algorithm - two - latitude longitude distance calculator




Calculate distance between two latitude-longitude points?(Haversine formula) (20)

Java implementation in according Haversine formula

double calculateDistance(double latPoint1, double lngPoint1, 
                         double latPoint2, double lngPoint2) {
    if(latPoint1 == latPoint2 && lngPoint1 == lngPoint2) {
        return 0d;
    }

    final double EARTH_RADIUS = 6371.0; //km value;

    //converting to radians
    latPoint1 = Math.toRadians(latPoint1);
    lngPoint1 = Math.toRadians(lngPoint1);
    latPoint2 = Math.toRadians(latPoint2);
    lngPoint2 = Math.toRadians(lngPoint2);

    double distance = Math.pow(Math.sin((latPoint2 - latPoint1) / 2.0), 2) 
            + Math.cos(latPoint1) * Math.cos(latPoint2)
            * Math.pow(Math.sin((lngPoint2 - lngPoint1) / 2.0), 2);
    distance = 2.0 * EARTH_RADIUS * Math.asin(Math.sqrt(distance));

    return distance; //km value
}

How do I calculate the distance between two points specified by latitude and longitude?

For clarification, I'd like the distance in kilometers; the points use the WGS84 system and I'd like to understand the relative accuracies of the approaches available.


All the above answers assumes the earth is a sphere. However, a more accurate approximation would be that of an oblate spheroid.

a= 6378.137#equitorial radius in km
b= 6356.752#polar radius in km

def Distance(lat1, lons1, lat2, lons2):
    lat1=math.radians(lat1)
    lons1=math.radians(lons1)
    R1=(((((a**2)*math.cos(lat1))**2)+(((b**2)*math.sin(lat1))**2))/((a*math.cos(lat1))**2+(b*math.sin(lat1))**2))**0.5 #radius of earth at lat1
    x1=R*math.cos(lat1)*math.cos(lons1)
    y1=R*math.cos(lat1)*math.sin(lons1)
    z1=R*math.sin(lat1)

    lat2=math.radians(lat2)
    lons2=math.radians(lons2)
    R1=(((((a**2)*math.cos(lat2))**2)+(((b**2)*math.sin(lat2))**2))/((a*math.cos(lat2))**2+(b*math.sin(lat2))**2))**0.5 #radius of earth at lat2
    x2=R*math.cos(lat2)*math.cos(lons2)
    y2=R*math.cos(lat2)*math.sin(lons2)
    z2=R*math.sin(lat2)

    return ((x1-x2)**2+(y1-y2)**2+(z1-z2)**2)**0.5

Here is a typescript implementation of the Haversine formula

static getDistanceFromLatLonInKm(lat1: number, lon1: number, lat2: number, lon2: number): number {
    var deg2Rad = deg => {
        return deg * Math.PI / 180;
    }

    var r = 6371; // Radius of the earth in km
    var dLat = deg2Rad(lat2 - lat1);   
    var dLon = deg2Rad(lon2 - lon1);
    var a =
        Math.sin(dLat / 2) * Math.sin(dLat / 2) +
        Math.cos(deg2Rad(lat1)) * Math.cos(deg2Rad(lat2)) *
        Math.sin(dLon / 2) * Math.sin(dLon / 2);
    var c = 2 * Math.atan2(Math.sqrt(a), Math.sqrt(1 - a));
    var d = r * c; // Distance in km
    return d;
}

Here is a C# Implementation:

static class DistanceAlgorithm
{
    const double PIx = 3.141592653589793;
    const double RADIUS = 6378.16;

    /// <summary>
    /// Convert degrees to Radians
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="x">Degrees</param>
    /// <returns>The equivalent in radians</returns>
    public static double Radians(double x)
    {
        return x * PIx / 180;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Calculate the distance between two places.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="lon1"></param>
    /// <param name="lat1"></param>
    /// <param name="lon2"></param>
    /// <param name="lat2"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public static double DistanceBetweenPlaces(
        double lon1,
        double lat1,
        double lon2,
        double lat2)
    {
        double dlon = Radians(lon2 - lon1);
        double dlat = Radians(lat2 - lat1);

        double a = (Math.Sin(dlat / 2) * Math.Sin(dlat / 2)) + Math.Cos(Radians(lat1)) * Math.Cos(Radians(lat2)) * (Math.Sin(dlon / 2) * Math.Sin(dlon / 2));
        double angle = 2 * Math.Atan2(Math.Sqrt(a), Math.Sqrt(1 - a));
        return angle * RADIUS;
    }

}

Here is my java implementation for calculation distance via decimal degrees after some search. I used mean radius of world (from wikipedia) in km. İf you want result miles then use world radius in miles.

public static double distanceLatLong2(double lat1, double lng1, double lat2, double lng2) 
{
  double earthRadius = 6371.0d; // KM: use mile here if you want mile result

  double dLat = toRadian(lat2 - lat1);
  double dLng = toRadian(lng2 - lng1);

  double a = Math.pow(Math.sin(dLat/2), 2)  + 
          Math.cos(toRadian(lat1)) * Math.cos(toRadian(lat2)) * 
          Math.pow(Math.sin(dLng/2), 2);

  double c = 2 * Math.atan2(Math.sqrt(a), Math.sqrt(1-a));

  return earthRadius * c; // returns result kilometers
}

public static double toRadian(double degrees) 
{
  return (degrees * Math.PI) / 180.0d;
}

Here is the SQL Implementation to calculate the distance in km,

SELECT UserId, ( 3959 * acos( cos( radians( your latitude here ) ) * cos( radians(latitude) ) * 
cos( radians(longitude) - radians( your longitude here ) ) + sin( radians( your latitude here ) ) * 
sin( radians(latitude) ) ) ) AS distance FROM user HAVING
distance < 5  ORDER BY distance LIMIT 0 , 5;

For further details in the implementation by programming langugage, you can just go through the php script given here


Here's another converted to Ruby code:

include Math
#Note: from/to = [lat, long]

def get_distance_in_km(from, to)
  radians = lambda { |deg| deg * Math.PI / 180 }
  radius = 6371 # Radius of the earth in kilometer
  dLat = radians[to[0]-from[0]]
  dLon = radians[to[1]-from[1]]

  cosines_product = Math.sin(dLat/2) * Math.sin(dLat/2) + Math.cos(radians[from[0]]) * Math.cos(radians[to[1]]) * Math.sin(dLon/2) * Math.sin(dLon/2)

  c = 2 * Math.atan2(Math.sqrt(cosines_product), Math.sqrt(1-cosines_product)) 
  return radius * c # Distance in kilometer
end

Here's the accepted answer implementation ported to Java in case anyone needs it.

package com.project529.garage.util;


/**
 * Mean radius.
 */
private static double EARTH_RADIUS = 6371;

/**
 * Returns the distance between two sets of latitudes and longitudes in meters.
 * <p/>
 * Based from the following JavaScript SO answer:
 * http://.com/questions/27928/calculate-distance-between-two-latitude-longitude-points-haversine-formula,
 * which is based on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haversine_formula (error rate: ~0.55%).
 */
public double getDistanceBetween(double lat1, double lon1, double lat2, double lon2) {
    double dLat = toRadians(lat2 - lat1);
    double dLon = toRadians(lon2 - lon1);

    double a = Math.sin(dLat / 2) * Math.sin(dLat / 2) +
            Math.cos(toRadians(lat1)) * Math.cos(toRadians(lat2)) *
                    Math.sin(dLon / 2) * Math.sin(dLon / 2);
    double c = 2 * Math.atan2(Math.sqrt(a), Math.sqrt(1 - a));
    double d = EARTH_RADIUS * c;

    return d;
}

public double toRadians(double degrees) {
    return degrees * (Math.PI / 180);
}

I don't like adding yet another answer, but the Google maps API v.3 has spherical geometry (and more). After converting your WGS84 to decimal degrees you can do this:

<script src="http://maps.google.com/maps/api/js?sensor=false&libraries=geometry" type="text/javascript"></script>  

distance = google.maps.geometry.spherical.computeDistanceBetween(
    new google.maps.LatLng(fromLat, fromLng), 
    new google.maps.LatLng(toLat, toLng));

No word about how accurate Google's calculations are or even what model is used (though it does say "spherical" rather than "geoid". By the way, the "straight line" distance will obviously be different from the distance if one travels on the surface of the earth which is what everyone seems to be presuming.


I needed to calculate a lot of distances between the points for my project, so I went ahead and tried to optimize the code, I have found here. On average in different browsers my new implementation runs 2 times faster than the most upvoted answer.

function distance(lat1, lon1, lat2, lon2) {
  var p = 0.017453292519943295;    // Math.PI / 180
  var c = Math.cos;
  var a = 0.5 - c((lat2 - lat1) * p)/2 + 
          c(lat1 * p) * c(lat2 * p) * 
          (1 - c((lon2 - lon1) * p))/2;

  return 12742 * Math.asin(Math.sqrt(a)); // 2 * R; R = 6371 km
}

You can play with my jsPerf and see the results here .

Recently I needed to do the same in python, so here is a python implementation :

from math import cos, asin, sqrt
def distance(lat1, lon1, lat2, lon2):
    p = 0.017453292519943295     #Pi/180
    a = 0.5 - cos((lat2 - lat1) * p)/2 + cos(lat1 * p) * cos(lat2 * p) * (1 - cos((lon2 - lon1) * p)) / 2
    return 12742 * asin(sqrt(a)) #2*R*asin...

And for the sake of completeness: Haversine on wiki.


In Mysql use the following function pass the parameters as using POINT(LONG,LAT)

CREATE FUNCTION `distance`(a POINT, b POINT)
 RETURNS double
    DETERMINISTIC
BEGIN

RETURN

GLength( LineString(( PointFromWKB(a)), (PointFromWKB(b)))) * 100000; -- To Make the distance in meters

END;

In the other answers an implementation in r is missing.

Calculating the distance between two point is quite straightforward with the distm function from the geosphere package:

distm(p1, p2, fun = distHaversine)

where:

p1 = longitude/latitude for point(s)
p2 = longitude/latitude for point(s)
# type of distance calculation
fun = distCosine / distHaversine / distVincentySphere / distVincentyEllipsoid 

As the earth is not perfectly spherical, the Vincenty formula for ellipsoids is probably the best way to calculate distances. Thus in the geosphere package you use then:

distm(p1, p2, fun = distVincentyEllipsoid)

Off course you don't necessarily have to use geosphere package, you can also calculate the distance in base R with a function:

hav.dist <- function(long1, lat1, long2, lat2) {
  R <- 6371
  diff.long <- (long2 - long1)
  diff.lat <- (lat2 - lat1)
  a <- sin(diff.lat/2)^2 + cos(lat1) * cos(lat2) * sin(diff.long/2)^2
  b <- 2 * asin(pmin(1, sqrt(a))) 
  d = R * b
  return(d)
}

Thanks very much for all this. I used the following code in my Objective-C iPhone app:

const double PIx = 3.141592653589793;
const double RADIO = 6371; // Mean radius of Earth in Km

double convertToRadians(double val) {

   return val * PIx / 180;
}

-(double)kilometresBetweenPlace1:(CLLocationCoordinate2D) place1 andPlace2:(CLLocationCoordinate2D) place2 {

        double dlon = convertToRadians(place2.longitude - place1.longitude);
        double dlat = convertToRadians(place2.latitude - place1.latitude);

        double a = ( pow(sin(dlat / 2), 2) + cos(convertToRadians(place1.latitude))) * cos(convertToRadians(place2.latitude)) * pow(sin(dlon / 2), 2);
        double angle = 2 * asin(sqrt(a));

        return angle * RADIO;
}

Latitude and Longitude are in decimal. I didn't use min() for the asin() call as the distances that I'm using are so small that they don't require it.

It gave incorrect answers until I passed in the values in Radians - now it's pretty much the same as the values obtained from Apple's Map app :-)

Extra update:

If you are using iOS4 or later then Apple provide some methods to do this so the same functionality would be achieved with:

-(double)kilometresBetweenPlace1:(CLLocationCoordinate2D) place1 andPlace2:(CLLocationCoordinate2D) place2 {

    MKMapPoint  start, finish;


    start = MKMapPointForCoordinate(place1);
    finish = MKMapPointForCoordinate(place2);

    return MKMetersBetweenMapPoints(start, finish) / 1000;
}

The haversine is definitely a good formula for probably most cases, other answers already include it so I am not going to take the space. But it is important to note that no matter what formula is used (yes not just one). Because of the huge range of accuracy possible as well as the computation time required. The choice of formula requires a bit more thought than a simple no brainer answer.

This posting from a person at nasa, is the best one I found at discussing the options

http://www.cs.nyu.edu/visual/home/proj/tiger/gisfaq.html

For example, if you are just sorting rows by distance in a 100 miles radius. The flat earth formula will be much faster than the haversine.

HalfPi = 1.5707963;
R = 3956; /* the radius gives you the measurement unit*/

a = HalfPi - latoriginrad;
b = HalfPi - latdestrad;
u = a * a + b * b;
v = - 2 * a * b * cos(longdestrad - longoriginrad);
c = sqrt(abs(u + v));
return R * c;

Notice there is just one cosine and one square root. Vs 9 of them on the Haversine formula.


This link might be helpful to you, as it details the use of the Haversine formula to calculate the distance.

Excerpt:

This script [in Javascript] calculates great-circle distances between the two points – that is, the shortest distance over the earth’s surface – using the ‘Haversine’ formula.

function getDistanceFromLatLonInKm(lat1,lon1,lat2,lon2) {
  var R = 6371; // Radius of the earth in km
  var dLat = deg2rad(lat2-lat1);  // deg2rad below
  var dLon = deg2rad(lon2-lon1); 
  var a = 
    Math.sin(dLat/2) * Math.sin(dLat/2) +
    Math.cos(deg2rad(lat1)) * Math.cos(deg2rad(lat2)) * 
    Math.sin(dLon/2) * Math.sin(dLon/2)
    ; 
  var c = 2 * Math.atan2(Math.sqrt(a), Math.sqrt(1-a)); 
  var d = R * c; // Distance in km
  return d;
}

function deg2rad(deg) {
  return deg * (Math.PI/180)
}

This is a simple PHP function that will give a very reasonable approximation (under +/-1% error margin).

<?php
function distance($lat1, $lon1, $lat2, $lon2) {

    $pi80 = M_PI / 180;
    $lat1 *= $pi80;
    $lon1 *= $pi80;
    $lat2 *= $pi80;
    $lon2 *= $pi80;

    $r = 6372.797; // mean radius of Earth in km
    $dlat = $lat2 - $lat1;
    $dlon = $lon2 - $lon1;
    $a = sin($dlat / 2) * sin($dlat / 2) + cos($lat1) * cos($lat2) * sin($dlon / 2) * sin($dlon / 2);
    $c = 2 * atan2(sqrt($a), sqrt(1 - $a));
    $km = $r * $c;

    //echo '<br/>'.$km;
    return $km;
}
?>

As said before; the earth is NOT a sphere. It is like an old, old baseball that Mark McGwire decided to practice with - it is full of dents and bumps. The simpler calculations (like this) treat it like a sphere.

Different methods may be more or less precise according to where you are on this irregular ovoid AND how far apart your points are (the closer they are the smaller the absolute error margin). The more precise your expectation, the more complex the math.

For more info: wikipedia geographic distance


To calculate the distance between two points on a sphere you need to do the Great Circle calculation .

There are a number of C/C++ libraries to help with map projection at MapTools if you need to reproject your distances to a flat surface. To do this you will need the projection string of the various coordinate systems.

You may also find MapWindow a useful tool to visualise the points. Also as its open source its a useful guide to how to use the proj.dll library, which appears to be the core open source projection library.


You can use the build in CLLocationDistance to calculate this:

CLLocation *location1 = [[CLLocation alloc] initWithLatitude:latitude1 longitude:longitude1];
CLLocation *location2 = [[CLLocation alloc] initWithLatitude:latitude2 longitude:longitude2];
[self distanceInMetersFromLocation:location1 toLocation:location2]

- (int)distanceInMetersFromLocation:(CLLocation*)location1 toLocation:(CLLocation*)location2 {
    CLLocationDistance distanceInMeters = [location1 distanceFromLocation:location2];
    return distanceInMeters;
}

In your case if you want kilometers just divide by 1000.


there is a good example in here to calculate distance with PHP http://www.geodatasource.com/developers/php :

 function distance($lat1, $lon1, $lat2, $lon2, $unit) {

     $theta = $lon1 - $lon2;
     $dist = sin(deg2rad($lat1)) * sin(deg2rad($lat2)) +  cos(deg2rad($lat1)) * cos(deg2rad($lat2)) * cos(deg2rad($theta));
     $dist = acos($dist);
     $dist = rad2deg($dist);
     $miles = $dist * 60 * 1.1515;
     $unit = strtoupper($unit);

     if ($unit == "K") {
         return ($miles * 1.609344);
     } else if ($unit == "N") {
          return ($miles * 0.8684);
     } else {
          return $miles;
     }
 }

function getDistanceFromLatLonInKm(lat1,lon1,lat2,lon2,units) {
  var R = 6371; // Radius of the earth in km
  var dLat = deg2rad(lat2-lat1);  // deg2rad below
  var dLon = deg2rad(lon2-lon1); 
  var a = 
    Math.sin(dLat/2) * Math.sin(dLat/2) +
    Math.cos(deg2rad(lat1)) * Math.cos(deg2rad(lat2)) * 
    Math.sin(dLon/2) * Math.sin(dLon/2)
    ; 
  var c = 2 * Math.atan2(Math.sqrt(a), Math.sqrt(1-a)); 
  var d = R * c; 
  var miles = d / 1.609344; 

if ( units == 'km' ) {  
return d; 
 } else {
return miles;
}}

Chuck's solution, valid for miles also.





haversine