gcc - techniques - optimization level




Why doesn't GCC optimize a*a*a*a*a*a to(a*a*a)*(a*a*a)? (8)

Lambdageek correctly points out that because associativity does not hold for floating-point numbers, the "optimization" of a*a*a*a*a*a to (a*a*a)*(a*a*a) may change the value. This is why it is disallowed by C99 (unless specifically allowed by the user, via compiler flag or pragma). Generally, the assumption is that the programmer wrote what she did for a reason, and the compiler should respect that. If you want (a*a*a)*(a*a*a), write that.

That can be a pain to write, though; why can't the compiler just do [what you consider to be] the right thing when you use pow(a,6)? Because it would be the wrong thing to do. On a platform with a good math library, pow(a,6) is significantly more accurate than either a*a*a*a*a*a or (a*a*a)*(a*a*a). Just to provide some data, I ran a small experiment on my Mac Pro, measuring the worst error in evaluating a^6 for all single-precision floating numbers between [1,2):

worst relative error using    powf(a, 6.f): 5.96e-08
worst relative error using (a*a*a)*(a*a*a): 2.94e-07
worst relative error using     a*a*a*a*a*a: 2.58e-07

Using pow instead of a multiplication tree reduces the error bound by a factor of 4. Compilers should not (and generally do not) make "optimizations" that increase error unless licensed to do so by the user (e.g. via -ffast-math).

Note that GCC provides __builtin_powi(x,n) as an alternative to pow( ), which should generate an inline multiplication tree. Use that if you want to trade off accuracy for performance, but do not want to enable fast-math.

I am doing some numerical optimization on a scientific application. One thing I noticed is that GCC will optimize the call pow(a,2) by compiling it into a*a, but the call pow(a,6) is not optimized and will actually call the library function pow, which greatly slows down the performance. (In contrast, Intel C++ Compiler, executable icc, will eliminate the library call for pow(a,6).)

What I am curious about is that when I replaced pow(a,6) with a*a*a*a*a*a using GCC 4.5.1 and options "-O3 -lm -funroll-loops -msse4", it uses 5 mulsd instructions:

movapd  %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13

while if I write (a*a*a)*(a*a*a), it will produce

movapd  %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm14, %xmm13
mulsd   %xmm13, %xmm13

which reduces the number of multiply instructions to 3. icc has similar behavior.

Why do compilers not recognize this optimization trick?


Another similar case: most compilers won't optimize a + b + c + d to (a + b) + (c + d) (this is an optimization since the second expression can be pipelined better) and evaluate it as given (i.e. as (((a + b) + c) + d)). This too is because of corner cases:

float a = 1e35, b = 1e-5, c = -1e35, d = 1e-5;
printf("%e %e\n", a + b + c + d, (a + b) + (c + d));

This outputs 1.000000e-05 0.000000e+00


Because Floating Point Math is not Associative. The way you group the operands in floating point multiplication has an effect on the numerical accuracy of the answer.

As a result, most compilers are very conservative about reordering floating point calculations unless they can be sure that the answer will stay the same, or unless you tell them you don't care about numerical accuracy. For example: the -fassociative-math option of gcc which allows gcc to reassociate floating point operations, or even the -ffast-math option which allows even more aggressive tradeoffs of accuracy against speed.


Because a 32-bit floating-point number - such as 1.024 - is not 1.024. In a computer, 1.024 is an interval: from (1.024-e) to (1.024+e), where "e" represents an error. Some people fail to realize this and also believe that * in a*a stands for multiplication of arbitrary-precision numbers without there being any errors attached to those numbers. The reason why some people fail to realize this is perhaps the math computations they exercised in elementary schools: working only with ideal numbers without errors attached, and believing that it is OK to simply ignore "e" while performing multiplication. They do not see the "e" implicit in "float a=1.2", "a*a*a" and similar C codes.

Should majority of programmers recognize (and be able to execute on) the idea that C expression a*a*a*a*a*a is not actually working with ideal numbers, the GCC compiler would then be FREE to optimize "a*a*a*a*a*a" into say "t=(a*a); t*t*t" which requires a smaller number of multiplications. But unfortunately, the GCC compiler does not know whether the programmer writing the code thinks that "a" is a number with or without an error. And so GCC will only do what the source code looks like - because that is what GCC sees with its "naked eye".

... once you know what kind of programmer you are, you can use the "-ffast-math" switch to tell GCC that "Hey, GCC, I know what I am doing!". This will allow GCC to convert a*a*a*a*a*a into a different piece of text - it looks different from a*a*a*a*a*a - but still computes a number within the error interval of a*a*a*a*a*a. This is OK, since you already know you are working with intervals, not ideal numbers.


GCC does actually optimize a*a*a*a*a*a to (a*a*a)*(a*a*a) when a is an integer. I tried with this command:

$ echo 'int f(int x) { return x*x*x*x*x*x; }' | gcc -o - -O2 -S -masm=intel -x c -

There are a lot of gcc flags but nothing fancy. They mean: Read from stdin; use O2 optimization level; output assembly language listing instead of a binary; the listing should use Intel assembly language syntax; the input is in C language (usually language is inferred from input file extension, but there is no file extension when reading from stdin); and write to stdout.

Here's the important part of the output. I've annotated it with some comments indicating what's going on in the assembly language:

    ; x is in edi to begin with.  eax will be used as a temporary register.
    mov    eax, edi     ; temp1 = x
    imul    eax, edi    ; temp2 = x * temp1
    imul    eax, edi    ; temp3 = x * temp2
    imul    eax, eax    ; temp4 = temp3 * temp3

I'm using system GCC on Linux Mint 16 Petra, an Ubuntu derivative. Here's the gcc version:

$ gcc --version
gcc (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.8.1-10ubuntu9) 4.8.1

As other posters have noted, this option is not possible in floating point, because floating point arithmetic is actually not associative.


I would not have expected this case to be optimized at all. It can't be very often where an expression contains subexpressions that can be regrouped to remove entire operations. I would expect compiler writers to invest their time in areas which would be more likely to result in noticeable improvements, rather than covering a rarely encountered edge case.

I was surprised to learn from the other answers that this expression could indeed be optimized with the proper compiler switches. Either the optimization is trivial, or it is an edge case of a much more common optimization, or the compiler writers were extremely thorough.

There's nothing wrong with providing hints to the compiler as you've done here. It's a normal and expected part of the micro-optimization process to rearrange statements and expressions to see what differences they will bring.

While the compiler may be justified in considering the two expressions to deliver inconsistent results (without the proper switches), there's no need for you to be bound by that restriction. The difference will be incredibly tiny - so much so that if the difference matters to you, you should not be using standard floating point arithmetic in the first place.


No posters have mentioned the contraction of floating expressions yet (ISO C standard, 6.5p8 and 7.12.2). If the FP_CONTRACT pragma is set to ON, the compiler is allowed to regard an expression such as a*a*a*a*a*a as a single operation, as if evaluated exactly with a single rounding. For instance, a compiler may replace it by an internal power function that is both faster and more accurate. This is particularly interesting as the behavior is partly controlled by the programmer directly in the source code, while compiler options provided by the end user may sometimes be used incorrectly.

The default state of the FP_CONTRACT pragma is implementation-defined, so that a compiler is allowed to do such optimizations by default. Thus portable code that needs to strictly follow the IEEE 754 rules should explicitly set it to OFF.

If a compiler doesn't support this pragma, it must be conservative by avoiding any such optimization, in case the developer has chosen to set it to OFF.

GCC doesn't support this pragma, but with the default options, it assumes it to be ON; thus for targets with a hardware FMA, if one wants to prevent the transformation a*b+c to fma(a,b,c), one needs to provide an option such as -ffp-contract=off (to explicitly set the pragma to OFF) or -std=c99 (to tell GCC to conform to some C standard version, here C99, thus follow the above paragraph). In the past, the latter option was not preventing the transformation, meaning that GCC was not conforming on this point: https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=37845


There are already a few good answers to this question, but for the sake of completeness I wanted to point out that the applicable section of the C standard is 5.1.2.2.3/15 (which is the same as section 1.9/9 in the C++11 standard). This section states that operators can only be regrouped if they are really associative or commutative.







fast-math