es6 - javascript remove element from array

Copy array by value (19)

When copying an array in JavaScript to another array:

var arr1 = ['a','b','c'];
var arr2 = arr1;
arr2.push('d');  //Now, arr1 = ['a','b','c','d']

I realized that arr2 refers to the same array as arr1, rather than a new, independent array. How can I copy the array to get two independent arrays?


Most of answers here works for particular cases.

If you don't care about deep/nested objects and props use (ES6):

let clonedArray = [...array]

but if you want to do deep clone use this instead:

let cloneArray = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(array))

For lodash users:

let clonedArray = _.clone(array) documentation


let clonedArray = _.cloneDeep(array) documentation

Quick Examples:

  1. If elements in the array are primitive types (string, number, etc.)

var arr1 = ['a','b','c'];
// arr1 and arr2 are independent and primitive elements are stored in 
// different places in the memory
var arr2 = arr1.slice(); 
console.log(arr1); // [ 'a', 'b', 'c' ]
console.log(arr2); // [ 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd' ]
  1. If elements in the array are object literals, another array ({}, [])

var arr1 = [{ x: 'a', y: 'b'}, [1, 2], [3, 4]];
// arr1 and arr2 are independent and reference's/addresses are stored in different
// places in the memory. But those reference's/addresses points to some common place
// in the memory.
var arr2 = arr1.slice(); 
arr2.pop();      // OK - don't affect arr1 bcos only the address in the arr2 is
                 // deleted not the data pointed by that address
arr2[0].x = 'z'; // not OK - affect arr1 bcos changes made in the common area 
                 // pointed by the addresses in both arr1 and arr2
arr2[1][0] = 9;	 // not OK - same above reason

console.log(arr1); // [ { x: 'z', y: 'b' }, [ 9, 2 ], [ 3, 4 ] ]
console.log(arr2); // [ { x: 'z', y: 'b' }, [ 9, 2 ] ]
  1. Solution for 2: Deep Copy by element by element

var arr1 = [{ x: 'a', y: 'b'}, [1, 2], [3, 4]];
arr2 = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(arr1));
arr2.pop();	  // OK - don't affect arr1
arr2[0].x = 'z';  // OK - don't affect arr1
arr2[1][0] = 9;	  // OK - don't affect arr1

console.log(arr1); // [ { x: 'a', y: 'b' }, [ 1, 2 ], [ 3, 4 ] ]
console.log(arr2); // [ { x: 'z', y: 'b' }, [ 9, 2 ] ]

An alternative to slice is concat, which can be used in 2 ways. The first of these is perhaps more readable as the intended behaviour is very clear:

var array2 = [].concat(array1);

The second method is:

var array2 = array1.concat();

Cohen (in the comments) pointed out that this latter method has better performance.

The way this works is that the concat method creates a new array consisting of the elements in the object on which it is called followed by the elements of any arrays passed to it as arguments. So when no arguments are passed, it simply copies the array.

Lee Penkman, also in the comments, points out that if there's a chance array1 is undefined, you can return an empty array as follows:

var array2 = [].concat(array1 || []);

Or, for the second method:

var array2 = (array1 || []).concat();

Note that you can also do this with slice: var array2 = (array1 || []).slice();.

As we know in Javascript arrays and objects are by reference, but what ways we can do copy the array without changing the original array later one?

Here are few ways to do it:

Imagine we have this array in your code:

var arr = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

1) Looping through the array in a function and return a new array, like this:

 function newArr(arr) {
      var i=0, res = [];
   return res;

2) Using slice method, slice is for slicing part of the array, it will slice some part of your array without touching the original, in the slice, if don't specify the start and end of the array, it will slice the whole array and basically make a full copy of the array, so we can easily say:

var arr2 = arr.slice(); // make a copy of the original array

3) Also contact method, this is for merging two array, but we can just specify one of arrays and then this basically make a copy of the values in the new contacted array:

var arr2 = arr.concat();

4) Also stringify and parse method, it's not recommended, but can be an easy way to copy Array and Objects:

var arr2 = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(arr));

5) Array.from method, this is not widely supported, before use check the support in different browsers:

const arr2 = Array.from(arr);

6) ECMA6 way, also not fully supported, but babelJs can help you if you want to transpile:

const arr2 = [...arr];

For ES6 array containing objects

cloneArray(arr) {
    return => ({ ...x }));

From ES2015,

var arr2 = [...arr1];

Here's a variant:

var arr1=['a', 'b', 'c'];
var arr2=eval(arr1.toSource());
console.log('arr1: '+arr1+'\narr2: '+arr2);
 *  arr1: a,b,c
 *  arr2: a,b,c,d

I personally think Array.from is a more readable solution. By the way, just beware of its browser support.

let x = [1,2,3];
let y = Array.from(x);

//deep clone
let clone = arr => Array.from(arr,item => Array.isArray(item) ? clone(item) : item);
let x = [1,[],[[]]];
let y = clone(x);

If you want to make a new copy of an object or array, you must explicitly copy the properties of the object or the elements of the array, for example:

var arr1 = ['a','b','c'];
var arr2 = [];

for (var i=0; i < arr1.length; i++) {
   arr2[i] = arr1[i];

You can search for more information on Google about immutable primitive values and mutable object references.

If your array contains elements of the primitive data type such as int, char, or string etc then you can user one of those methods which returns a copy of the original array such as .slice() or .map() or spread operator(thanks to ES6).

new_array = old_array.slice()


new_array = => elem)


const new_array = new Array(...old_array);

BUT if your array contains complex elements such as objects(or arrays) or more nested objects, then, you will have to make sure that you are making a copy of all the elements from the top level to the last level else reference of the inner objects will be used and that means changing values in object_elements in new_array will still affect the old_array. You can call this method of copying at each level as making a DEEP COPY of the old_array.

For deep copying, you can use the above-mentioned methods for primitive data types at each level depending upon the type of data or you can use this costly method(mentioned below) for making a deep copy without doing much work.

var new_array = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(old_array));

There are a lot of other methods out there which you can use depending on your requirements. I have mentioned only some of those for giving a general idea of what happens when we try to copy an array into the other by value.

In my particular case I needed to ensure the array remained intact so this worked for me:

// Empty array
arr1.length = 0;
// Add items from source array to target array
for (var i = 0; i < arr2.length; i++) {

Make copy of multidimensional array/object:

function deepCopy(obj) {
   if ( === '[object Array]') {
      var out = [], i = 0, len = obj.length;
      for ( ; i < len; i++ ) {
         out[i] = arguments.callee(obj[i]);
      return out;
   if (typeof obj === 'object') {
      var out = {}, i;
      for ( i in obj ) {
         out[i] = arguments.callee(obj[i]);
      return out;
   return obj;

Thanks to James Padolsey for this function.

Source: Here

Some of mentioned methods work well when working with simple data types like number or string, but when the array contains other objects these methods fail. When we try to pass any object from one array to another it is passed as a reference, not the object.

Add the following code in your JavaScript file:

Object.prototype.clone = function() {
    var newObj = (this instanceof Array) ? [] : {};
    for (i in this) {
        if (i == 'clone') 
        if (this[i] && typeof this[i] == "object") {
            newObj[i] = this[i].clone();
            newObj[i] = this[i]
    } return newObj;

And simply use

var arr1 = ['val_1','val_2','val_3'];
var arr2 = arr1.clone()

It will work.

There's the newly introduced Array.from, but unfortunately, as of the time of this writing it's only supported on recent Firefox versions (32 and higher). It can be simply used as follows:

var arr1 = [1, 2, 3];
console.log(Array.from(arr1)); // Logs: [1, 2, 3]

Reference: Here

Or may be used with an identity function:

function identity(param)
    return param;

var arr1 = [1, 2, 3],
    clone =;

Reference: Here

Use this:

var newArray = oldArray.slice();

Basically, the slice() operation clones the array and returns a reference to a new array. Also note that:

For references, strings and numbers (and not the actual object), slice() copies object references into the new array. Both the original and new array refer to the same object. If a referenced object changes, the changes are visible to both the new and original arrays.

Primitives such as strings and numbers are immutable, so changes to the string or number are impossible.

Using jQuery deep copy could be made as following:

var arr2 = $.extend(true, [], arr1);

You can also use ES6 spread operator to copy Array

var arr=[2,3,4,5];
var copyArr=[...arr];

You can do that in following way :
arr2 = => Object.assign({}, x));

You could use ES6 with spread Opeartor, its simpler.

arr2 = [...arr1];

There are limitations..check docs Spread syntax @ mozilla