one - java constructor call another constructor not first line




How do I call one constructor from another in Java? (12)

Is it possible to call a constructor from another (within the same class, not from a subclass)? If yes how? And what could be the best way to call another constructor (if there are several ways to do it)?


I will tell you an easy way

There are two types of constructors:

  1. Default constructor
  2. Parameterized constructor

I will explain in one Example

class ConstructorDemo 
{
      ConstructorDemo()//Default Constructor
      {
         System.out.println("D.constructor ");
      }

      ConstructorDemo(int k)//Parameterized constructor
      {
         this();//-------------(1)
         System.out.println("P.Constructor ="+k);       
      }

      public static void main(String[] args) 
      {
         //this(); error because "must be first statement in constructor
         new ConstructorDemo();//-------(2)
         ConstructorDemo g=new ConstructorDemo(3);---(3)    
       }
   }                  

In the above example I showed 3 types of calling

  1. this() call to this must be first statement in constructor
  2. This is Name less Object. this automatically calls the default constructor. 3.This calls the Parameterized constructor.

Note: this must be the first statement in the constructor.


As everybody already have said, you use this(…), which is called an explicit constructor invocation.

However, keep in mind that within such an explicit constructor invocation statement you may not refer to

  • any instance variables or
  • any instance methods or
  • any inner classes declared in this class or any superclass, or
  • this or
  • super.

As stated in JLS (§8.8.7.1).


I know there are so many examples of this question but what I found I am putting here to share my Idea. there are two ways to chain constructor. In Same class you can use this keyword. in Inheritance, you need to use super keyword.

    import java.util.*;
    import java.lang.*;

    class Test
    {  
        public static void main(String args[])
        {
            Dog d = new Dog(); // Both Calling Same Constructor of Parent Class i.e. 0 args Constructor.
            Dog cs = new Dog("Bite"); // Both Calling Same Constructor of Parent Class i.e. 0 args Constructor.

            // You need to Explicitly tell the java compiler to use Argument constructor so you need to use "super" key word
            System.out.println("------------------------------");
            Cat c = new Cat();
            Cat caty = new Cat("10");

            System.out.println("------------------------------");
            // Self s = new Self();
            Self ss = new Self("self");
        }
    }

    class Animal
    {
        String i;

        public Animal()
        {
            i = "10";
            System.out.println("Animal Constructor :" +i);
        }
        public Animal(String h)
        {
            i = "20";
            System.out.println("Animal Constructor Habit :"+ i);
        }
    }

    class Dog extends Animal
    {
        public Dog()
        {
            System.out.println("Dog Constructor");
        }
        public Dog(String h)
        {
            System.out.println("Dog Constructor with habit");
        }
    }

    class Cat extends Animal
    {
        public Cat()
        {
            System.out.println("Cat Constructor");
        }
        public Cat(String i)
        {
            super(i); // Calling Super Class Paremetrize Constructor.
            System.out.println("Cat Constructor with habit");
        }
    }

    class Self
    {
        public Self()
        {
            System.out.println("Self Constructor");
        }
        public Self(String h)
        {
            this(); // Explicitly calling 0 args constructor. 
            System.out.println("Slef Constructor with value");
        }
    }

It is called Telescoping Constructor anti-pattern or constructor chaining. Yes, you can definitely do. I see many examples above and I want to add by saying that if you know that you need only two or three constructor, it might be ok. But if you need more, please try to use different design pattern like Builder pattern. As for example:

 public Omar(){};
 public Omar(a){};
 public Omar(a,b){};
 public Omar(a,b,c){};
 public Omar(a,b,c,d){};
 ...

You may need more. Builder pattern would be a great solution in this case. Here is an article, it might be helpful https://medium.com/@modestofiguereo/design-patterns-2-the-builder-pattern-and-the-telescoping-constructor-anti-pattern-60a33de7522e


The keyword this can be used to call a constructor from a constructor, when writing several constructor for a class, there are times when you'd like to call one constructor from another to avoid duplicate code.

Bellow is a link that I explain other topic about constructor and getters() and setters() and I used a class with two constructors. I hope the explanations and examples help you.

Setter methods or constructors


There are design patterns that cover the need for complex construction - if it can't be done succinctly, create a factory method or a factory class.

With the latest java and the addition of lambdas, it is easy to create a constructor which can accept any initialization code you desire.

class LambdaInitedClass {

   public LamdaInitedClass(Consumer<LambdaInitedClass> init) {
       init.accept(this);
   }
}

Call it with...

 new LambdaInitedClass(l -> { // init l any way you want });

When I need to call another constructor from inside the code (not on the first line), I usually use a helper method like this:

class MyClass {
   int field;


   MyClass() {
      init(0);
   } 
   MyClass(int value) {
      if (value<0) {
          init(0);
      } 
      else { 
          init(value);
      }
   }
   void init(int x) {
      field = x;
   }
}

But most often I try to do it the other way around by calling the more complex constructors from the simpler ones on the first line, to the extent possible. For the above example

class MyClass {
   int field;

   MyClass(int value) {
      if (value<0)
         field = 0;
      else
         field = value;
   }
   MyClass() {
      this(0);
   }
}

Within a constructor, you can use the this keyword to invoke another constructor in the same class. Doing so is called an explicit constructor invocation.

Here's another Rectangle class, with a different implementation from the one in the Objects section.

public class Rectangle {
    private int x, y;
    private int width, height;

    public Rectangle() {
        this(1, 1);
    }
    public Rectangle(int width, int height) {
        this( 0,0,width, height);
    }
    public Rectangle(int x, int y, int width, int height) {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
        this.width = width;
        this.height = height;
    }

}

This class contains a set of constructors. Each constructor initializes some or all of the rectangle's member variables.


Yes it is possible to call one constructor from another. But there is a rule to it. If a call is made from one constructor to another, then

that new constructor call must be the first statement in the current constructor

public class Product {
     private int productId;
     private String productName;
     private double productPrice;
     private String category;

    public Product(int id, String name) {
        this(id,name,1.0);
    }

    public Product(int id, String name, double price) {
        this(id,name,price,"DEFAULT");
    }

    public Product(int id,String name,double price, String category){
        this.productId=id;
        this.productName=name;
        this.productPrice=price;
        this.category=category;
    }
}

So, something like below will not work.

public Product(int id, String name, double price) {
    System.out.println("Calling constructor with price");
    this(id,name,price,"DEFAULT");
}

Also, in the case of inheritance, when sub-class's object is created, the super class constructor is first called.

public class SuperClass {
    public SuperClass() {
       System.out.println("Inside super class constructor");
    }
}
public class SubClass extends SuperClass {
    public SubClass () {
       //Even if we do not add, Java adds the call to super class's constructor like 
       // super();
       System.out.println("Inside sub class constructor");
    }
}

Thus, in this case also another constructor call is first declared before any other statements.


Yes, any number of constructors can be present in a class and they can be called by another constructor using this() [Please do not confuse this() constructor call with this keyword]. this() or this(args) should be the first line in the constructor.

Example:

Class Test {
    Test() {
        this(10); // calls the constructor with integer args, Test(int a)
    }
    Test(int a) {
        this(10.5); // call the constructor with double arg, Test(double a)
    }
    Test(double a) {
        System.out.println("I am a double arg constructor");
    }
}

This is known as constructor overloading.
Please note that for constructor, only overloading concept is applicable and not inheritance or overriding.


You can a constructor from another constructor of same class by using "this" keyword. Example -

class This1
{
    This1()
    {
        this("Hello");
        System.out.println("Default constructor..");
    }
    This1(int a)
    {
        this();
        System.out.println("int as arg constructor.."); 
    }
    This1(String s)
    {
        System.out.println("string as arg constructor..");  
    }

    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        new This1(100);
    }
}

Output - string as arg constructor.. Default constructor.. int as arg constructor..


You can call another constructor via the this(...) keyword (when you need to call a constructor from the same class) or the super(...) keyword (when you need to call a constructor from a superclass).

However, such a call must be the first statement of your constructor. To overcome this limitation, use this answer.







constructor