viewpager - out of memory error in android studio




Strange out of memory issue while loading an image to a Bitmap object (20)

unfortunately if None of the Above works, then Add this to your Manifest file. Inside application tag

 <application
         android:largeHeap="true"

I have a list view with a couple of image buttons on each row. When you click the list row, it launches a new activity. I have had to build my own tabs because of an issue with the camera layout. The activity that gets launched for result is a map. If I click on my button to launch the image preview (load an image off the SD card) the application returns from the activity back to the listview activity to the result handler to relaunch my new activity which is nothing more than an image widget.

The image preview on the list view is being done with the cursor and ListAdapter. This makes it pretty simple, but I am not sure how I can put a resized image (I.e. Smaller bit size not pixel as the src for the image button on the fly. So I just resized the image that came off the phone camera.

The issue is that I get an out of memory error when it tries to go back and re-launch the 2nd activity.

  • Is there a way I can build the list adapter easily row by row, where I can resize on the fly (bit wise)?

This would be preferable as I also need to make some changes to the properties of the widgets/elements in each row as I am unable to select a row with touch screen because of focus issue. (I can use roller ball.)

  • I know I can do an out of band resize and save of my image, but that is not really what I want to do, but some sample code for that would be nice.

As soon as I disabled the image on the list view it worked fine again.

FYI: This is how I was doing it:

String[] from = new String[] { DBHelper.KEY_BUSINESSNAME,DBHelper.KEY_ADDRESS,DBHelper.KEY_CITY,DBHelper.KEY_GPSLONG,DBHelper.KEY_GPSLAT,DBHelper.KEY_IMAGEFILENAME  + ""};
int[] to = new int[] {R.id.businessname,R.id.address,R.id.city,R.id.gpslong,R.id.gpslat,R.id.imagefilename };
notes = new SimpleCursorAdapter(this, R.layout.notes_row, c, from, to);
setListAdapter(notes);

Where R.id.imagefilename is a ButtonImage.

Here is my LogCat:

01-25 05:05:49.877: ERROR/dalvikvm-heap(3896): 6291456-byte external allocation too large for this process.
01-25 05:05:49.877: ERROR/(3896): VM wont let us allocate 6291456 bytes
01-25 05:05:49.877: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896): Uncaught handler: thread main exiting due to uncaught exception
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896): java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: bitmap size exceeds VM budget
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.graphics.BitmapFactory.nativeDecodeStream(Native Method)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.graphics.BitmapFactory.decodeStream(BitmapFactory.java:304)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.graphics.BitmapFactory.decodeFile(BitmapFactory.java:149)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.graphics.BitmapFactory.decodeFile(BitmapFactory.java:174)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.graphics.drawable.Drawable.createFromPath(Drawable.java:729)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.ImageView.resolveUri(ImageView.java:484)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.ImageView.setImageURI(ImageView.java:281)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.SimpleCursorAdapter.setViewImage(SimpleCursorAdapter.java:183)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.SimpleCursorAdapter.bindView(SimpleCursorAdapter.java:129)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.CursorAdapter.getView(CursorAdapter.java:150)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.AbsListView.obtainView(AbsListView.java:1057)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.ListView.makeAndAddView(ListView.java:1616)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.ListView.fillSpecific(ListView.java:1177)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.ListView.layoutChildren(ListView.java:1454)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.AbsListView.onLayout(AbsListView.java:937)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.view.View.layout(View.java:5611)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.LinearLayout.setChildFrame(LinearLayout.java:1119)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.LinearLayout.layoutHorizontal(LinearLayout.java:1108)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.LinearLayout.onLayout(LinearLayout.java:922)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.view.View.layout(View.java:5611)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.FrameLayout.onLayout(FrameLayout.java:294)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.view.View.layout(View.java:5611)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.LinearLayout.setChildFrame(LinearLayout.java:1119)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.LinearLayout.layoutVertical(LinearLayout.java:999)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.LinearLayout.onLayout(LinearLayout.java:920)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.view.View.layout(View.java:5611)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.widget.FrameLayout.onLayout(FrameLayout.java:294)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.view.View.layout(View.java:5611)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.view.ViewRoot.performTraversals(ViewRoot.java:771)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.view.ViewRoot.handleMessage(ViewRoot.java:1103)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.os.Handler.dispatchMessage(Handler.java:88)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.os.Looper.loop(Looper.java:123)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at android.app.ActivityThread.main(ActivityThread.java:3742)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at java.lang.reflect.Method.invokeNative(Native Method)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:515)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at com.android.internal.os.ZygoteInit$MethodAndArgsCaller.run(ZygoteInit.java:739)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at com.android.internal.os.ZygoteInit.main(ZygoteInit.java:497)
01-25 05:05:49.917: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3896):     at dalvik.system.NativeStart.main(Native Method)
01-25 05:10:01.127: ERROR/AndroidRuntime(3943): ERROR: thread attach failed 

I also have a new error when displaying an image:

01-25 22:13:18.594: DEBUG/skia(4204): xxxxxxxxxxx jpeg error 20 Improper call to JPEG library in state %d
01-25 22:13:18.604: INFO/System.out(4204): resolveUri failed on bad bitmap uri: 
01-25 22:13:18.694: ERROR/dalvikvm-heap(4204): 6291456-byte external allocation too large for this process.
01-25 22:13:18.694: ERROR/(4204): VM won't let us allocate 6291456 bytes
01-25 22:13:18.694: DEBUG/skia(4204): xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx allocPixelRef failed

All the solutions here require setting a IMAGE_MAX_SIZE. This limits devices with more powerful hardware and if the image size is too low it looks ugly on the HD screen.

I came out with a solution that works with my Samsung Galaxy S3 and several other devices including less powerful ones, with better image quality when a more powerful device is used.

The gist of it is to calculate the maximum memory allocated for the app on a particular device, then set the scale to be lowest possible without exceeding this memory. Here's the code:

public static Bitmap decodeFile(File f)
{
    Bitmap b = null;
    try
    {
        // Decode image size
        BitmapFactory.Options o = new BitmapFactory.Options();
        o.inJustDecodeBounds = true;

        FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(f);
        try
        {
            BitmapFactory.decodeStream(fis, null, o);
        }
        finally
        {
            fis.close();
        }

        // In Samsung Galaxy S3, typically max memory is 64mb
        // Camera max resolution is 3264 x 2448, times 4 to get Bitmap memory of 30.5mb for one bitmap
        // If we use scale of 2, resolution will be halved, 1632 x 1224 and x 4 to get Bitmap memory of 7.62mb
        // We try use 25% memory which equals to 16mb maximum for one bitmap
        long maxMemory = Runtime.getRuntime().maxMemory();
        int maxMemoryForImage = (int) (maxMemory / 100 * 25);

        // Refer to
        // http://developer.android.com/training/displaying-bitmaps/cache-bitmap.html
        // A full screen GridView filled with images on a device with
        // 800x480 resolution would use around 1.5MB (800*480*4 bytes)
        // When bitmap option's inSampleSize doubled, pixel height and
        // weight both reduce in half
        int scale = 1;
        while ((o.outWidth / scale) * (o.outHeight / scale) * 4 > maxMemoryForImage)
        scale *= 2;

        // Decode with inSampleSize
        BitmapFactory.Options o2 = new BitmapFactory.Options();
        o2.inSampleSize = scale;
        fis = new FileInputStream(f);
        try
        {
            b = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(fis, null, o2);
        }
        finally
        {
            fis.close();
        }
    }
    catch (IOException e)
    {
    }
    return b;
}

I set the maximum memory used by this bitmap to be 25% of maximum allocated memory, you may need to adjust this to your needs and make sure this bitmap is cleaned up and don't stay in memory when you've finished using it. Typically I use this code to perform image rotation (source and destination bitmap) so my app needs to load 2 bitmaps in memory at the same time, and 25% gives me a good buffer without running out of memory when performing image rotation.

Hope this helps someone out there..


Great answers here, but I wanted a fully usable class to address this problem.. so I did one.

Here is my BitmapHelper class that is OutOfMemoryError proof :-)

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;

import android.graphics.Bitmap;
import android.graphics.Bitmap.Config;
import android.graphics.BitmapFactory;
import android.graphics.Canvas;
import android.graphics.Matrix;
import android.graphics.drawable.BitmapDrawable;
import android.graphics.drawable.Drawable;

public class BitmapHelper
{

    //decodes image and scales it to reduce memory consumption
    public static Bitmap decodeFile(File bitmapFile, int requiredWidth, int requiredHeight, boolean quickAndDirty)
    {
        try
        {
            //Decode image size
            BitmapFactory.Options bitmapSizeOptions = new BitmapFactory.Options();
            bitmapSizeOptions.inJustDecodeBounds = true;
            BitmapFactory.decodeStream(new FileInputStream(bitmapFile), null, bitmapSizeOptions);

            // load image using inSampleSize adapted to required image size
            BitmapFactory.Options bitmapDecodeOptions = new BitmapFactory.Options();
            bitmapDecodeOptions.inTempStorage = new byte[16 * 1024];
            bitmapDecodeOptions.inSampleSize = computeInSampleSize(bitmapSizeOptions, requiredWidth, requiredHeight, false);
            bitmapDecodeOptions.inPurgeable = true;
            bitmapDecodeOptions.inDither = !quickAndDirty;
            bitmapDecodeOptions.inPreferredConfig = quickAndDirty ? Bitmap.Config.RGB_565 : Bitmap.Config.ARGB_8888;

            Bitmap decodedBitmap = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(new FileInputStream(bitmapFile), null, bitmapDecodeOptions);

            // scale bitmap to mathc required size (and keep aspect ratio)

            float srcWidth = (float) bitmapDecodeOptions.outWidth;
            float srcHeight = (float) bitmapDecodeOptions.outHeight;

            float dstWidth = (float) requiredWidth;
            float dstHeight = (float) requiredHeight;

            float srcAspectRatio = srcWidth / srcHeight;
            float dstAspectRatio = dstWidth / dstHeight;

            // recycleDecodedBitmap is used to know if we must recycle intermediary 'decodedBitmap'
            // (DO NOT recycle it right away: wait for end of bitmap manipulation process to avoid
            // java.lang.RuntimeException: Canvas: trying to use a recycled bitmap [email protected]
            // I do not excatly understand why, but this way it's OK

            boolean recycleDecodedBitmap = false;

            Bitmap scaledBitmap = decodedBitmap;
            if (srcAspectRatio < dstAspectRatio)
            {
                scaledBitmap = getScaledBitmap(decodedBitmap, (int) dstWidth, (int) (srcHeight * (dstWidth / srcWidth)));
                // will recycle recycleDecodedBitmap
                recycleDecodedBitmap = true;
            }
            else if (srcAspectRatio > dstAspectRatio)
            {
                scaledBitmap = getScaledBitmap(decodedBitmap, (int) (srcWidth * (dstHeight / srcHeight)), (int) dstHeight);
                recycleDecodedBitmap = true;
            }

            // crop image to match required image size

            int scaledBitmapWidth = scaledBitmap.getWidth();
            int scaledBitmapHeight = scaledBitmap.getHeight();

            Bitmap croppedBitmap = scaledBitmap;

            if (scaledBitmapWidth > requiredWidth)
            {
                int xOffset = (scaledBitmapWidth - requiredWidth) / 2;
                croppedBitmap = Bitmap.createBitmap(scaledBitmap, xOffset, 0, requiredWidth, requiredHeight);
                scaledBitmap.recycle();
            }
            else if (scaledBitmapHeight > requiredHeight)
            {
                int yOffset = (scaledBitmapHeight - requiredHeight) / 2;
                croppedBitmap = Bitmap.createBitmap(scaledBitmap, 0, yOffset, requiredWidth, requiredHeight);
                scaledBitmap.recycle();
            }

            if (recycleDecodedBitmap)
            {
                decodedBitmap.recycle();
            }
            decodedBitmap = null;

            scaledBitmap = null;
            return croppedBitmap;
        }
        catch (Exception ex)
        {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * compute powerOf2 or exact scale to be used as {@link BitmapFactory.Options#inSampleSize} value (for subSampling)
     * 
     * @param requiredWidth
     * @param requiredHeight
     * @param powerOf2
     *            weither we want a power of 2 sclae or not
     * @return
     */
    public static int computeInSampleSize(BitmapFactory.Options options, int dstWidth, int dstHeight, boolean powerOf2)
    {
        int inSampleSize = 1;

        // Raw height and width of image
        final int srcHeight = options.outHeight;
        final int srcWidth = options.outWidth;

        if (powerOf2)
        {
            //Find the correct scale value. It should be the power of 2.

            int tmpWidth = srcWidth, tmpHeight = srcHeight;
            while (true)
            {
                if (tmpWidth / 2 < dstWidth || tmpHeight / 2 < dstHeight)
                    break;
                tmpWidth /= 2;
                tmpHeight /= 2;
                inSampleSize *= 2;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            // Calculate ratios of height and width to requested height and width
            final int heightRatio = Math.round((float) srcHeight / (float) dstHeight);
            final int widthRatio = Math.round((float) srcWidth / (float) dstWidth);

            // Choose the smallest ratio as inSampleSize value, this will guarantee
            // a final image with both dimensions larger than or equal to the
            // requested height and width.
            inSampleSize = heightRatio < widthRatio ? heightRatio : widthRatio;
        }

        return inSampleSize;
    }

    public static Bitmap drawableToBitmap(Drawable drawable)
    {
        if (drawable instanceof BitmapDrawable)
        {
            return ((BitmapDrawable) drawable).getBitmap();
        }

        Bitmap bitmap = Bitmap.createBitmap(drawable.getIntrinsicWidth(), drawable.getIntrinsicHeight(), Config.ARGB_8888);
        Canvas canvas = new Canvas(bitmap);
        drawable.setBounds(0, 0, canvas.getWidth(), canvas.getHeight());
        drawable.draw(canvas);

        return bitmap;
    }

    public static Bitmap getScaledBitmap(Bitmap bitmap, int newWidth, int newHeight)
    {
        int width = bitmap.getWidth();
        int height = bitmap.getHeight();
        float scaleWidth = ((float) newWidth) / width;
        float scaleHeight = ((float) newHeight) / height;

        // CREATE A MATRIX FOR THE MANIPULATION
        Matrix matrix = new Matrix();
        // RESIZE THE BIT MAP
        matrix.postScale(scaleWidth, scaleHeight);

        // RECREATE THE NEW BITMAP
        Bitmap resizedBitmap = Bitmap.createBitmap(bitmap, 0, 0, width, height, matrix, false);
        return resizedBitmap;
    }

}

I come from iOS experience and I was frustrated to discover an issue with something so basic as loading and showing an image. After all, everyone that is having this issue is trying to display reasonably sized images. Anyway, here are the two changes that fixed my problem (and made my app very responsive).

1) Every time you do BitmapFactory.decodeXYZ(), make sure to pass in a BitmapFactory.Options with inPurgeable set to true (and preferably with inInputShareable also set to true).

2) NEVER use Bitmap.createBitmap(width, height, Config.ARGB_8888). I mean NEVER! I've never had that thing not raise memory error after few passes. No amount of recycle(), System.gc(), whatever helped. It always raised exception. The one other way that actually works is to have a dummy image in your drawables (or another Bitmap that you decoded using step 1 above), rescale that to whatever you want, then manipulate the resulting Bitmap (such as passing it on to a Canvas for more fun). So, what you should use instead is: Bitmap.createScaledBitmap(srcBitmap, width, height, false). If for whatever reason you MUST use the brute force create method, then at least pass Config.ARGB_4444.

This is almost guaranteed to save you hours if not days. All that talk about scaling the image, etc. does not really work (unless you consider getting wrong size or degraded image a solution).


I had this same issue and solved it by avoiding the BitmapFactory.decodeStream or decodeFile functions and instead used BitmapFactory.decodeFileDescriptor

decodeFileDescriptor looks like it calls different native methods than the decodeStream/decodeFile.

Anyways, what worked was this (note that I added some options as some had above, but that's not what made the difference. What is critical is the call to BitmapFactory.decodeFileDescriptor instead of decodeStream or decodeFile):

private void showImage(String path)   {
    Log.i("showImage","loading:"+path);
    BitmapFactory.Options bfOptions=new BitmapFactory.Options();
    bfOptions.inDither=false;                     //Disable Dithering mode
    bfOptions.inPurgeable=true;                   //Tell to gc that whether it needs free memory, the Bitmap can be cleared
    bfOptions.inInputShareable=true;              //Which kind of reference will be used to recover the Bitmap data after being clear, when it will be used in the future
    bfOptions.inTempStorage=new byte[32 * 1024]; 


    File file=new File(path);
    FileInputStream fs=null;
    try {
        fs = new FileInputStream(file);
    } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
        //TODO do something intelligent
        e.printStackTrace();
    }

    try {
        if(fs!=null) bm=BitmapFactory.decodeFileDescriptor(fs.getFD(), null, bfOptions);
    } catch (IOException e) {
        //TODO do something intelligent
        e.printStackTrace();
    } finally{ 
        if(fs!=null) {
            try {
                fs.close();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }
    //bm=BitmapFactory.decodeFile(path, bfOptions); This one causes error: java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: bitmap size exceeds VM budget

    im.setImageBitmap(bm);
    //bm.recycle();
    bm=null;



}

I think there is a problem with the native function used in decodeStream/decodeFile. I have confirmed that a different native method is called when using decodeFileDescriptor. Also what I've read is "that Images (Bitmaps) are not allocated in a standard Java way but via native calls; the allocations are done outside of the virtual heap, but are counted against it!"


I have a much more effective solution which does not need scaling of any sort. Simply decode your bitmap only once and then cache it in a map against its name. Then simply retrieve the bitmap against the name and set it in the ImageView. There is nothing more that needs to be done.

This will work because the actual binary data of the decoded bitmap is not stored within the dalvik VM heap. It is stored externally. So every time you decode a bitmap, it allocates memory outside of VM heap which is never reclaimed by GC

To help you better appreciate this, imagine you have kept ur image in the drawable folder. You just get the image by doing a getResources().getDrwable(R.drawable.). This will NOT decode your image everytime but re-use an already decoded instance everytime you call it. So in essence it is cached.

Now since your image is in a file somewhere (or may even be coming from an external server), it is YOUR responsibility to cache the decoded bitmap instance to be reused any where it is needed.

Hope this helps.


I have seen a lot of questions about OOM exceptions and caching lately. The developer guide has a really good article on this, but some tends to fail on implementing it in a suitable way.

Because of this I wrote an example application that demonstrates caching in an Android environment. This implementation has not yet gotten an OOM.

Look at the end of this answer for a link to the source code.

Requirements:

  • Android API 2.1 or higher (I simply could not manage to get the available memory for an application in API 1.6 - that is the only piece of code that doesn't work in API 1.6)
  • Android support package

Features:

  • Retains the cache if there is an orientation change, using a singleton
  • Use one eighth of the assigned application memory to the cache (modify if you want)
  • Large bitmaps gets scaled (you can define the maximum pixels that you want to allow)
  • Controls that there is an internet connection available before downloading the bitmaps
  • Makes sure that you are only instantiating one task per row
  • If you are flinging the ListView away, it simply won't download the bitmaps between

This does not include:

  • Disk caching. This should be easy to implement anyway - just point to a different task that grabs the bitmaps from the disk

Sample code:

The images that are being downloaded are images (75x75) from Flickr. However, put whatever image urls you want to be processed, and the application will scale it down if it exceeds the maximum. In this application the urls are simply in a String array.

The LruCache has a good way to deal with bitmaps. However, in this application I put an instance of an LruCache inside another cache class that I created in order to get the application more feasible.

Cache.java's critical stuff (the loadBitmap() method is the most important):

public Cache(int size, int maxWidth, int maxHeight) {
    // Into the constructor you add the maximum pixels
    // that you want to allow in order to not scale images.
    mMaxWidth = maxWidth;
    mMaxHeight = maxHeight;

    mBitmapCache = new LruCache<String, Bitmap>(size) {
        protected int sizeOf(String key, Bitmap b) {
            // Assuming that one pixel contains four bytes.
            return b.getHeight() * b.getWidth() * 4;
        }
    };

    mCurrentTasks = new ArrayList<String>();    
}

/**
 * Gets a bitmap from cache. 
 * If it is not in cache, this method will:
 * 
 * 1: check if the bitmap url is currently being processed in the
 * BitmapLoaderTask and cancel if it is already in a task (a control to see
 * if it's inside the currentTasks list).
 * 
 * 2: check if an internet connection is available and continue if so.
 * 
 * 3: download the bitmap, scale the bitmap if necessary and put it into
 * the memory cache.
 * 
 * 4: Remove the bitmap url from the currentTasks list.
 * 
 * 5: Notify the ListAdapter.
 * 
 * @param mainActivity - Reference to activity object, in order to
 * call notifyDataSetChanged() on the ListAdapter.
 * @param imageKey - The bitmap url (will be the key).
 * @param imageView - The ImageView that should get an
 * available bitmap or a placeholder image.
 * @param isScrolling - If set to true, we skip executing more tasks since
 * the user probably has flinged away the view.
 */
public void loadBitmap(MainActivity mainActivity, 
        String imageKey, ImageView imageView,
        boolean isScrolling) {
    final Bitmap bitmap = getBitmapFromCache(imageKey); 

    if (bitmap != null) {
        imageView.setImageBitmap(bitmap);
    } else {
        imageView.setImageResource(R.drawable.ic_launcher);
        if (!isScrolling && !mCurrentTasks.contains(imageKey) && 
                mainActivity.internetIsAvailable()) {
            BitmapLoaderTask task = new BitmapLoaderTask(imageKey,
                    mainActivity.getAdapter());
            task.execute();
        }
    } 
}

You shouldn't need to edit anything in the Cache.java file unless you want to implement disk caching.

MainActivity.java's critical stuff:

public void onScrollStateChanged(AbsListView view, int scrollState) {
    if (view.getId() == android.R.id.list) {
        // Set scrolling to true only if the user has flinged the       
        // ListView away, hence we skip downloading a series
        // of unnecessary bitmaps that the user probably
        // just want to skip anyways. If we scroll slowly it
        // will still download bitmaps - that means
        // that the application won't wait for the user
        // to lift its finger off the screen in order to
        // download.
        if (scrollState == SCROLL_STATE_FLING) {
            mIsScrolling = true;
        } else {
            mIsScrolling = false;
            mListAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
        }
    } 
}

// Inside ListAdapter...
@Override
public View getView(final int position, View convertView, ViewGroup parent) {           
    View row = convertView;
    final ViewHolder holder;

    if (row == null) {
        LayoutInflater inflater = getLayoutInflater();
        row = inflater.inflate(R.layout.main_listview_row, parent, false);  
        holder = new ViewHolder(row);
        row.setTag(holder);
    } else {
        holder = (ViewHolder) row.getTag();
    }   

    final Row rowObject = getItem(position);

    // Look at the loadBitmap() method description...
    holder.mTextView.setText(rowObject.mText);      
    mCache.loadBitmap(MainActivity.this,
            rowObject.mBitmapUrl, holder.mImageView,
            mIsScrolling);  

    return row;
}

getView() gets called very often. It's normally not a good idea to download images there if we haven't implemented a check that ensure us that we won't start an infinite amount of threads per row. Cache.java checks whether the rowObject.mBitmapUrl already is in a task and if it is, it won't start another. Therefore, we are most likely not exceeding the work queue restriction from the AsyncTask pool.

Download:

You can download the source code from https://www.dropbox.com/s/pvr9zyl811tfeem/ListViewImageCache.zip.


Last words:

I have tested this for a few weeks now, I haven't gotten a single OOM exception yet. I have tested this on the emulator, on my Nexus One and on my Nexus S. I have tested image urls that contain images that were in HD quality. The only bottleneck is that it takes more time to download.

There is only one possible scenario where I can imagine that the OOM will appear, and that is if we download many, really big images, and before they get scaled and put into cache, will simultaneously take up more memory and cause an OOM. But that isn't even an ideal situation anyway and it most likely won't be possible to solve in a more feasible way.

Report errors in the comments! :-)


I just ran into this issue a couple minutes ago. I solved it by doing a better job at managing my listview adapter. I thought it was an issue with the hundreds of 50x50px images I was using, turns out I was trying to inflate my custom view each time the row was being shown. Simply by testing to see if the row had been inflated I eliminated this error, and I am using hundreds of bitmaps. This is actually for a Spinner, but the base adapter works all the same for a ListView. This simple fix also greatly improved the performance of the adapter.

@Override
public View getView(final int position, View convertView, final ViewGroup parent) {

    if(convertView == null){
        LayoutInflater inflater = (LayoutInflater) mContext.getSystemService(Context.LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE);
        convertView = inflater.inflate(R.layout.spinner_row, null);
    }
...

I've made a small improvement to Fedor's code. It basically does the same, but without the (in my opinion) ugly while loop and it always results in a power of two. Kudos to Fedor for making the original solution, I was stuck until I found his, and then I was able to make this one :)

 private Bitmap decodeFile(File f){
    Bitmap b = null;

        //Decode image size
    BitmapFactory.Options o = new BitmapFactory.Options();
    o.inJustDecodeBounds = true;

    FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(f);
    BitmapFactory.decodeStream(fis, null, o);
    fis.close();

    int scale = 1;
    if (o.outHeight > IMAGE_MAX_SIZE || o.outWidth > IMAGE_MAX_SIZE) {
        scale = (int)Math.pow(2, (int) Math.ceil(Math.log(IMAGE_MAX_SIZE / 
           (double) Math.max(o.outHeight, o.outWidth)) / Math.log(0.5)));
    }

    //Decode with inSampleSize
    BitmapFactory.Options o2 = new BitmapFactory.Options();
    o2.inSampleSize = scale;
    fis = new FileInputStream(f);
    b = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(fis, null, o2);
    fis.close();

    return b;
}

I've spent the entire day testing these solutions and the only thing that worked for me is the above approaches for getting the image and manually calling the GC, which I know is not supposed to be necessary, but it is the only thing that worked when I put my app under heavy load testing switching between activities. My app has a list of thumbnail images in a listview in (lets say activity A) and when you click on one of those images it takes you to another activity (lets say activity B) that shows a main image for that item. When I would switch back and forth between the two activities, I would eventually get the OOM error and the app would force close.

When I would get half way down the listview it would crash.

Now when I implement the following in activity B, I can go through the entire listview with no issue and keep going and going and going...and its plenty fast.

@Override
public void onDestroy()
{   
    Cleanup();
    super.onDestroy();
}

private void Cleanup()
{    
    bitmap.recycle();
    System.gc();
    Runtime.getRuntime().gc();  
}

It seems that this is a very long running problem, with a lot of differing explanations. I took the advice of the two most common presented answers here, but neither one of these solved my problems of the VM claiming it couldn't afford the bytes to perform the decoding part of the process. After some digging I learned that the real problem here is the decoding process taking away from the NATIVE heap.

See here: BitmapFactory OOM driving me nuts

That lead me to another discussion thread where I found a couple more solutions to this problem. One is to callSystem.gc(); manually after your image is displayed. But that actually makes your app use MORE memory, in an effort to reduce the native heap. The better solution as of the release of 2.0 (Donut) is to use the BitmapFactory option "inPurgeable". So I simply added o2.inPurgeable=true; just after o2.inSampleSize=scale;.

More on that topic here: Is the limit of memory heap only 6M?

Now, having said all of this, I am a complete dunce with Java and Android too. So if you think this is a terrible way to solve this problem, you are probably right. ;-) But this has worked wonders for me, and I have found it impossible to run the VM out of heap cache now. The only drawback I can find is that you are trashing your cached drawn image. Which means if you go RIGHT back to that image, you are redrawing it each and every time. In the case of how my application works, that is not really a problem. Your mileage may vary.


It's a known bug, it's not because of large files. Since Android Caches the Drawables, it's going out of memory after using few images. But I've found an alternate way for it, by skipping the android default cache system.

Solution: Move the images to "assets" folder and use the following function to get BitmapDrawable:

public static Drawable getAssetImage(Context context, String filename) throws IOException {
    AssetManager assets = context.getResources().getAssets();
    InputStream buffer = new BufferedInputStream((assets.open("drawable/" + filename + ".png")));
    Bitmap bitmap = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(buffer);
    return new BitmapDrawable(context.getResources(), bitmap);
}

None of the answers above worked for me, but I did come up with a horribly ugly workaround that solved the problem. I added a very small, 1x1 pixel image to my project as a resource, and loaded it into my ImageView before calling into garbage collection. I think it might be that the ImageView was not releasing the Bitmap, so GC never picked it up. It's ugly, but it seems to be working for now.

if (bitmap != null)
{
  bitmap.recycle();
  bitmap = null;
}
if (imageView != null)
{
  imageView.setImageResource(R.drawable.tiny); // This is my 1x1 png.
}
System.gc();

imageView.setImageBitmap(...); // Do whatever you need to do to load the image you want.

Such OutofMemoryException cannot be totally resolved by calling the System.gc() and so on .

By referring to the Activity Life Cycle

The Activity States are determined by the OS itself subject to the memory usage for each process and the priority of each process.

You may consider the size and the resolution for each of the bitmap pictures used. I recommend to reduce the size ,resample to lower resolution , refer to the design of galleries (one small picture PNG , and one original picture.)


There are two issues here....

  • Bitmap memory isn't in the VM heap but rather in the native heap - see BitmapFactory OOM driving me nuts
  • Garbage collection for the native heap is lazier than the VM heap - so you need to be quite aggressive about doing bitmap.recycle and bitmap =null every time you go through an Activity's onPause or onDestroy

This code will help to load large bitmap from drawable

public class BitmapUtilsTask extends AsyncTask<Object, Void, Bitmap> {

    Context context;

    public BitmapUtilsTask(Context context) {
        this.context = context;
    }

    /**
     * Loads a bitmap from the specified url.
     * 
     * @param url The location of the bitmap asset
     * @return The bitmap, or null if it could not be loaded
     * @throws IOException
     * @throws MalformedURLException
     */
    public Bitmap getBitmap() throws MalformedURLException, IOException {       

        // Get the source image's dimensions
        int desiredWidth = 1000;
        BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options();
        options.inJustDecodeBounds = true;

        BitmapFactory.decodeResource(context.getResources(), R.drawable.green_background , options);

        int srcWidth = options.outWidth;
        int srcHeight = options.outHeight;

        // Only scale if the source is big enough. This code is just trying
        // to fit a image into a certain width.
        if (desiredWidth > srcWidth)
            desiredWidth = srcWidth;

        // Calculate the correct inSampleSize/scale value. This helps reduce
        // memory use. It should be a power of 2
        int inSampleSize = 1;
        while (srcWidth / 2 > desiredWidth) {
            srcWidth /= 2;
            srcHeight /= 2;
            inSampleSize *= 2;
        }
        // Decode with inSampleSize
        options.inJustDecodeBounds = false;
        options.inDither = false;
        options.inSampleSize = inSampleSize;
        options.inScaled = false;
        options.inPreferredConfig = Bitmap.Config.ARGB_8888;
        options.inPurgeable = true;
        Bitmap sampledSrcBitmap;

        sampledSrcBitmap =  BitmapFactory.decodeResource(context.getResources(), R.drawable.green_background , options);

        return sampledSrcBitmap;
    }

    /**
     * The system calls this to perform work in a worker thread and delivers
     * it the parameters given to AsyncTask.execute()
     */
    @Override
    protected Bitmap doInBackground(Object... item) {
        try { 
          return getBitmap();
        } catch (MalformedURLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return null;
    }
}

This seems like the appropriate place to share my utility class for loading and processing images with the community, you are welcome to use it and modify it freely.

package com.emil;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;

import android.graphics.Bitmap;
import android.graphics.BitmapFactory;

/**
 * A class to load and process images of various sizes from input streams and file paths.
 * 
 * @author Emil http://.com/users/220710/emil
 *
 */
public class ImageProcessing {

    public static Bitmap getBitmap(InputStream stream, int sampleSize, Bitmap.Config bitmapConfig) throws IOException{
        BitmapFactory.Options options=ImageProcessing.getOptionsForSampling(sampleSize, bitmapConfig);
        Bitmap bm = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(stream,null,options);
        if(ImageProcessing.checkDecode(options)){
            return bm;
        }else{
            throw new IOException("Image decoding failed, using stream.");
        }
    }

    public static Bitmap getBitmap(String imgPath, int sampleSize, Bitmap.Config bitmapConfig) throws IOException{
        BitmapFactory.Options options=ImageProcessing.getOptionsForSampling(sampleSize, bitmapConfig);
        Bitmap bm = BitmapFactory.decodeFile(imgPath,options);
        if(ImageProcessing.checkDecode(options)){
            return bm;
        }else{
            throw new IOException("Image decoding failed, using file path.");
        }
    }

    public static Dimensions getDimensions(InputStream stream) throws IOException{
        BitmapFactory.Options options=ImageProcessing.getOptionsForDimensions();
        BitmapFactory.decodeStream(stream,null,options);
        if(ImageProcessing.checkDecode(options)){
            return new ImageProcessing.Dimensions(options.outWidth,options.outHeight);
        }else{
            throw new IOException("Image decoding failed, using stream.");
        }
    }

    public static Dimensions getDimensions(String imgPath) throws IOException{
        BitmapFactory.Options options=ImageProcessing.getOptionsForDimensions();
        BitmapFactory.decodeFile(imgPath,options);
        if(ImageProcessing.checkDecode(options)){
            return new ImageProcessing.Dimensions(options.outWidth,options.outHeight);
        }else{
            throw new IOException("Image decoding failed, using file path.");
        }
    }

    private static boolean checkDecode(BitmapFactory.Options options){
        // Did decode work?
        if( options.outWidth<0 || options.outHeight<0 ){
            return false;
        }else{
            return true;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Creates a Bitmap that is of the minimum dimensions necessary
     * @param bm
     * @param min
     * @return
     */
    public static Bitmap createMinimalBitmap(Bitmap bm, ImageProcessing.Minimize min){
        int newWidth, newHeight;
        switch(min.type){
        case WIDTH:
            if(bm.getWidth()>min.minWidth){
                newWidth=min.minWidth;
                newHeight=ImageProcessing.getScaledHeight(newWidth, bm);
            }else{
                // No resize
                newWidth=bm.getWidth();
                newHeight=bm.getHeight();
            }
            break;
        case HEIGHT:
            if(bm.getHeight()>min.minHeight){
                newHeight=min.minHeight;
                newWidth=ImageProcessing.getScaledWidth(newHeight, bm);
            }else{
                // No resize
                newWidth=bm.getWidth();
                newHeight=bm.getHeight();
            }
            break;
        case BOTH: // minimize to the maximum dimension
        case MAX:
            if(bm.getHeight()>bm.getWidth()){
                // Height needs to minimized
                min.minDim=min.minDim!=null ? min.minDim : min.minHeight;
                if(bm.getHeight()>min.minDim){
                    newHeight=min.minDim;
                    newWidth=ImageProcessing.getScaledWidth(newHeight, bm);
                }else{
                    // No resize
                    newWidth=bm.getWidth();
                    newHeight=bm.getHeight();
                }
            }else{
                // Width needs to be minimized
                min.minDim=min.minDim!=null ? min.minDim : min.minWidth;
                if(bm.getWidth()>min.minDim){
                    newWidth=min.minDim;
                    newHeight=ImageProcessing.getScaledHeight(newWidth, bm);
                }else{
                    // No resize
                    newWidth=bm.getWidth();
                    newHeight=bm.getHeight();
                }
            }
            break;
        default:
            // No resize
            newWidth=bm.getWidth();
            newHeight=bm.getHeight();
        }
        return Bitmap.createScaledBitmap(bm, newWidth, newHeight, true);
    }

    public static int getScaledWidth(int height, Bitmap bm){
        return (int)(((double)bm.getWidth()/bm.getHeight())*height);
    }

    public static int getScaledHeight(int width, Bitmap bm){
        return (int)(((double)bm.getHeight()/bm.getWidth())*width);
    }

    /**
     * Get the proper sample size to meet minimization restraints
     * @param dim
     * @param min
     * @param multipleOf2 for fastest processing it is recommended that the sample size be a multiple of 2
     * @return
     */
    public static int getSampleSize(ImageProcessing.Dimensions dim, ImageProcessing.Minimize min, boolean multipleOf2){
        switch(min.type){
        case WIDTH:
            return ImageProcessing.getMaxSampleSize(dim.width, min.minWidth, multipleOf2);
        case HEIGHT:
            return ImageProcessing.getMaxSampleSize(dim.height, min.minHeight, multipleOf2);
        case BOTH:
            int widthMaxSampleSize=ImageProcessing.getMaxSampleSize(dim.width, min.minWidth, multipleOf2);
            int heightMaxSampleSize=ImageProcessing.getMaxSampleSize(dim.height, min.minHeight, multipleOf2);
            // Return the smaller of the two
            if(widthMaxSampleSize<heightMaxSampleSize){
                return widthMaxSampleSize;
            }else{
                return heightMaxSampleSize;
            }
        case MAX:
            // Find the larger dimension and go bases on that
            if(dim.width>dim.height){
                return ImageProcessing.getMaxSampleSize(dim.width, min.minDim, multipleOf2);
            }else{
                return ImageProcessing.getMaxSampleSize(dim.height, min.minDim, multipleOf2);
            }
        }
        return 1;
    }

    public static int getMaxSampleSize(int dim, int min, boolean multipleOf2){
        int add=multipleOf2 ? 2 : 1;
        int size=0;
        while(min<(dim/(size+add))){
            size+=add;
        }
        size = size==0 ? 1 : size;
        return size;        
    }

    public static class Dimensions {
        int width;
        int height;

        public Dimensions(int width, int height) {
            super();
            this.width = width;
            this.height = height;
        }

        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return width+" x "+height;
        }
    }

    public static class Minimize {
        public enum Type {
            WIDTH,HEIGHT,BOTH,MAX
        }
        Integer minWidth;
        Integer minHeight;
        Integer minDim;
        Type type;

        public Minimize(int min, Type type) {
            super();
            this.type = type;
            switch(type){
            case WIDTH:
                this.minWidth=min;
                break;
            case HEIGHT:
                this.minHeight=min;
                break;
            case BOTH:
                this.minWidth=min;
                this.minHeight=min;
                break;
            case MAX:
                this.minDim=min;
                break;
            }
        }

        public Minimize(int minWidth, int minHeight) {
            super();
            this.type=Type.BOTH;
            this.minWidth = minWidth;
            this.minHeight = minHeight;
        }

    }

    /**
     * Estimates size of Bitmap in bytes depending on dimensions and Bitmap.Config
     * @param width
     * @param height
     * @param config
     * @return
     */
    public static long estimateBitmapBytes(int width, int height, Bitmap.Config config){
        long pixels=width*height;
        switch(config){
        case ALPHA_8: // 1 byte per pixel
            return pixels;
        case ARGB_4444: // 2 bytes per pixel, but depreciated
            return pixels*2;
        case ARGB_8888: // 4 bytes per pixel
            return pixels*4;
        case RGB_565: // 2 bytes per pixel
            return pixels*2;
        default:
            return pixels;
        }
    }

    private static BitmapFactory.Options getOptionsForDimensions(){
        BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options();
        options.inJustDecodeBounds=true;
        return options;
    }

    private static BitmapFactory.Options getOptionsForSampling(int sampleSize, Bitmap.Config bitmapConfig){
        BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options();
        options.inJustDecodeBounds = false;
        options.inDither = false;
        options.inSampleSize = sampleSize;
        options.inScaled = false;
        options.inPreferredConfig = bitmapConfig;
        return options;
    }
}

This worked for me!

public Bitmap readAssetsBitmap(String filename) throws IOException {
    try {
        BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options(); 
        options.inPurgeable = true;
        Bitmap bitmap = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(assets.open(filename), null, options);
        if(bitmap == null) {
            throw new IOException("File cannot be opened: It's value is null");
        } else {
            return bitmap;
        }
    } catch (IOException e) {
        throw new IOException("File cannot be opened: " + e.getMessage());
    }
}

To fix the OutOfMemory error, you should do something like this:

BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options();
options.inSampleSize = 8;
Bitmap preview_bitmap = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(is, null, options);

This inSampleSize option reduces memory consumption.

Here's a complete method. First it reads image size without decoding the content itself. Then it finds the best inSampleSize value, it should be a power of 2, and finally the image is decoded.

// Decodes image and scales it to reduce memory consumption
private Bitmap decodeFile(File f) {
    try {
        // Decode image size
        BitmapFactory.Options o = new BitmapFactory.Options();
        o.inJustDecodeBounds = true;
        BitmapFactory.decodeStream(new FileInputStream(f), null, o);

        // The new size we want to scale to
        final int REQUIRED_SIZE=70;

        // Find the correct scale value. It should be the power of 2.
        int scale = 1;
        while(o.outWidth / scale / 2 >= REQUIRED_SIZE && 
              o.outHeight / scale / 2 >= REQUIRED_SIZE) {
            scale *= 2;
        }

        // Decode with inSampleSize
        BitmapFactory.Options o2 = new BitmapFactory.Options();
        o2.inSampleSize = scale;
        return BitmapFactory.decodeStream(new FileInputStream(f), null, o2);
    } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {}
    return null;
}

Use this bitmap.recycle(); This helps without any image quality issue.





android-bitmap