javascript be - How to wait until an element exists?




dom in (11)

How about the insertionQuery library?

insertionQuery uses CSS Animation callbacks attached to the selector(s) specified to run a callback when an element is created. This method allows callbacks to be run whenever an element is created, not just the first time.

From github:

Non-dom-event way to catch nodes showing up. And it uses selectors.

It's not just for wider browser support, It can be better than DOMMutationObserver for certain things.

Why?

  • Because DOM Events slow down the browser and insertionQuery doesn't
  • Because DOM Mutation Observer has less browser support than insertionQuery
  • Because with insertionQuery you can filter DOM changes using selectors without performance overhead!

Widespread support!

IE10+ and mostly anything else (including mobile)

I'm working on an Extension in Chrome, and I'm wondering: what's the best way to find out when an element comes into existence? Using plain javascript, with an interval that checks until an element exists, or does jQuery have some easy way to do this?


Here's a pure Javascript function which allows you to wait for anything. Set the interval longer to take less CPU resource.

/**
 * @brief Wait for something to be ready before triggering a timeout
 * @param {callback} isready Function which returns true when the thing we're waiting for has happened
 * @param {callback} success Function to call when the thing is ready
 * @param {callback} error Function to call if we time out before the event becomes ready
 * @param {int} count Number of times to retry the timeout (default 300 or 6s)
 * @param {int} interval Number of milliseconds to wait between attempts (default 20ms)
 */
function waitUntil(isready, success, error, count, interval){
    if (count === undefined) {
        count = 300;
    }
    if (interval === undefined) {
        interval = 20;
    }
    if (isready()) {
        success();
        return;
    }
    // The call back isn't ready. We need to wait for it
    setTimeout(function(){
        if (!count) {
            // We have run out of retries
            if (error !== undefined) {
                error();
            }
        } else {
            // Try again
            waitUntil(isready, success, error, count -1, interval);
        }
    }, interval);
}

To call this, for example in jQuery, use something like:

waitUntil(function(){
    return $('#myelement').length > 0;
}, function(){
    alert("myelement now exists");
}, function(){
    alert("I'm bored. I give up.");
});

Here is a core JavaScript function to wait for the display of an element.

Parameters:

  1. selector: This function looks for the element ${selector}
  2. time: This function checks whether this element exists every ${time} milliseconds.

    function waitForElementToDisplay(selector, time) {
            if(document.querySelector(selector)!=null) {
                alert("The element is displayed, you can put your code instead of this alert.")
                return;
            }
            else {
                setTimeout(function() {
                    waitForElementToDisplay(selector, time);
                }, time);
            }
        }
    

As an example, setting selector="#div1" and time=5000 will look for the HTML tag whose id="div1" every 5000 milliseconds.


A cleaner example using MutationObserver:

new MutationObserver( mutation => {
    if (!mutation.addedNodes) return
    mutation.addedNodes.forEach( node => {
        // do stuff with node
    })
})

Here's a Promise-returning solution in vanilla Javascript (no messy callbacks). By default it checks every 200ms.

function waitFor(selector) {
    return new Promise(function (res, rej) {
        waitForElementToDisplay(selector, 200);
        function waitForElementToDisplay(selector, time) {
            if (document.querySelector(selector) != null) {
                res(document.querySelector(selector));
            }
            else {
                setTimeout(function () {
                    waitForElementToDisplay(selector, time);
                }, time);
            }
        }
    });
}

I used this approach to wait for an element to appear so I can execute the other functions after that.

Let's say doTheRestOfTheStuff(parameters) function should only be called after the element with ID the_Element_ID appears or finished loading, we can use,

var existCondition = setInterval(function() {
 if ($('#the_Element_ID').length) {
    console.log("Exists!");
    clearInterval(existCondition);
    doTheRestOfTheStuff(parameters);
 }
}, 100); // check every 100ms

DOMNodeInserted is being deprecated, along with the other DOM mutation events, because of performance issues - the recommended approach is to use a MutationObserver to watch the DOM. It's only supported in newer browsers though, so you should fall back onto DOMNodeInserted when MutationObserver isn't available.

var observer = new MutationObserver(function(mutations) {
  mutations.forEach(function(mutation) {
    if (!mutation.addedNodes) return

    for (var i = 0; i < mutation.addedNodes.length; i++) {
      // do things to your newly added nodes here
      var node = mutation.addedNodes[i]
    }
  })
})

observer.observe(document.body, {
    childList: true
  , subtree: true
  , attributes: false
  , characterData: false
})

// stop watching using:
observer.disconnect()

Here's a function that acts as a thin wrapper around MutationObserver. The only requirement is that the browser support MutationObserver; there is no dependency on JQuery. Run the snippet below to see a working example.

function waitForMutation(parentNode, isMatchFunc, handlerFunc, observeSubtree, disconnectAfterMatch) {
  var defaultIfUndefined = function(val, defaultVal) {
    return (typeof val === "undefined") ? defaultVal : val;
  };

  observeSubtree = defaultIfUndefined(observeSubtree, false);
  disconnectAfterMatch = defaultIfUndefined(disconnectAfterMatch, false);

  var observer = new MutationObserver(function(mutations) {
    mutations.forEach(function(mutation) {
      if (mutation.addedNodes) {
        for (var i = 0; i < mutation.addedNodes.length; i++) {
          var node = mutation.addedNodes[i];
          if (isMatchFunc(node)) {
            handlerFunc(node);
            if (disconnectAfterMatch) observer.disconnect();
          };
        }
      }
    });
  });

  observer.observe(parentNode, {
    childList: true,
    attributes: false,
    characterData: false,
    subtree: observeSubtree
  });
}

// Example
waitForMutation(
  // parentNode: Root node to observe. If the mutation you're looking for
  // might not occur directly below parentNode, pass 'true' to the
  // observeSubtree parameter.
  document.getElementById("outerContent"),
  // isMatchFunc: Function to identify a match. If it returns true,
  // handlerFunc will run.
  // MutationObserver only fires once per mutation, not once for every node
  // inside the mutation. If the element we're looking for is a child of
  // the newly-added element, we need to use something like
  // node.querySelector() to find it.
  function(node) {
    return node.querySelector(".foo") !== null;
  },
  // handlerFunc: Handler.
  function(node) {
    var elem = document.createElement("div");
    elem.appendChild(document.createTextNode("Added node (" + node.innerText + ")"));
    document.getElementById("log").appendChild(elem);
  },
  // observeSubtree
  true,
  // disconnectAfterMatch: If this is true the hanlerFunc will only run on
  // the first time that isMatchFunc returns true. If it's false, the handler
  // will continue to fire on matches.
  false);

// Set up UI. Using JQuery here for convenience.

$outerContent = $("#outerContent");
$innerContent = $("#innerContent");

$("#addOuter").on("click", function() {
  var newNode = $("<div><span class='foo'>Outer</span></div>");
  $outerContent.append(newNode);
});
$("#addInner").on("click", function() {
  var newNode = $("<div><span class='foo'>Inner</span></div>");
  $innerContent.append(newNode);
});
.content {
  padding: 1em;
  border: solid 1px black;
  overflow-y: auto;
}
#innerContent {
  height: 100px;
}
#outerContent {
  height: 200px;
}
#log {
  font-family: Courier;
  font-size: 10pt;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<h2>Create some mutations</h2>
<div id="main">
  <button id="addOuter">Add outer node</button>
  <button id="addInner">Add inner node</button>
  <div class="content" id="outerContent">
    <div class="content" id="innerContent"></div>
  </div>
</div>
<h2>Log</h2>
<div id="log"></div>

You can do

$('#yourelement').ready(function() {

});

Please note that this will only work if the element is present in the DOM when being requested from the server. If the element is being dynamically added via JavaScript, it will not work and you may need to look at the other answers.


I was having this same problem, so I went ahead and wrote a plugin for it.

$(selector).waitUntilExists(function);

Code:

;(function ($, window) {

var intervals = {};
var removeListener = function(selector) {

    if (intervals[selector]) {

        window.clearInterval(intervals[selector]);
        intervals[selector] = null;
    }
};
var found = 'waitUntilExists.found';

/**
 * @function
 * @property {object} jQuery plugin which runs handler function once specified
 *           element is inserted into the DOM
 * @param {function|string} handler 
 *            A function to execute at the time when the element is inserted or 
 *            string "remove" to remove the listener from the given selector
 * @param {bool} shouldRunHandlerOnce 
 *            Optional: if true, handler is unbound after its first invocation
 * @example jQuery(selector).waitUntilExists(function);
 */

$.fn.waitUntilExists = function(handler, shouldRunHandlerOnce, isChild) {

    var selector = this.selector;
    var $this = $(selector);
    var $elements = $this.not(function() { return $(this).data(found); });

    if (handler === 'remove') {

        // Hijack and remove interval immediately if the code requests
        removeListener(selector);
    }
    else {

        // Run the handler on all found elements and mark as found
        $elements.each(handler).data(found, true);

        if (shouldRunHandlerOnce && $this.length) {

            // Element was found, implying the handler already ran for all 
            // matched elements
            removeListener(selector);
        }
        else if (!isChild) {

            // If this is a recurring search or if the target has not yet been 
            // found, create an interval to continue searching for the target
            intervals[selector] = window.setInterval(function () {

                $this.waitUntilExists(handler, shouldRunHandlerOnce, true);
            }, 500);
        }
    }

    return $this;
};

}(jQuery, window));

From my experience, there is at least one clear advantage when using event.preventDefault() over using return false. Suppose you are capturing the click event on an anchor tag, otherwise which it would be a big problem if the user were to be navigated away from the current page. If your click handler uses return false to prevent browser navigation, it opens the possibility that the interpreter will not reach the return statement and the browser will proceed to execute the anchor tag's default behavior.

$('a').click(function (e) {
  // custom handling here

  // oops...runtime error...where oh where will the href take me?

  return false;
});

The benefit to using event.preventDefault() is that you can add this as the first line in the handler, thereby guaranteeing that the anchor's default behavior will not fire, regardless if the last line of the function is not reached (eg. runtime error).

$('a').click(function (e) {
  e.preventDefault();

  // custom handling here

  // oops...runtime error, but at least the user isn't navigated away.
});




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