jquery jsonpmediatypeformatter - JSONP with ASP.NET Web API




core webapicontrib (13)

Unfortunately, I don't have enough reputation to comment, so I'll post an answer. @Justin raised the issue of running the WebApiContrib.Formatting.Jsonp formatter alongside the standard JsonFormatter. That issue is resolved in the latest release (actually released some time ago). Also, it should work with the latest Web API release.

I am working on creating a new set of services in ASP.MVC MVC 4 using the Web API. So far, it's great. I have created the service and gotten it to work, and now I am trying to consume it using JQuery. I can get back the JSON string using Fiddler, and it seems to be ok, but because the service exists on a separate site, trying to call it with JQuery errors with the "Not Allowed". So, this is clearly a case where I need to use JSONP.

I know that the Web API is new, but I'm hoping someone out there can help me.

How do I make a call to a Web API method using JSONP?


Updated

public class JsonpMediaTypeFormatter : JsonMediaTypeFormatter
    {
        private string callbackQueryParameter;

        public JsonpMediaTypeFormatter()
        {
            SupportedMediaTypes.Add(DefaultMediaType);
            SupportedMediaTypes.Add(new MediaTypeHeaderValue("text/javascript"));

            MediaTypeMappings.Add(new UriPathExtensionMapping("jsonp", DefaultMediaType));
        }

        public string CallbackQueryParameter
        {
            get { return callbackQueryParameter ?? "callback"; }
            set { callbackQueryParameter = value; }
        }

        public override Task WriteToStreamAsync(Type type, object value, Stream writeStream, HttpContent content, TransportContext transportContext)
        {
            string callback;

            if (IsJsonpRequest(out callback))
            {
                return Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
                {
                    var writer = new StreamWriter(writeStream);
                    writer.Write(callback + "(");
                    writer.Flush();

                    base.WriteToStreamAsync(type, value, writeStream, content, transportContext).Wait();

                    writer.Write(")");
                    writer.Flush();
                });
            }
            else
            {
                return base.WriteToStreamAsync(type, value, writeStream, content, transportContext);
            }
        }

        private bool IsJsonpRequest(out string callback)
        {
            callback = null;

            if (HttpContext.Current.Request.HttpMethod != "GET")
                return false;

            callback = HttpContext.Current.Request.QueryString[CallbackQueryParameter];

            return !string.IsNullOrEmpty(callback);
        }
    }

Here is an updated version of the JsonpMediaTypeFormatter for use with WebAPI RC:

public class JsonpMediaTypeFormatter : JsonMediaTypeFormatter
{
    private string callbackQueryParameter;

    public JsonpMediaTypeFormatter()
    {
        SupportedMediaTypes.Add(DefaultMediaType);
        SupportedMediaTypes.Add(new MediaTypeHeaderValue("text/javascript"));

        MediaTypeMappings.Add(new UriPathExtensionMapping("jsonp", DefaultMediaType));
    }

    public string CallbackQueryParameter
    {
        get { return callbackQueryParameter ?? "callback"; }
        set { callbackQueryParameter = value; }
    }

    public override Task WriteToStreamAsync(Type type, object value, Stream stream, HttpContent content, TransportContext transportContext)
    {
        string callback;

        if (IsJsonpRequest(out callback))
        {
            return Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
            {
                var writer = new StreamWriter(stream);
                writer.Write(callback + "(");
                writer.Flush();

                base.WriteToStreamAsync(type, value, stream, content, transportContext).Wait();

                writer.Write(")");
                writer.Flush();
            });
        }
        else
        {
            return base.WriteToStreamAsync(type, value, stream, content, transportContext);
        }
    }


    private bool IsJsonpRequest(out string callback)
    {
        callback = null;

        if (HttpContext.Current.Request.HttpMethod != "GET")
            return false;

        callback = HttpContext.Current.Request.QueryString[CallbackQueryParameter];

        return !string.IsNullOrEmpty(callback);
    }
}

After asking this question, I finally found what I needed, so I am answering it.

I ran across this JsonpMediaTypeFormatter. Add it into the Application_Start of your global.asax by doing this:

var config = GlobalConfiguration.Configuration;
config.Formatters.Insert(0, new JsonpMediaTypeFormatter());

and you are good to go with an JQuery AJAX call that looks like this:

$.ajax({
    url: 'http://myurl.com',
    type: 'GET',
    dataType: 'jsonp',
    success: function (data) {
        alert(data.MyProperty);
    }
})

It seems to work very well.


Certainly Brian's answer is the correct one, however if you already are using the Json.Net formatter, which gives you pretty json dates and faster serialization, then you can't just add a second formatter for jsonp, you have to combine the two. It is a good idea to use it anyway, as Scott Hanselman has said that the release of ASP.NET Web API is going to use the Json.Net serializer by default.

public class JsonNetFormatter : MediaTypeFormatter
    {
        private JsonSerializerSettings _jsonSerializerSettings;
        private string callbackQueryParameter;

        public JsonNetFormatter(JsonSerializerSettings jsonSerializerSettings)
        {
            _jsonSerializerSettings = jsonSerializerSettings ?? new JsonSerializerSettings();

            // Fill out the mediatype and encoding we support
            SupportedMediaTypes.Add(new MediaTypeHeaderValue("application/json"));
            Encoding = new UTF8Encoding(false, true);

            //we also support jsonp.
            SupportedMediaTypes.Add(new MediaTypeHeaderValue("text/javascript"));
            MediaTypeMappings.Add(new UriPathExtensionMapping("jsonp", "application/json"));
        }

        public string CallbackQueryParameter
        {
            get { return callbackQueryParameter ?? "jsoncallback"; }
            set { callbackQueryParameter = value; }
        }

        protected override bool CanReadType(Type type)
        {
            if (type == typeof(IKeyValueModel))
                return false;

            return true;
        }

        protected override bool CanWriteType(Type type)
        {
            return true;
        }

        protected override Task<object> OnReadFromStreamAsync(Type type, Stream stream, HttpContentHeaders contentHeaders,
            FormatterContext formatterContext)
        {
            // Create a serializer
            JsonSerializer serializer = JsonSerializer.Create(_jsonSerializerSettings);

            // Create task reading the content
            return Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
            {
                using (StreamReader streamReader = new StreamReader(stream, Encoding))
                {
                    using (JsonTextReader jsonTextReader = new JsonTextReader(streamReader))
                    {
                        return serializer.Deserialize(jsonTextReader, type);
                    }
                }
            });
        }

        protected override Task OnWriteToStreamAsync(Type type, object value, Stream stream, HttpContentHeaders contentHeaders,
            FormatterContext formatterContext, TransportContext transportContext)
        {
            string callback;
            var isJsonp = IsJsonpRequest(formatterContext.Response.RequestMessage, out callback);

            // Create a serializer
            JsonSerializer serializer = JsonSerializer.Create(_jsonSerializerSettings);

            // Create task writing the serialized content
            return Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
            {
                using (JsonTextWriter jsonTextWriter = new JsonTextWriter(new StreamWriter(stream, Encoding)) { CloseOutput = false })
                {
                    if (isJsonp)
                    {
                        jsonTextWriter.WriteRaw(callback + "(");
                        jsonTextWriter.Flush();
                    }

                    serializer.Serialize(jsonTextWriter, value);
                    jsonTextWriter.Flush();

                    if (isJsonp)
                    {
                        jsonTextWriter.WriteRaw(")");
                        jsonTextWriter.Flush();
                    }
                }
            });
        }

        private bool IsJsonpRequest(HttpRequestMessage request, out string callback)
        {
            callback = null;

            if (request.Method != HttpMethod.Get)
                return false;

            var query = HttpUtility.ParseQueryString(request.RequestUri.Query);
            callback = query[CallbackQueryParameter];

            return !string.IsNullOrEmpty(callback);
        }
    }

Here's an updated version with several improvements, which works with the RTM version of Web APIs.

  • Selects the correct encoding, based on the request's own Accept-Encoding headers. The new StreamWriter() in the previous examples would simply use UTF-8. The call to base.WriteToStreamAsync may use a different encoding, resulting in corrupted output.
  • Maps JSONP requests to the application/javascript Content-Type header; the previous example would output JSONP, but with the application/json header. This work is done in the nested Mapping class (cf. Best content type to serve JSONP?)
  • Foregoes the construction and flushing overhead of a StreamWriter and directly gets the bytes and writes them to the output stream.
  • Instead of waiting on a task, use the Task Parallel Library's ContinueWith mechanism to chain several tasks together.

Code:

public class JsonpMediaTypeFormatter : JsonMediaTypeFormatter
{
  private string _callbackQueryParameter;

  public JsonpMediaTypeFormatter()
  {
    SupportedMediaTypes.Add(DefaultMediaType);
    SupportedMediaTypes.Add(new MediaTypeHeaderValue("application/javascript"));

    // need a lambda here so that it'll always get the 'live' value of CallbackQueryParameter.
    MediaTypeMappings.Add(new Mapping(() => CallbackQueryParameter, "application/javascript"));
  }

  public string CallbackQueryParameter
  {
    get { return _callbackQueryParameter ?? "callback"; }
    set { _callbackQueryParameter = value; }
  }

  public override Task WriteToStreamAsync(Type type, object value, Stream writeStream, HttpContent content,
                                          TransportContext transportContext)
  {
    var callback = GetCallbackName();

    if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(callback))
    {
      // select the correct encoding to use.
      Encoding encoding = SelectCharacterEncoding(content.Headers);

      // write the callback and opening paren.
      return Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
        {
          var bytes = encoding.GetBytes(callback + "(");
          writeStream.Write(bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
        })
      // then we do the actual JSON serialization...
      .ContinueWith(t => base.WriteToStreamAsync(type, value, writeStream, content, transportContext))

      // finally, we close the parens.
      .ContinueWith(t =>
        {
          var bytes = encoding.GetBytes(")");
          writeStream.Write(bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
        });
    }
    return base.WriteToStreamAsync(type, value, writeStream, content, transportContext);
  }

  private string GetCallbackName()
  {
    if (HttpContext.Current.Request.HttpMethod != "GET")
      return null;
    return HttpContext.Current.Request.QueryString[CallbackQueryParameter];
  }

  #region Nested type: Mapping

  private class Mapping : MediaTypeMapping
  {
    private readonly Func<string> _param; 

    public Mapping(Func<string> discriminator, string mediaType)
      : base(mediaType)
    {
      _param = discriminator;
    }

    public override double TryMatchMediaType(HttpRequestMessage request)
    {
      if (request.RequestUri.Query.Contains(_param() + "="))
        return 1.0;
      return 0.0;
    }
  }

  #endregion
}

I'm aware of the "hackiness" of the Func<string> parameter in the inner class constructor, but it was the fastest way to get around the problem it solves -- since C# only has static inner classes, it can't see the CallbackQueryParameter property. Passing the Func in binds the property in the lambda, so Mapping will be able to access it later on in TryMatchMediaType. If you have a more elegant way, please comment!


For those of you who are using the HttpSelfHostServer this section of code will fail on HttpContext.Current, since it doesn't exist on the self host server.

private Tuple<bool, string> IsJsonpRequest()
{
if(HttpContext.Current.Request.HttpMethod != "GET")
 return new Tuple<bool, string>(false, null);
 var callback = HttpContext.Current.Request.QueryString[CallbackQueryParameter];
 return new Tuple<bool, string>(!string.IsNullOrEmpty(callback), callback);
 }

However you can intercept the self host "context" via this override.

public override MediaTypeFormatter GetPerRequestFormatterInstance(Type type, HttpRequestMessage request, MediaTypeHeaderValue mediaType)
        {
            _method = request.Method;
            _callbackMethodName =
                request.GetQueryNameValuePairs()
                       .Where(x => x.Key == CallbackQueryParameter)
                       .Select(x => x.Value)
                       .FirstOrDefault();

            return base.GetPerRequestFormatterInstance(type, request, mediaType);
        }

The request.Method will give you "GET", "POST", etc. and the GetQueryNameValuePairs can retrieve the ?callback parameter. Thus my revised code looks like:

private Tuple<bool, string> IsJsonpRequest()
 {
     if (_method.Method != "GET")
     return new Tuple<bool, string>(false, null);

     return new Tuple<bool, string>(!string.IsNullOrEmpty(_callbackMethodName), _callbackMethodName);
}

Hope this helps some of you. This way you don't necessarily need a HttpContext shim.

C.


Instead of hosting your own JSONP formatter version you can install WebApiContrib.Formatting.Jsonp NuGet package with already implemented one (choose the version that works for your .NET Framework).

Add this formatter into Application_Start:

GlobalConfiguration.Configuration.Formatters.Insert(0, new JsonpMediaTypeFormatter(new JsonMediaTypeFormatter()));

JSONP only works with Http GET request. There is a CORS support in asp.net web api which works well with all http verbs.

This article may be helpful to you.



johperl, Thomas. The answer given by Peter Moberg above should be correct for the RC version as the JsonMediaTypeFormatter that he inherits from uses the NewtonSoft Json serializer already, and so what he has should work with out any changes.

However, why on earth are people still using out parameters, when you could just do the following

public override Task WriteToStreamAsync(Type type, object value, Stream stream, HttpContentHeaders contentHeaders, TransportContext transportContext)
        {
            var isJsonpRequest = IsJsonpRequest();

            if(isJsonpRequest.Item1)
            {
                return Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
                {
                    var writer = new StreamWriter(stream);
                    writer.Write(isJsonpRequest.Item2 + "(");
                    writer.Flush();
                    base.WriteToStreamAsync(type, value, stream, contentHeaders, transportContext).Wait();
                    writer.Write(")");
                    writer.Flush();
                });
            }

            return base.WriteToStreamAsync(type, value, stream, contentHeaders, transportContext);
        }

        private Tuple<bool, string> IsJsonpRequest()
        {
            if(HttpContext.Current.Request.HttpMethod != "GET")
                return new Tuple<bool, string>(false, null);

            var callback = HttpContext.Current.Request.QueryString[CallbackQueryParameter];

            return new Tuple<bool, string>(!string.IsNullOrEmpty(callback), callback);
        }

If the context is Web Api, thanking and referring to 010227leo's answer, you must consider WebContext.Current value which is going to be null.

So I updated his code to this:

public class JsonCallbackAttribute
    : ActionFilterAttribute
{
    private const string CallbackQueryParameter = "callback";

    public override void OnActionExecuted(HttpActionExecutedContext context)
    {
        var callback = context.Request.GetQueryNameValuePairs().Where(item => item.Key == CallbackQueryParameter).Select(item => item.Value).SingleOrDefault();

        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(callback))
        {
            var jsonBuilder = new StringBuilder(callback);

            jsonBuilder.AppendFormat("({0})", context.Response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync().Result);

            context.Response.Content = new StringContent(jsonBuilder.ToString());
        }

        base.OnActionExecuted(context);
    }
}

Before understanding JSONP, you need to know JSON format and XML. Currently the most frequently used data format on the web is XML, but XML is very complicated. It makes users inconvenient to process embedded in Web pages.

To make JavaScript can easily exchange data, even as the data processing program, we use the wording according to JavaScript objects and developed a simple data exchange format, which is JSON. JSON can be used as data, or as a JavaScript program.

JSON can be directly embedded in JavaScript, using them you can directly execute certain JSON program, but due to security constraints, the browser Sandbox mechanism disables cross-domain JSON code execution.

To make JSON can be passed after the execution, we developed a JSONP. JSONP bypass the security limits of the browser with JavaScript Callback functionality and the < script > tag.

So in short it explains what JSONP is, what problem it solves (when to use it).





jquery jsonp asp.net-mvc-4 asp.net-web-api