without - python plot
Is there a way to detach matplotlib plots so that the computation can continue? (12)
IMPORTANT: Just to make something clear. I assume that the commands are inside a
.py script and the script is called using e.g.
python script.py from the console.
A simple way that works for me is:
- Use the block = False inside show : plt.show(block = False)
- Use another show() at the end of the .py script.
plt.imshow(*something*) plt.colorbar() plt.xlabel("true ") plt.ylabel("predicted ") plt.title(" the matrix") # Add block = False plt.show(block = False) # OTHER CALCULATIONS AND CODE # the next is the last line of my script plt.show()
After these instructions in the Python interpreter one gets a window with a plot:
from matplotlib.pyplot import * plot([1,2,3]) show() # other code
Unfortunately, I don't know how to continue to interactively explore the figure created by
show() while the program does further calculations.
Is it possible at all? Sometimes calculations are long and it would help if they would proceed during examination of intermediate results.
Here is an update (python 3.6.5 on Windows 10).
I tried all sorts of combinations - the simplest I've found is just to use
pause(0.01) after each plot - no need for a
show() for the intermediate plots - then a single
show() at the end ensures you can look at the final plot before termination.
As an example, here is a bit of code I use to check speed for various array sizes - higher plotted values are higher speeds... there are 10 overlaid plots...
from pylab import * import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from time import * ttot=clock(); mmax=6;npts=20;nplts=10; x=[int(a+0.5) for a in 10**linspace(0,mmax,npts)] for nrun in range(nplts): j=0;aa=1;bb=1;b=1; tim=zeros(npts) for n in x: aa=rand(n);bb=aa;b=aa; if n<100:m=10000 elif n<5000:m=1000 elif n<20000:m=100 else:m=100 tt=clock() for ii in range(1,m+1): b=aa*bb+aa tt1=clock()-tt tim[j]=tt1/n/m j=j+1 print(n,2/(tt1/n/m)/1e6); plt.semilogx(x,2/tim/1e6) pause(0.01) print(clock()-ttot) show()
I had to also add
plt.pause(0.001) to my code to really make it working inside a for loop (otherwise it would only show the first and last plot):
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt plt.scatter(, ) plt.draw() plt.show(block=False) for i in range(10): plt.scatter([i], [i+1]) plt.draw() plt.pause(0.001)
If I understand the question properly, using Ipython (or Ipython QT or Ipython notebook) would allow you to work interactively with the chart while calculations go one in the background. http://ipython.org/
If you want to open multiple figures, while keeping them all opened, this code worked for me:
In many cases it is more convenient til save the image as a .png file on the hard drive. Here is why:
- You can open it, have a look at it and close it down any time in the process. This is particularly convenient when your application is running for a long time.
- Nothing pops up and you are not forced to have the windows open. This is particularly convenient when you are dealing with many figures.
- Your image is accessible for later reference and is not lost when closing the figure window.
- The only thing I can think of is that you will have to go and finder the folder and open the image yourself.
In my opinion, the answers in this thread provide methods which don't work for every systems and in more complex situations like animations. I suggest to have a look at the answer of MikeTex in the following thread, where a robust method has been found: How to wait until matplotlib animation ends?
It is better to always check with the library you are using if it supports usage in a non-blocking way.
But if you want a more generic solution, or if there is no other way, you can run anything that blocks in a separated process by using the
multprocessing module included in python. Computation will continue:
from multiprocessing import Process from matplotlib.pyplot import plot, show def plot_graph(*args): for data in args: plot(data) show() p = Process(target=plot_graph, args=([1, 2, 3],)) p.start() print 'yay' print 'computation continues...' print 'that rocks.' print 'Now lets wait for the graph be closed to continue...:' p.join()
That has the overhead of launching a new process, and is sometimes harder to debug on complex scenarios, so I'd prefer the other solution (using
matplotlib's nonblocking API calls)
from matplotlib.pyplot import * plot([1,2,3]) show(block=False) # other code # [...] # Put show() # at the very end of your script # to make sure Python doesn't bail out # before you finished examining.
show() documentation says:
In non-interactive mode, display all figures and block until the figures have been closed; in interactive mode it has no effect unless figures were created prior to a change from non-interactive to interactive mode (not recommended). In that case it displays the figures but does not block.
A single experimental keyword argument,
block, may be set to
Falseto override the blocking behavior described above.
matplotlib's calls that won't block:
from matplotlib.pyplot import plot, draw, show plot([1,2,3]) draw() print 'continue computation' # at the end call show to ensure window won't close. show()
Using interactive mode:
from matplotlib.pyplot import plot, ion, show ion() # enables interactive mode plot([1,2,3]) # result shows immediatelly (implicit draw()) print 'continue computation' # at the end call show to ensure window won't close. show()
Well, I had great trouble figuring out the non-blocking commands... But finally, I managed to rework the "Cookbook/Matplotlib/Animations - Animating selected plot elements" example, so it works with threads (and passes data between threads either via global variables, or through a multiprocess
Pipe) on Python 2.6.5 on Ubuntu 10.04.
The script can be found here: Animating_selected_plot_elements-thread.py - otherwise pasted below (with fewer comments) for reference:
import sys import gtk, gobject import matplotlib matplotlib.use('GTKAgg') import pylab as p import numpy as nx import time import threading ax = p.subplot(111) canvas = ax.figure.canvas # for profiling tstart = time.time() # create the initial line x = nx.arange(0,2*nx.pi,0.01) line, = ax.plot(x, nx.sin(x), animated=True) # save the clean slate background -- everything but the animated line # is drawn and saved in the pixel buffer background background = canvas.copy_from_bbox(ax.bbox) # just a plain global var to pass data (from main, to plot update thread) global mypass # http://docs.python.org/library/multiprocessing.html#pipes-and-queues from multiprocessing import Pipe global pipe1main, pipe1upd pipe1main, pipe1upd = Pipe() # the kind of processing we might want to do in a main() function, # will now be done in a "main thread" - so it can run in # parallel with gobject.idle_add(update_line) def threadMainTest(): global mypass global runthread global pipe1main print "tt" interncount = 1 while runthread: mypass += 1 if mypass > 100: # start "speeding up" animation, only after 100 counts have passed interncount *= 1.03 pipe1main.send(interncount) time.sleep(0.01) return # main plot / GUI update def update_line(*args): global mypass global t0 global runthread global pipe1upd if not runthread: return False if pipe1upd.poll(): # check first if there is anything to receive myinterncount = pipe1upd.recv() update_line.cnt = mypass # restore the clean slate background canvas.restore_region(background) # update the data line.set_ydata(nx.sin(x+(update_line.cnt+myinterncount)/10.0)) # just draw the animated artist ax.draw_artist(line) # just redraw the axes rectangle canvas.blit(ax.bbox) if update_line.cnt>=500: # print the timing info and quit print 'FPS:' , update_line.cnt/(time.time()-tstart) runthread=0 t0.join(1) print "exiting" sys.exit(0) return True global runthread update_line.cnt = 0 mypass = 0 runthread=1 gobject.idle_add(update_line) global t0 t0 = threading.Thread(target=threadMainTest) t0.start() # start the graphics update thread p.show() print "out" # will never print - show() blocks indefinitely!
Hope this helps someone,
You may want to read this document in
matplotlib's documentation, titled: