javascript sample - Loading Backbone and Underscore using RequireJS




app how (6)

I'm trying to load Backbone and Underscore (as well as jQuery) with RequireJS. With the latest versions of Backbone and Underscore, it seems kind of tricky. For one, Underscore automatically registers itself as a module, but Backbone assumes Underscore is available globally. I should also note that Backbone doesn't seem to register itself as a module which makes it kind of inconsistent with the other libs. This is the best main.js I could come up with that works:

require(
{
    paths: {
        'backbone': 'libs/backbone/backbone-require',
        'templates': '../templates'
    }
},
[
    // jQuery registers itself as a module.
    'http://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.7/jquery.min.js',

    // Underscore registers itself as a module.
    'http://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/underscore.js/1.2.1/underscore-min.js'
], function() {

    // These nested require() calls are just due to how Backbone is built.  Underscore basically says if require()
    // is available then it will automatically register an "underscore" module, but it won't register underscore
    // as a global "_".  However, Backbone expects Underscore to be a global variable.  To make this work, we require
    // the Underscore module after it's been defined from within Underscore and set it as a global variable for
    // Backbone's sake.  Hopefully Backbone will soon be able to use the Underscore module directly instead of
    // assuming it's global.
    require(['underscore'], function(_) {
        window._ = _;
    });

    require([
        'order!http://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/backbone.js/0.5.3/backbone-min.js',
        'order!app'
    ], function(a, app) {
        app.initialize();
    })
});

I should mention that, while it works, the optimizer chokes on it. I receive the following:

Tracing dependencies for: main
js: "/home/httpd/aahardy/requirejs/r.js", line 7619: exception from uncaught JavaScript throw: Error: Error: Error evaluating module "undefined" at location "/home/httpd/aahardy/phoenix/trunk/ui/js/../../ui-build/js/underscore.js":
JavaException: java.io.FileNotFoundException: /home/httpd/aahardy/phoenix/trunk/ui/js/../../ui-build/js/underscore.js (No such file or directory)
fileName:/home/httpd/aahardy/phoenix/trunk/ui/js/../../ui-build/js/underscore.js
lineNumber: undefined
http://requirejs.org/docs/errors.html#defineerror
In module tree:
    main

Is there a better way of handling this? Thanks!


Answers

I will write down directly, you can read the explaination on requirejs.org, you could use below code as a snippet for your everyday use; (p.s. i use yeoman) (since many things updated, im posting this as of Feb 2014.)

Make sure you included script in your index.html

<!-- build:js({app,.tmp}) scripts/main.js -->
<script data-main="scripts/main" src="bower_components/requirejs/require.js"></script>
<!-- endbuild -->

Then, in main.js

require.config({
    shim: {
        'backbone': {
            deps: ['../bower_components/underscore/underscore.js', 'jquery'],
            exports: 'Backbone'
        }
    },

    paths: {
        jquery: '../bower_components/jquery/jquery',
        backbone: '../bower_components/backbone/backbone'
    }
});

require(['views/app'], function(AppView){
    new AppView();
});

app.js

/**
 * App View
 */
define(['backbone', 'router'], function(Backbone, MainRouter) {
    var AppView = Backbone.View.extend({
        el: 'body',

        initialize: function() {
            App.Router = new MainRouter();
            Backbone.history.start();
        }
    });

    return AppView;
});

I hope I was useful.!


RequireJS 2.X now organically addresses non-AMD modules such as Backbone & Underscore much better, using the new shim configuration.

The shim configuration is simple to use: (1) one states the dependencies (deps), if any, (which may be from the paths configuration, or may be valid paths themselves). (2) (optionally) specify the global variable name from the file you're shimming, which should be exported to your module functions that require it. (If you don't specify the exports, then you'll need to just use the global, as nothing will get passed into your require/define functions.)

Here is a simple example usage of shim to load Backbone. It also adds an export for underscore, even though it doesn't have any dependencies.

require.config({
  shim: {
    underscore: {
      exports: '_'
    },
    backbone: {
      deps: ["underscore", "jquery"],
      exports: "Backbone"
    }
  }
});

//the "main" function to bootstrap your code
require(['jquery', 'underscore', 'backbone'], function ($, _, Backbone) {   // or, you could use these deps in a separate module using define

});

Note: this simplified code assumes that jquery, backbone and underscore are in files named "jquery.js", "backbone.js" and "underscore.js" in the same directory as this "main" code (which becomes the baseURL for require). If this isn't the case, you'll need to use a paths config.

I personally think with the built-in shim functionality, the advantages of not using a forked version of Backbone & Underscore outweigh the benefits of using the AMD fork recommended in the other popular answer, but either way works.


require.config({
  waitSeconds: 500,
  paths: {
    jquery: "libs/jquery/jquery",
    jqueryCookie: "libs/jquery/jquery.cookie",
    .....
  },

  shim: {
    jqxcore: {
      export: "$",
      deps: ["jquery"]
    },
    jqxbuttons: {
      export: "$",
      deps: ["jquery", "jqxcore"]
    }
    ............
  }
});

require([
 <i> // Load our app module and pass it to our definition function</i>
  "app"
], function(App) {
  // The "app" dependency is passed in as "App"
  // Again, the other dependencies passed in are not "AMD" therefore don't pass a parameter to this function
  App.initialize();
});

Update: As of version 1.3.0 Underscore removed AMD (RequireJS) support.

You can use the amdjs/Backbone 0.9.1 and the amdjs/Underscore 1.3.1 fork with AMD support from James Burke (the maintainer of RequireJS).

More info about AMD support for Underscore and Backbone.

// main.js using RequireJS 1.0.7
require.config({
    paths: {
        'jquery': 'libs/jquery/1.7.1/jquery',
        'underscore': 'libs/underscore/1.3.1-amdjs/underscore', // AMD support
        'backbone': 'libs/backbone/0.9.1-amdjs/backbone', // AMD support
        'templates': '../templates'
    }
});

require([
    'domReady', // optional, using RequireJS domReady plugin
    'app'
], function(domReady, app){
    domReady(function () {
        app.initialize();
    });
});

The modules are properly registered and there is no need for the order plugin:

// app.js
define([
    'jquery', 
    'underscore',
    'backbone'
], function($, _, Backbone){
    return {
        initialize: function(){
            // you can use $, _ or Backbone here
        }
    };
});

Underscore is actually optional, because Backbone now gets its dependencies on its own:

// app.js
define(['jquery', 'backbone'], function($, Backbone){
    return {
        initialize: function(){
            // you can use $ and Backbone here with
            // dependencies loaded i.e. Underscore
        }
    };
});

With some AMD sugar you could also write it like this:

define(function(require) {
    var Backbone = require('backbone'),
        $ = require('jquery');

    return {
        initialize: function(){
            // you can use $ and Backbone here with
            // dependencies loaded i.e. Underscore
        }
    };
});

Regarding the optimizer error: doublecheck your build configuration. I assume your path configuration is off. If you have a directory setup similar to the RequireJS Docs you can use:

// app.build.js
({
    appDir: "../",
    baseUrl: "js",
    dir: "../../ui-build",
    paths: {
        'jquery': 'libs/jquery/1.7.1/jquery',
        'underscore': 'libs/underscore/1.3.1-amdjs/underscore',
        'backbone': 'libs/backbone/0.9.1-amdjs/backbone',
        'templates': '../templates'
    }, 
    modules: [
        {
            name: "main"
        }
    ]
})

Good news, Underscore 1.6.0 now supports requirejs define !!!

versions below this require shims, or requiring underscore.js then blindly hoping that the "_" global variable hasn;t been smashed (which to be fair is a fair bet)

simply load it in by

  requirejs.config({
    paths: {
        "underscore": "PATH/underscore-1.6.0.min",
    }
  });

I found the jQuery plugin jQuery Watermark to be better than the one listed in the top answer. Why better? Because it supports password input fields. Also, setting the color of the watermark (or other attributes) is as easy as creating a .watermark reference in your CSS file.







javascript backbone.js underscore.js requirejs