java - meaning - spring service layer




What's the difference between @Component, @Repository & @Service annotations in Spring? (16)

Spring 2.5 introduces further stereotype annotations: @Component, @Service and @Controller. @Component serves as a generic stereotype for any Spring-managed component; whereas, @Repository, @Service, and @Controller serve as specializations of @Component for more specific use cases (e.g., in the persistence, service, and presentation layers, respectively). What this means is that you can annotate your component classes with @Component, but by annotating them with @Repository, @Service, or @Controller instead, your classes are more properly suited for processing by tools or associating with aspects. For example, these stereotype annotations make ideal targets for pointcuts. Of course, it is also possible that @Repository, @Service, and @Controller may carry additional semantics in future releases of the Spring Framework. Thus, if you are making a decision between using @Component or @Service for your service layer, @Service is clearly the better choice. Similarly, as stated above, @Repository is already supported as a marker for automatic exception translation in your persistence layer.

@Component – Indicates a auto scan component.
@Repository – Indicates DAO component in the persistence layer.
@Service – Indicates a Service component in the business layer.
@Controller – Indicates a controller component in the presentation layer.

reference :- Spring Documentation - Classpath scanning, managed components and writing configurations using Java

Can @Component, @Repository and @Service annotations be used interchangeably in Spring or do they provide any particular functionality besides acting as a notation device?

In other words, if I have a Service class and I change the annotation from @Service to @Component, will it still behave the same way?

Or does the annotation also influence the behavior and functionality of the class?


@Component is the top level generic annotation which makes the annotated bean to be scanned and available in the DI container

@Repository is specialized annotation and it brings the feature of converting all the unchecked exceptions from the DAO classes

@Service is specialized annotation. it do not bring any new feature as of now but it clarifies the intent of the bean

@Controller is specialized annotation which makes the bean MVC aware and allows the use of further annotation like @RequestMapping and all such

Here are more details


@Component: you annotate a class @Component, it tells hibernate that it is a Bean.

@Repository: you annotate a class @Repository, it tells hibernate it is a DAO class and treat it as DAO class. Means it makes the unchecked exceptions (thrown from DAO methods) eligible for translation into Spring DataAccessException.

@Service: This tells hibernate it is a Service class where you will have @Transactional etc Service layer annotations so hibernate treats it as a Service component.

Plus @Service is advance of @Component. Assume the bean class name is CustomerService, since you did not choose XML bean configuration way so you annotated the bean with @Component to indicate it as a Bean. So while getting the bean object CustomerService cust = (CustomerService)context.getBean("customerService"); By default, Spring will lower case the first character of the component – from ‘CustomerService’ to ‘customerService’. And you can retrieve this component with name ‘customerService’. But if you use @Service annotation for the bean class you can provide a specific bean name by

@Service("AAA")
public class CustomerService{

and you can get the bean object by

CustomerService cust = (CustomerService)context.getBean("AAA");

@Repository @Service and @Controller are serves as specialization of @Component for more specific use on that basis you can replace @Service to @Component but in this case you loose the specialization.

1. **@Repository**   - Automatic exception translation in your persistence layer.
2. **@Service**      - It indicates that the annotated class is providing a business service to other layers within the application.

@Component is equivalent to

<bean>

@Service, @Controller, @Repository = {@Component + some more special functionality}

That mean Service, The Controller and Repository are functionally the same.

The three annotations are used to separate "Layers" in your application,

  • Controllers just do stuff like dispatching, forwarding, calling service methods etc.
  • Service Hold business Logic, Calculations etc.
  • Repository are the DAOs (Data Access Objects), they access the database directly.

Now you may ask why separate them: (I assume you know AOP-Aspect Oriented Programming)

Let's say you want to Monitors the Activity of the DAO Layer only. You will write an Aspect (A class) class that does some logging before and after every method of your DAO is invoked, you are able to do that using AOP as you have three distinct Layers and are not mixed.

So you can do logging of DAO "around", "before" or "after" the DAO methods. You could do that because you had a DAO in the first place. What you just achieved is Separation of concerns or tasks.

Imagine if there were only one annotation @Controller, then this component will have dispatching, business logic and accessing database all mixed, so dirty code!

Above mentioned is one very common scenario, there are many more use cases of why to use three annotations.


@Component, @ Repository, @ Service, @Controller:

@Component is a generic stereotype for the components managed by Spring @Repository, @Service, and @Controller are @Component specializations for more specific uses:

  • @Repository for persistence
  • @Service for services and transactions
  • @Controller for MVC controllers

Why use @Repository, @Service, @Controller over @Component? We can mark our component classes with @Component, but if instead we use the alternative that adapts to the expected functionality. Our classes are better suited to the functionality expected in each particular case.

A class annotated with "@Repository" has a better translation and readable error handling with org.springframework.dao.DataAccessException. Ideal for implementing components that access data (DataAccessObject or DAO).

An annotated class with "@Controller" plays a controller role in a Spring Web MVC application

An annotated class with "@Service" plays a role in business logic services, example Facade pattern for DAO Manager (Facade) and transaction handling


Annotate other components with @Component, for example REST Resource classes.

@Component
public class AdressComp{
    .......
    ...//some code here    
}

@Component is a generic stereotype for any Spring managed component.

@Controller, @Service and @Repository are Specializations of @Component for specific use cases.

@Component in Spring


As many of the answers already state what these annotations are used for, we'll here focus on some minor differences among them.

First the Similarity

First point worth highlighting again is that with respect to scan-auto-detection and dependency injection for BeanDefinition all these annotations (viz., @Component, @Service, @Repository, @Controller) are the same. We can use one in place of another and can still get our way around.


Differences between @Component, @Repository, @Controller and @Service

@Component

This is a general-purpose stereotype annotation indicating that the class is a spring component.

What’s special about @Component
<context:component-scan> only scans @Component and does not look for @Controller, @Service and @Repository in general. They are scanned because they themselves are annotated with @Component.

Just take a look at @Controller, @Service and @Repository annotation definitions:

@Component
public @interface Service {
    ….
}

 

@Component
public @interface Repository {
    ….
}

 

@Component
public @interface Controller {
    …
}

Thus, it’s not wrong to say that @Controller, @Service and @Repository are special types of @Component annotation. <context:component-scan> picks them up and registers their following classes as beans, just as if they were annotated with @Component.

They are scanned because they themselves are annotated with @Component annotation. If we define our own custom annotation and annotate it with @Component, then it will also get scanned with <context:component-scan>


@Repository

This is to indicate that the class defines a data repository.

What’s special about @Repository?

In addition to pointing out that this is an Annotation based Configuration, @Repository’s job is to catch Platform specific exceptions and re-throw them as one of Spring’s unified unchecked exception. And for this, we’re provided with PersistenceExceptionTranslationPostProcessor, that we are required to add in our Spring’s application context like this:

<bean class="org.springframework.dao.annotation.PersistenceExceptionTranslationPostProcessor"/>

This bean post processor adds an advisor to any bean that’s annotated with @Repository so that any platform-specific exceptions are caught and then rethrown as one of Spring’s unchecked data access exceptions.


@Controller

The @Controller annotation indicates that a particular class serves the role of a controller. The @Controller annotation acts as a stereotype for the annotated class, indicating its role.

What’s special about @Controller?

We cannot switch this annotation with any other like @Service or @Repository, even though they look same. The dispatcher scans the classes annotated with @Controller and detects @RequestMapping annotations within them. We can only use @RequestMapping on @Controller annotated classes.


@Service

@Services hold business logic and call method in repository layer.

What’s special about @Service?

Apart from the fact that it is used to indicate that it's holding the business logic, there’s no noticeable speciality that this annotation provides, but who knows, spring may add some additional exceptional in future.


What else?

Similar to above, in future Spring may choose to add special functionalities for @Service, @Controller and @Repository based on their layering conventions. Hence its always a good idea to respect the convention and use them in line with layers.


From Spring Documentation:

In Spring 2.0 and later, the @Repository annotation is a marker for any class that fulfills the role or stereotype (also known as Data Access Object or DAO) of a repository. Among the uses of this marker is the automatic translation of exceptions.

Spring 2.5 introduces further stereotype annotations: @Component, @Service, and @Controller. @Component is a generic stereotype for any Spring-managed component. @Repository, @Service, and @Controller are specializations of @Component for more specific use cases, for example, in the persistence, service, and presentation layers, respectively.

Therefore, you can annotate your component classes with @Component, but by annotating them with @Repository, @Service, or @Controller instead, your classes are more properly suited for processing by tools or associating with aspects. For example, these stereotype annotations make ideal targets for pointcuts.

Thus, if you are choosing between using @Component or @Service for your service layer, @Service is clearly the better choice. Similarly, as stated above, @Repository is already supported as a marker for automatic exception translation in your persistence layer.

┌────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
│ Annotation │ Meaning                                             │
├────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
│ @Component │ generic stereotype for any Spring-managed component │
│ @Repository│ stereotype for persistence layer                    │
│ @Service   │ stereotype for service layer                        │
│ @Controller│ stereotype for presentation layer (spring-mvc)      │
└────────────┴─────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

In Spring 4, latest version:

The @Repository annotation is a marker for any class that fulfills the role or stereotype of a repository (also known as Data Access Object or DAO). Among the uses of this marker is the automatic translation of exceptions as described in Section 20.2.2, “Exception translation”.

Spring provides further stereotype annotations: @Component, @Service, and @Controller. @Component is a generic stereotype for any Spring-managed component. @Repository, @Service, and @Controller are specializations of @Component for more specific use cases, for example, in the persistence, service, and presentation layers, respectively. Therefore, you can annotate your component classes with @Component, but by annotating them with @Repository, @Service, or @Controller instead, your classes are more properly suited for processing by tools or associating with aspects. For example, these stereotype annotations make ideal targets for pointcuts. It is also possible that @Repository, @Service, and @Controller may carry additional semantics in future releases of the Spring Framework. Thus, if you are choosing between using @Component or @Service for your service layer, @Service is clearly the better choice. Similarly, as stated above, @Repository is already supported as a marker for automatic exception translation in your persistence layer.


In spring framework provides some special type of annotations,called stereotype annotations. These are following:-

@RestController- Declare at controller level.
@Controller – Declare at controller level.
@Component – Declare at Bean/entity level.
@Repository – Declare at DAO level.
@Service – Declare at BO level.

above declared annotations are special because when we add <context:component-scan> into xxx-servlet.xml file ,spring will automatically create the object of those classes which are annotated with above annotation during context creation/loading phase.


Spring provides four different types of auto component scan annotations, they are @Component, @Service, @Repository and @Controller. Technically, there is no difference between them, but every auto component scan annotation should be used for a special purpose and within the defined layer.

@Component: It is a basic auto component scan annotation, it indicates annotated class is an auto scan component.

@Controller: Annotated class indicates that it is a controller component, and mainly used at the presentation layer.

@Service: It indicates annotated class is a Service component in the business layer.

@Repository: You need to use this annotation within the persistence layer, this acts like database repository.

One should choose a more specialised form of @Component while annotating their class as this annotation may contain specific behavior going forward.


There is no difference between @Component,@Service,@Controller,@Repository. @Component is the Generic annotation to represent the component of our MVC. But there will be several components as part of our MVC application like service layer components, persistence layer components and presentation layer components. So to differentiate them Spring people have given the other three annotations also.

To represent persistence layer components : @Repository

To represent service layer components : @Service

To represent presentation layer components : @Controller

or else you can use @Component for all of them.


They are almost the same - all of them mean that the class is a Spring bean. @Service, @Repository and @Controller are specialized @Components. You can choose to perform specific actions with them. For example:

  • @Controller beans are used by spring-mvc
  • @Repository beans are eligible for persistence exception translation

Another thing is that you designate the components semantically to different layers.

One thing that @Component offers is that you can annotate other annotations with it, and then use them the same way as @Service.

For example recently I made:

@Component
@Scope("prototype")
public @interface ScheduledJob {..}

So all classes annotated with @ScheduledJob are spring beans and in addition to that are registered as quartz jobs. You just have to provide code that handles the specific annotation.


We can answer this according to java standard

Referring to JSR-330, which is now supported by spring, you can only use @Named to define a bean (Somehow @[email protected]). So according to this standard, there seems that there is no use to define stereotypes (like @Repository, @Service, @Controller) to categories beans.

But spring user these different annotations in different for the specific use, for example:

  1. Help developers define a better category for the competent. This categorizing may become helpful in some cases. (For example when you are using aspect-oriented, these can be a good candidate for pointcuts)
  2. @Repository annotation will add some functionality to your bean (some automatic exception translation to your bean persistence layer).
  3. If you are using spring MVC, the @RequestMapping can only be added to classes which are annotated by @Controller.

all these annotations are type of stereo type type of annotation,the difference between these three annotations are

  • If we add the @Component then it tells the role of class is a component class it means it is a class consisting some logic,but it does not tell whether a class containing a specifically business or persistence or controller logic so we don't use directly this @Component annotation
  • If we add @Service annotation then it tells that a role of class consisting business logic
  • If we add @Repository on top of class then it tells that a class consisting persistence logic
  • Here @Component is a base annotation for @Service,@Repository and @Controller annotations

for example

package com.spring.anno;
@Service
public class TestBean
{
    public void m1()
    {
       //business code
    }
}

package com.spring.anno;
@Repository
public class TestBean
{
    public void update()
    {
       //persistence code
    }
}
  • whenever we adds the @Service or @Repositroy or @Controller annotation by default @Component annotation is going to existence on top of the class




annotations