css - middle - vertically center text in div




How to vertically center a div for all browsers? (20)

I want to center a div vertically with CSS. I don't want tables or JavaScript, but only pure CSS. I found some solutions, but all of them are missing Internet Explorer 6 support.

<body>
    <div>Div to be aligned vertically</div>
</body>

How can I center a div vertically in all major browsers, including Internet Explorer 6?


Centering only vertically

If you don't care about Internet Explorer 6 and 7, you can use a technique that involves two containers.

The outer container:

  • should have display: table;

The inner container:

  • should have display: table-cell;
  • should have vertical-align: middle;

The content box:

  • should have display: inline-block;

You can add any content you want to the content box without caring about its width or height!

Demo:

body {
    margin: 0;
}

.outer-container {
    position: absolute;
    display: table;
    width: 100%; /* This could be ANY width */
    height: 100%; /* This could be ANY height */
    background: #ccc;
}

.inner-container {
    display: table-cell;
    vertical-align: middle;
}

.centered-content {
    display: inline-block;
    background: #fff;
    padding: 20px;
    border: 1px solid #000;
}
<div class="outer-container">
   <div class="inner-container">
     <div class="centered-content">
        Malcolm in the Middle
     </div>
   </div>
</div>

See also this Fiddle!


Centering horizontally and vertically

If you want to center both horizontally and vertically, you also need the following.

The inner container:

  • should have text-align: center;

The content box:

  • should re-adjust the horizontal text-alignment to for example text-align: left; or text-align: right;, unless you want text to be centered

Demo:

body {
    margin: 0;
}

.outer-container {
    position: absolute;
    display: table;
    width: 100%; /* This could be ANY width */
    height: 100%; /* This could be ANY height */
    background: #ccc;
}

.inner-container {
    display: table-cell;
    vertical-align: middle;
    text-align: center;
}

.centered-content {
    display: inline-block;
    text-align: left;
    background: #fff;
    padding: 20px;
    border: 1px solid #000;
}
<div class="outer-container">
   <div class="inner-container">
     <div class="centered-content">
         Malcolm in the Middle
     </div>
   </div>
</div>

See also this Fiddle!


Flexbox solution

Notes
1. The parent element is given the class name.
2. Add flex vendor prefixes if required by your supported browsers.

.verticallyCenter {
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
}
<div class="verticallyCenter" style="height:200px; background:beige">
    <div>Element centered vertically</div>
</div>

A modern way to center an element vertically would be to use flexbox.

You need a parent to decide the height and a child to center.

The example below will center a div to the center within your browser. What's important (in my example) is to set height: 100% to body and html and then min-height: 100% to your container.

body, html {
  background: #F5F5F5;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  height: 100%;
  margin: 0;
}

#center_container {
  align-items: center;
  display: flex;
  min-height: 100%;
}

#center {
  background: white;
  margin: 0 auto;
  padding: 10px;
  text-align: center;
  width: 200px;
}
<div id='center_container'>
  <div id='center'>I am center.</div>
</div>

Actually you need two div's for vertical centering. The div containing the content must have a width and height.

#container {
  position: absolute;
  top: 50%;
  margin-top: -200px;
  /* half of #content height*/
  left: 0;
  width: 100%;
}

#content {
  width: 624px;
  margin-left: auto;
  margin-right: auto;
  height: 395px;
  border: 1px solid #000000;
}
<div id="container">
  <div id="content">
    <h1>Centered div</h1>
  </div>
</div>

Here is the result


Below is the best all-around solution I could build to vertically and horizontally center a fixed-width, flexible height content box. It was tested and working for recent versions of Firefox, Opera, Chrome, and Safari.

.outer {
  display: table;
  position: absolute;
  height: 100%;
  width: 100%;
}

.middle {
  display: table-cell;
  vertical-align: middle;
}

.inner {
  margin-left: auto;
  margin-right: auto;
  width: 400px;
  /*whatever width you want*/
}
<div class="outer">
  <div class="middle">
    <div class="inner">
      <h1>The Content</h1>
      <p>Once upon a midnight dreary...</p>
    </div>
  </div>
</div>

View A Working Example With Dynamic Content

I built in some dynamic content to test the flexibility and would love to know if anyone sees any problems with it. It should work well for centered overlays also -- lightbox, pop-up, etc.


Especially for parent divs with relative (unknown) height, the centering in the unknown solution works great for me. There are some really nice code examples in the article.

It was tested in Chrome, Firefox, Opera, and Internet Explorer.

/* This parent can be any width and height */
.block {
  text-align: center;
}

/* The ghost, nudged to maintain perfect centering */
.block:before {
  content: '';
  display: inline-block;
  height: 100%;
  vertical-align: middle;
  margin-right: -0.25em; /* Adjusts for spacing */
}

/* The element to be centered, can
   also be of any width and height */ 
.centered {
  display: inline-block;
  vertical-align: middle;
  width: 300px;
}
<div style="width: 400px; height: 200px;">
   <div class="block" style="height: 90%; width: 100%">
  <div class="centered">
	 <h1>Some text</h1>
	 <p>Any other text..."</p>
  </div> 
   </div>
</div>

I find this one most useful.. it gives the most accurate 'H' layout and is very simple to understand.

The benefit in this markup is that you define your content size in a single place -> "PageContent".
The Colors of the page background and its horizontal margins are defined in their corresponding divs.

<div id="PageLayoutConfiguration" 
     style="display: table;
     position:absolute; top: 0px; right: 0px; bottom: 0px; left: 0px;
     width: 100%; height: 100%;">

        <div id="PageBackground" 
             style="display: table-cell; vertical-align: middle;
             background-color: purple;">

            <div id="PageHorizontalMargins"
                 style="width: 100%;
                 background-color: seashell;">

                <div id="PageContent" 
                     style="width: 1200px; height: 620px; margin: 0 auto;
                     background-color: grey;">

                     my content goes here...

                </div>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>

And here with CSS separated:

<div id="PageLayoutConfiguration">
     <div id="PageBackground">
          <div id="PageHorizontalMargins">
               <div id="PageContent">
                     my content goes here...
               </div>
          </div>
     </div>
</div>

#PageLayoutConfiguration{
   display: table; width: 100%; height: 100%;
   position:absolute; top: 0px; right: 0px; bottom: 0px; left: 0px;
}

#PageBackground{
   display: table-cell; vertical-align: middle;
   background-color: purple;
}

#PageHorizontalMargins{
   style="width: 100%;
   background-color: seashell;
}
#PageContent{
   width: 1200px; height: 620px; margin: 0 auto;
   background-color: grey;
}


I use this. It works in Internet Explorer 8 and later:

height:268px - for display:table acts like min-height.

CSS:

* {
  padding: 0;
  margin: 0;
}
body {
  background: #cc9999;
}
p {
  background: #f0ad4e;
}
#all {
  margin: 200px auto;
}
.ff-valign-wrap {
  display: table;
  width: 100%;
  height: 268px;
  background: #ff00ff;
}
.ff-valign {
  display: table-cell;
  height: 100%;
  vertical-align: middle;
  text-align: center;
  background: #ffff00;
}

HTML:

<body>

  <div id="all">
    <div class="ff-valign-wrap">
      <div class="ff-valign">
        <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Amet, animi autem doloribus earum expedita, ipsum laboriosam nostrum nulla officiis optio quam quis quod sunt tempora tenetur veritatis vero voluptatem voluptates?</p>
        <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Amet, animi autem doloribus earum expedita, ipsum laboriosam nostrum nulla officiis optio quam quis quod sunt tempora tenetur veritatis vero voluptatem voluptates?</p>
        <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Amet, animi autem doloribus earum expedita, ipsum laboriosam nostrum nulla officiis optio quam quis quod sunt tempora tenetur veritatis vero voluptatem voluptates?</p>
        <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Amet, animi autem doloribus earum expedita, ipsum laboriosam nostrum nulla officiis optio quam quis quod sunt tempora tenetur veritatis vero voluptatem voluptates?</p>
        <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Amet, animi autem doloribus earum expedita, ipsum laboriosam nostrum nulla officiis optio quam quis quod sunt tempora tenetur veritatis vero voluptatem voluptates?</p>
        <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Amet, animi autem doloribus earum expedita, ipsum laboriosam nostrum nulla officiis optio quam quis quod sunt tempora tenetur veritatis vero voluptatem voluptates?</p>
        <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Amet, animi autem doloribus earum expedita, ipsum laboriosam nostrum nulla officiis optio quam quis quod sunt tempora tenetur veritatis vero voluptatem voluptates?</p>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>

</body>

If someone cares for Internet Explorer 10 (and later) only, use flexbox:

.parent {
    width: 500px;
    height: 500px;
    background: yellow;

    display: -webkit-flex;
    display: -ms-flexbox;
    display: flex;

    -webkit-justify-content: center;
    -ms-flex-pack: center;
    justify-content: center;

    -webkit-align-items: center;
    -ms-flex-align: center;
    align-items: center;
}

.centered {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background: blue;
}
<div class="parent">
    <div class="centered"></div>
</div>

Flexbox support: http://caniuse.com/flexbox


Not answering for browser compatibility but to also mention the new Grid and the not so new Flexbox feature.

Grid

From: Mozilla - Grid Documentation - Align Div Vertically

Browser Support: Grid Browser Support

CSS:

.wrapper {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(4, 1fr);
  grid-gap: 10px;
  grid-auto-rows: 200px;
  grid-template-areas: 
    ". a a ."
    ". a a .";
}
.item1 {
  grid-area: a;
  align-self: center;
  justify-self: center;
}

HTML:

<div class="wrapper">
 <div class="item1">Item 1</div>
</div>

Flexbox

Browser Support: Flexbox Browser Support

CSS:

display: -webkit-box;
display: -moz-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: -webkit-flex;
display: flex;
align-items: center;
justify-content: center;

Now the flexbox solution is a very easy way for modern browsers, so I recommend this for you:

.container{
    display: flex;
    align-items: center;
    justify-content: center;
    height: 100%;
    background:green;
}

body, html{
  height:100%;
}
<div class="container">
    <div>Div to be aligned vertically</div>
</div>

The answer from Billbad only works with a fixed width of the .inner div. This solution works for a dynamic width by adding the attribute text-align: center to the .outer div.

.outer {
  position: absolute;
  display: table;
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  text-align: center;
}
.middle {
  display: table-cell;
  vertical-align: middle;
}
.inner {
  text-align: center;
  display: inline-block;
  width: auto;
}
<div class="outer">
  <div class="middle">
    <div class="inner">
      Content
    </div>
  </div>
</div>

The contents can be easily centered by using flexbox. The following code shows the CSS for the container inside which the contents needs to be centered:

.absolute-center {
    display: -ms-flexbox;
    display: -webkit-flex;
    display: flex;

    -ms-flex-align: center;
    -webkit-align-items: center;
    -webkit-box-align: center;

    align-items: center;
}

The following is working in my case and was tested in Firefox.

#element {
    display: block;
    transform: translateY(50%);
    -moz-transform: translateY(50%);
    -webkit-transform: translateY(50%);
    -ms-transform: translateY(50%);
}

The div's height and parent's height are dynamic. I use it when there are other elements on the same parent which is higher than the target element, where both are positioned horizontally inline.


The following link presents a simple way of doing it with just 3 lines in your CSS:

Vertical align anything with just 3 lines of CSS.

Credits to: Sebastian Ekström.

I know the question has already an answer however I saw utility in the link for its simplicity.


The three lines of code using transform works practically on modern browsers and Internet Explorer:

.element{
     position: relative;
     top: 50%;
     transform: translateY(-50%);
     -moz-transform: translateY(-50%);
     -webkit-transform: translateY(-50%);
     -ms-transform: translateY(-50%);
}

I am adding this answer since I found some incompleteness in the previous version of this answer (and won't allow me to simply comment).

  1. 'position' relative messes up the styling if the current div is in the body and has no container div. However 'fixed' seems to work, but it obviously fixes the content in the center of the viewport

  2. Also I used this styling for centering some overlay divs and found that in Mozilla all elements inside this transformed div had lost their bottom borders. Possibly a rendering issue. But adding just the minimal padding to some of them rendered it correctly. Chrome and Internet Explorer (surprisingly) rendered the boxes without any need for padding


This is always where I go when I have to come back to this issue.

For those who don't want to make the jump:

  1. Specify the parent container as position:relative or position:absolute.
  2. Specify a fixed height on the child container.
  3. Set position:absolute and top:50% on the child container to move the top down to the middle of the parent.
  4. Set margin-top:-yy where yy is half the height of the child container to offset the item up.

An example of this in code:

<style type="text/css">
    #myoutercontainer {position:relative}
    #myinnercontainer {position:absolute; top:50%; height:10em; margin-top:-5em}
</style>
...
<div id="myoutercontainer">
    <div id="myinnercontainer">
        <p>Hey look! I'm vertically centered!</p>
        <p>How sweet is this?!</p>
    </div>
</div>

This solution worked for me if you have a block element (e. g. ). I used the colors to make the solution clearer.

HTML:

<main class="skin_orange">
<p>As you can the the element/box is vertically centered</p>
<div class="bigBox skin_blue">Blue Box</div>
</main>

CSS:

main {
    position: relative;
    width: 400px;
    height: 400px;
}

.skin_orange {
    outline: thin dotted red;
    background: orange;
}

.bigBox {
    width: 150px;
    height: 150px;
    position: absolute;
    top: 50%;
    transform: translateY(-50%);
}

.skin_blue {
    background-color: blue;
}

JSFiddle Code Demo


To center the div on a page, check the fiddle link.

#vh {
    margin: auto;
    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    bottom: 0;
    right: 0;
}
.box{
    border-radius: 15px;
    box-shadow: 0 0 8px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.4);
    padding: 25px;
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background: white;
}
<div id="vh" class="box">Div to be aligned vertically</div>

Another option is to use flex box, check the fiddle link.

.vh {
    background-color: #ddd;
    height: 400px;
    align-items: center;
    display: flex;
}
.vh > div {
    width: 100%;
    text-align: center;
    vertical-align: middle;
}
<div class="vh">
    <div>Div to be aligned vertically</div>
</div>

Another option is to use a CSS 3 transform:

#vh {
    position: absolute;
    top: 50%;
    left: 50%;
    /*transform: translateX(-50%) translateY(-50%);*/
    transform: translate(-50%, -50%);
}
.box{
    border-radius: 15px;
    box-shadow: 0 0 8px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.4);
    padding: 25px;
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background: white;
}
<div id="vh" class="box">Div to be aligned vertically</div>




centering