oop - when - Constructors vs Factory Methods

when to use static factory method (7)

When modelling classes, what is the preferred way of initializing:

  1. Constructors, or
  2. Factory Methods

And what would be the considerations for using either of them?

In certain situations, I prefer having a factory method which returns null if the object cannot be constructed. This makes the code neat. I can simply check if the returned value is not null before taking alternative action, in contrast with throwing an exception from the constructor. (I personally don't like exceptions)

Say, I have a constructor on a class which expects an id value. The constructor uses this value to populate the class from the database. In the case where a record with the specified id does not exist, the constructor throws a RecordNotFoundException. In this case I will have to enclose the construction of all such classes within a try..catch block.

In contrast to this I can have a static factory method on those classes which will return null if the record is not found.

Which approach is better in this case, constructor or factory method?

Say, I have a constructor on a class which expects an id value. The constructor uses this value to populate the class from the database.

This process should definitely be outside a constructor.

  1. Constructor should not access database.

  2. The task and the reason for a constructor is to initialize data members and to establish class invariant using values passed into constructor.

  3. For everything else a better approach is to use static factory method or in more complex cases a separate factory or builder class.

Some constructor guide lines from Microsoft:

Do minimal work in the constructor. Constructors should not do much work other than to capture the constructor parameters. The cost of any other processing should be delayed until required.


Consider using a static factory method instead of a constructor if the semantics of the desired operation do not map directly to the construction of a new instance.

A cite from "Effective Java", 2nd ed., Item 1: Consider static factory methods instead of constructors, p. 5:

"Note that a static factory method is not the same as the Factory Method pattern from Design Patterns [Gamma95, p. 107]. The static factory method described in this item has no direct equivalent in Design Patterns."

Ask yourself what they are and why do we have them. They both are there to create instance of an object.

ElementarySchool school = new ElementarySchool();
ElementarySchool school = SchoolFactory.Construct(); // new ElementarySchool() inside

No difference so far. Now imagine that we have various school types and we want to switch from using ElementarySchool to HighSchool (which is derived from an ElementarySchool or implements the same interface ISchool as the ElementarySchool). The code change would be:

HighSchool school = new HighSchool();
HighSchool school = SchoolFactory.Construct(); // new HighSchool() inside

In case of an interface we would have:

ISchool school = new HighSchool();
ISchool school = SchoolFactory.Construct(); // new HighSchool() inside

Now if you have this code in multiple places you can see that using factory method might be pretty cheap because once you change the factory method you are done (if we use the second example with interfaces).

And this is the main difference and advantage. When you start dealing with a complex class hierarchies and you want to dynamically create an instance of a class from such a hierarchy you get the following code. Factory methods might then take a parameter that tells the method what concrete instance to instantiate. Let's say you have a MyStudent class and you need to instantiate corresponding ISchool object so that your student is a member of that school.

ISchool school = SchoolFactory.ConstructForStudent(myStudent);

Now you have one place in your app that contains business logic that determines what ISchool object to instantiate for different IStudent objects.

So - for simple classes (value objects, etc.) constructor is just fine (you don't want to overengineer your application) but for complex class hierarchies factory method is a preferred way.

This way you follow the first design principle from the gang of four book "Program to an interface, not an implementation".

By default, constructors should be preferred, because they are simpler to understand and write. However, if you specifically need to decouple the construction niceties of an object from its semantic meaning as understood by the client code, you'd be better off using factories.

The difference between constructors and factories is analogous to, say, a variable and a pointer to a variable. There's another level of indirection, which is a disadvantage; but there's another level of flexibility too, which is an advantage. So while making a choice, you'd be well advised to do this cost versus benefit analysis.

In addition to "effective java" (as mentioned in another answer), "clean code" also states that: prefer static factory methods (with names that describe the arguments) instead of overloaded constructors. Eg, don't write

Complex complex = new Complex(23.0);

but instead write

Complex complex = Complex.fromRealNumber(23.0);

The book goes as far as to suggest making the Complex(float) constructor private, to force the user to call the static factory method.

Sometimes you have to check/calculate some values/conditions while creating an object. And if it can throw an Exception - constructro is very bad way. So you need to do something like this:

var value = new Instance(1, 2).init()
public function init() {
    try {
    catch (e) {

Where all additional calculations are in init(). But only you as developer realy know about this init(). And of course, after months you just forget about it. But if you have a factory - just do all you need in one method with hiding this init() from direct call - so no problems. With this approach is no problems with falling on creation and memory leaking.

Someone told you about caching. It's good. But you also have to remember about Flyweight pattern which is nice to use with Factory way.

You need to read (if you have access to) Effective Java 2 Item 1: Consider static factory methods instead of constructors.

Static factory methods advantages:

  1. They have names.
  2. They are not required to create a new object each time they are invoked.
  3. They can return an object of any subtype of their return type.
  4. They reduce verbosity of creating parameterized type instances.

Static factory methods disadvantages:

  1. When providing only static factory methods, classes without public or protected constructors cannot be subclassed.
  2. They are not readily distinguishable from other static methods