a = 'How are you?';

test($a, 'are');
test($a, 'ar');
test($a, 'hare');

?>

A run gives

$ php -f test.php                   
string 'How are you?' contains word 'are' 
string 'How are you?' does not contain word 'ar'
string 'How are you?' does not contain word 'hare'

Note: Here we do not mean word for every sequence of symbols.

A practical definition of word is in the sense the PCRE regular expression engine, where words are substrings consisting of word characters only, being separated by non-word characters.

A "word" character is any letter or digit or the underscore character, that is, any character which can be part of a Perl " word ". The definition of letters and digits is controlled by PCRE's character tables, and may vary if locale-specific matching is taking place (..)


Look at strpos():

<?php
    $mystring = 'abc';
    $findme   = 'a';
    $pos = strpos($mystring, $findme);

    // Note our use of ===. Simply, == would not work as expected
    // because the position of 'a' was the 0th (first) character.
    if ($pos === false) {
        echo "The string '$findme' was not found in the string '$mystring'.";
    }
    else {
        echo "The string '$findme' was found in the string '$mystring',";
        echo " and exists at position $pos.";
    }
?>

Another option is to use the strstr() function. Something like:

if (strlen(strstr($haystack,$needle))>0) {
// Needle Found
}

Point to note: The strstr() function is case-sensitive. For a case-insensitive search, use the stristr() function.


Another option to finding the occurrence of a word from a string using strstr() and stristr() is like the following:

<?php
    $a = 'How are you?';
    if (strstr($a,'are'))  // Case sensitive
        echo 'true';
    if (stristr($a,'are'))  // Case insensitive
        echo 'true';
?>

Here is a little utility function that is useful in situations like this

// returns true if $needle is a substring of $haystack
function contains($needle, $haystack)
{
    return strpos($haystack, $needle) !== false;
}

I had some trouble with this, and finally I chose to create my own solution. Without using regular expression engine:

function contains($text, $word)
{
    $found = false;
    $spaceArray = explode(' ', $text);

    $nonBreakingSpaceArray = explode(chr(160), $text);

    if (in_array($word, $spaceArray) ||
        in_array($word, $nonBreakingSpaceArray)
       ) {

        $found = true;
    }
    return $found;
 }

You may notice that the previous solutions are not an answer for the word being used as a prefix for another. In order to use your example:

$a = 'How are you?';
$b = "a skirt that flares from the waist";
$c = "are";

With the samples above, both $a and $b contains $c, but you may want your function to tell you that only $a contains $c.


If you want to avoid the "falsey" and "truthy" problem, you can use substr_count:

if (substr_count($a, 'are') > 0) {
    echo "at least one 'are' is present!";
}

It's a bit slower than strpos but it avoids the comparison problems.


If you want to check if the string contains several specifics words, you can do:

$badWords = array("dette", "capitale", "rembourser", "ivoire", "mandat");

$string = "a string with the word ivoire";

$matchFound = preg_match_all("/\b(" . implode($badWords,"|") . ")\b/i", $string, $matches);

if ($matchFound) {
    echo "a bad word has been found";
}
else {
    echo "your string is okay";
}

This is useful to avoid spam when sending emails for example.


In order to find a 'word', rather than the occurrence of a series of letters that could in fact be a part of another word, the following would be a good solution.

$string = 'How are you?';
$array = explode(" ", $string);

if (in_array('are', $array) ) {
    echo 'Found the word';
}

It can be done in three different ways:

 $a = 'How are you?';

1- stristr()

 if (strlen(stristr($a,"are"))>0) {
    echo "true"; // are Found
 } 

2- strpos()

 if (strpos($a, "are") !== false) {
   echo "true"; // are Found
 }

3- preg_match()

 if( preg_match("are",$a) === 1) {
   echo "true"; // are Found
 }

Make use of case-insensitve matching using stripos():

if (stripos($string,$stringToSearch) !== false) {
    echo 'true';
}

Maybe you could use something like this:

<?php
    findWord('Test all OK');

    function findWord($text) {
        if (strstr($text, 'ok')) {
            echo 'Found a word';
        }
        else
        {
            echo 'Did not find a word';
        }
    }
?>

The function below also works and does not depend on any other function; it uses only native PHP string manipulation. Personally, I do not recommend this, but you can see how it works:

<?php

if (!function_exists('is_str_contain')) {
  function is_str_contain($string, $keyword)
  {
    if (empty($string) || empty($keyword)) return false;
    $keyword_first_char = $keyword[0];
    $keyword_length = strlen($keyword);
    $string_length = strlen($string);

    // case 1
    if ($string_length < $keyword_length) return false;

    // case 2
    if ($string_length == $keyword_length) {
      if ($string == $keyword) return true;
      else return false;
    }

    // case 3
    if ($keyword_length == 1) {
      for ($i = 0; $i < $string_length; $i++) {

        // Check if keyword's first char == string's first char
        if ($keyword_first_char == $string[$i]) {
          return true;
        }
      }
    }

    // case 4
    if ($keyword_length > 1) {
      for ($i = 0; $i < $string_length; $i++) {
        /*
        the remaining part of the string is equal or greater than the keyword
        */
        if (($string_length + 1 - $i) >= $keyword_length) {

          // Check if keyword's first char == string's first char
          if ($keyword_first_char == $string[$i]) {
            $match = 1;
            for ($j = 1; $j < $keyword_length; $j++) {
              if (($i + $j < $string_length) && $keyword[$j] == $string[$i + $j]) {
                $match++;
              }
              else {
                return false;
              }
            }

            if ($match == $keyword_length) {
              return true;
            }

            // end if first match found
          }

          // end if remaining part
        }
        else {
          return false;
        }

        // end for loop
      }

      // end case4
    }

    return false;
  }
}

Test:

var_dump(is_str_contain("test", "t")); //true
var_dump(is_str_contain("test", "")); //false
var_dump(is_str_contain("test", "test")); //true
var_dump(is_str_contain("test", "testa")); //flase
var_dump(is_str_contain("a----z", "a")); //true
var_dump(is_str_contain("a----z", "z")); //true 
var_dump(is_str_contain("mystringss", "strings")); //true 

The short-hand version

$result = false!==strpos($a, 'are');

To determine whether a string contains another string you can use the PHP function strpos().

int strpos ( string $haystack , mixed $needle [, int $offset = 0 ] )

<?php

$haystack = 'how are you';
$needle = 'are';

if (strpos($haystack,$needle) !== false) {
    echo "$haystack contains $needle";
}

?>

CAUTION:

If the needle you are searching for is at the beginning of the haystack it will return position 0, if you do a == compare that will not work, you will need to do a ===

A == sign is a comparison and tests whether the variable / expression / constant to the left has the same value as the variable / expression / constant to the right.

A === sign is a comparison to see whether two variables / expresions / constants are equal AND have the same type - i.e. both are strings or both are integers.


Using strstr() or stristr() if your search should be case insensitive would be another option.


You can use the strpos() function which is used to find the occurrence of one string inside another one:

$a = 'How are you?';

if (strpos($a, 'are') !== false) {
    echo 'true';
}

Note that the use of !== false is deliberate; strpos() returns either the offset at which the needle string begins in the haystack string, or the boolean false if the needle isn't found. Since 0 is a valid offset and 0 is "falsey", we can't use simpler constructs like !strpos($a, 'are').


You can use the strstr function:

$haystack = "I know programming";
$needle   = "know";
$flag = strstr($haystack, $needle);

if ($flag){

    echo "true";
}

Without using an inbuilt function:

$haystack  = "hello world";
$needle = "llo";

$i = $j = 0;

while (isset($needle[$i])) {
    while (isset($haystack[$j]) && ($needle[$i] != $haystack[$j])) {
        $j++;
        $i = 0;
    }
    if (!isset($haystack[$j])) {
        break;
    }
    $i++;
    $j++;

}
if (!isset($needle[$i])) {
    echo "YES";
}
else{
    echo "NO ";
}

You need to use identical/not identical operators because strpos can return 0 as it's index value. If you like ternary operators, consider using the following (seems a little backwards I'll admit):

echo FALSE === strpos($a,'are') ? 'false': 'true';

You should use case Insensitive format,so if the entered value is in small or caps it wont matter.

<?php
$grass = "This is pratik joshi";
$needle = "pratik";
if (stripos($grass,$needle) !== false) { 

 /*If i EXCLUDE : !== false then if string is found at 0th location, 
   still it will say STRING NOT FOUND as it will return '0' and it      
   will goto else and will say NOT Found though it is found at 0th location.*/
    echo 'Contains word';
}else{
    echo "does NOT contain word";
}
?>

Here stripos finds needle in heystack without considering case (small/caps).

PHPCode Sample with output





string-matching