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Interface vs Abstract Class(general OO) (20)

  1. Interface:
    • We do not implement (or define) methods, we do that in derived classes.
    • We do not declare member variables in interfaces.
    • Interfaces express the HAS-A relationship. That means they are a mask of objects.
  2. Abstract class:
    • We can declare and define methods in abstract class.
    • We hide constructors of it. That means there is no object created from it directly.
    • Abstract class can hold member variables.
    • Derived classes inherit to abstract class that mean objects from derived classes are not masked, it inherit to abstract class. The relationship in this case is IS-A.

This is my opinion.

I have had recently two telephone interviews where I've been asked about the differences between an Interface and an Abstract class. I have explained every aspect of them I could think of, but it seems they are waiting for me to mention something specific, and I don't know what it is.

From my experience I think the following is true. If I am missing a major point please let me know.


Every single Method declared in an Interface will have to be implemented in the subclass. Only Events, Delegates, Properties (C#) and Methods can exist in a Interface. A class can implement multiple Interfaces.

Abstract Class:

Only Abstract methods have to be implemented by the subclass. An Abstract class can have normal methods with implementations. Abstract class can also have class variables beside Events, Delegates, Properties and Methods. A class can only implement one abstract class only due non-existence of Multi-inheritance in C#.

  1. After all that, the interviewer came up with the question "What if you had an Abstract class with only abstract methods? How would that be different from an interface?" I didn't know the answer but I think it's the inheritance as mentioned above right?

  2. An another interviewer asked me what if you had a Public variable inside the interface, how would that be different than in Abstract Class? I insisted you can't have a public variable inside an interface. I didn't know what he wanted to hear but he wasn't satisfied either.

See Also:

1) An interface can be seen as a pure Abstract Class, is the same, but despite this, is not the same to implement an interface and inheriting from an abstract class. When you inherit from this pure abstract class you are defining a hierarchy -> inheritance, if you implement the interface you are not, and you can implement as many interfaces as you want, but you can only inherit from one class.

2) You can define a property in an interface, so the class that implements that interface must have that property.

For example:

  public interface IVariable
      string name {get; set;}

The class that implements that interface must have a property like that.

Abstract class And Interface Difference :

  1. Abstract class can have abstract and non-abstract methods and Interface can have only abstract methods.
  2. Abstract class doesn't support multiple inheritance And Interface supports multiple inheritance.
  3. Abstract class can have final, non-final, static and non-static variables And Interface has only static and final variables.
  4. Abstract class can have static methods, main method and constructor And Interface can't have static methods, main method or constructor.
  5. Abstract class can provide the implementation of interface And Interface can't provide the implementation of abstract class.
  6. The abstract keyword is used to declare abstract class And The interface keyword is used to declare interface.
  7. Abstract class achieves partial abstraction (0 to 100%) because there are non abstract methods also in abstract class whereas interface achieves fully abstraction (100%).

Consider a car and a bus. They are two different vehicles. But still, they share some common properties like they have a steering, brakes, gears, engine etc.
So with the inheritance concept, this can be represented as following ...

public class Vehicle {
    private Driver driver;
    private Seat[] seatArray; //In java and most of the Object Oriented Programming(OOP) languages, square brackets are used to denote arrays(Collections).
    //You can define as many properties as you want here ...

Now a Bicycle ...

public class Bicycle extends Vehicle {
    //You define properties which are unique to bicycles here ...
    private Pedal pedal;

And a Car ...

public class Car extends Vehicle {
    private Engine engine;
    private Door[] doors;

That's all about Inheritance. We use them to classify objects into simpler Base forms and their children as we saw above.

Abstract Classes

Abstract classes are incomplete objects. To understand it further, let's consider the vehicle analogy once again.
A vehicle can be driven. Right? But different vehicles are driven in different ways ... For example, You cannot drive a car just as you drive a Bicycle.
So how to represent the drive function of a vehicle? It is harder to check what type of vehicle it is and drive it with its own function; you would have to change the Driver class again and again when adding a new type of vehicle.
Here comes the role of abstract classes and methods. You can define the drive method as abstract to tell that every inheriting children must implement this function.
So if you modify the vehicle class ...

//......Code of Vehicle Class
abstract public void drive();
//.....Code continues

The Bicycle and Car must also specify how to drive it. Otherwise, the code won't compile and an error is thrown.
In short.. an abstract class is a partially incomplete class with some incomplete functions, which the inheriting children must specify their own.

Interfaces Interfaces are totally incomplete. They do not have any properties. They just indicate that the inheriting children are capable of doing something ...
Suppose you have different types of mobile phones with you. Each of them has different ways to do different functions; Ex: call a person. The maker of the phone specifies how to do it. Here the mobile phones can dial a number - that is, it is dial-able. Let's represent this as an interface.

public interface Dialable {
    public void dial(Number n);

Here the maker of the Dialable defines how to dial a number. You just need to give it a number to dial.

// Makers define how exactly dialable work inside.

Dialable PHONE1 = new Dialable() {
    public void dial(Number n) {
        //Do the phone1's own way to dial a number

Dialable PHONE2 = new Dialable() {
    public void dial(Number n) {
        //Do the phone2's own way to dial a number

//Suppose there is a function written by someone else, which expects a Dialable
public static void main(String[] args) {
    Dialable myDialable = SomeLibrary.PHONE1;

Hereby using interfaces instead of abstract classes, the writer of the function which uses a Dialable need not worry about its properties. Ex: Does it have a touch-screen or dial pad, Is it a fixed landline phone or mobile phone. You just need to know if it is dialable; does it inherit(or implement) the Dialable interface.

And more importantly, if someday you switch the Dialable with a different one

public static void main(String[] args) {
    Dialable myDialable = SomeLibrary.PHONE2; // <-- changed from PHONE1 to PHONE2

You can be sure that the code still works perfectly because the function which uses the dialable does not (and cannot) depend on the details other than those specified in the Dialable interface. They both implement a Dialable interface and that's the only thing the function cares about.

Interfaces are commonly used by developers to ensure interoperability(use interchangeably) between objects, as far as they share a common function (just like you may change to a landline or mobile phone, as far as you just need to dial a number). In short, interfaces are a much simpler version of abstract classes, without any properties.
Also, note that you may implement(inherit) as many interfaces as you want but you may only extend(inherit) a single parent class.

More Info Abstract classes vs Interfaces

An interface defines a contract for a service or set of services. They provide polymorphism in a horizontal manner in that two completely unrelated classes can implement the same interface but be used interchangeably as a parameter of the type of interface they implement, as both classes have promised to satisfy the set of services defined by the interface. Interfaces provide no implementation details.

An abstract class defines a base structure for its sublcasses, and optionally partial implementation. Abstract classes provide polymorphism in a vertical, but directional manner, in that any class that inherits the abstract class can be treated as an instance of that abstract class but not the other way around. Abstract classes can and often do contain implementation details, but cannot be instantiated on their own- only their subclasses can be "newed up".

C# does allow for interface inheritance as well, mind you.

Answer to the second question : public variable defined in interface is static final by default while the public variable in abstract class is an instance variable.

By implementing interfaces you are achieving composition ("has-a" relationships) instead of inheritance ("is-a" relationships). That is an important principle to remember when it comes to things like design patterns where you need to use interfaces to achieve a composition of behaviors instead of an inheritance.

Conceptually speaking, keeping the language specific implementation, rules, benefits and achieving any programming goal by using anyone or both, can or cant have code/data/property, blah blah, single or multiple inheritances, all aside

1- Abstract (or pure abstract) Class is meant to implement hierarchy. If your business objects look somewhat structurally similar, representing a parent-child (hierarchy) kind of relationship only then inheritance/Abstract classes will be used. If your business model does not have a hierarchy then inheritance should not be used (here I am not talking about programming logic e.g. some design patterns require inheritance). Conceptually, abstract class is a method to implement hierarchy of a business model in OOP, it has nothing to do with Interfaces, actually comparing Abstract class with Interface is meaningless because both are conceptually totally different things, it is asked in interviews just to check the concepts because it looks both provide somewhat same functionality when implementation is concerned and we programmers usually emphasize more on coding. [Keep this in mind as well that Abstraction is different than Abstract Class].

2- an Interface is a contract, a complete business functionality represented by one or more set of functions. That is why it is implemented and not inherited. A business object (part of a hierarchy or not) can have any number of complete business functionality. It has nothing to do with abstract classes means inheritance in general. For example, a human can RUN, an elephant can RUN, a bird can RUN, and so on, all these objects of different hierarchy would implement the RUN interface or EAT or SPEAK interface. Don't go into implementation as you might implement it as having abstract classes for each type implementing these interfaces. An object of any hierarchy can have a functionality(interface) which has nothing to do with its hierarchy.

I believe, Interfaces were not invented to achieve multiple inheritances or to expose public behavior, and similarly, pure abstract classes are not to overrule interfaces but Interface is a functionality that an object can do (via functions of that interface) and Abstract Class represents a parent of a hierarchy to produce children having core structure (property+functionality) of the parent

When you are asked about the difference, it is actually conceptual difference not the difference in language-specific implementation unless asked explicitly.

I believe, both interviewers were expecting one line straightforward difference between these two and when you failed they tried to drove you towards this difference by implementing ONE as the OTHER

What if you had an Abstract class with only abstract methods?

Difference between Java Interface and Abstract Class

  1. Main difference is methods of a Java interface are implicitly abstract and cannot have implementations. A Java abstract class can have instance methods that implements a default behavior.

  2. Variables declared in a Java interface is by default final. An abstract class may contain non-final variables.

  3. Members of a Java interface are public by default. A Java abstract class can have the usual flavors of class members like private, protected, etc..

  4. Java interface should be implemented using keyword “implements”; A Java abstract class should be extended using keyword “extends”.

  5. An interface can extend another Java interface only, an abstract class can extend another Java class and implement multiple Java interfaces.

  6. A Java class can implement multiple interfaces but it can extend only one abstract class.

  7. Interface is absolutely abstract and cannot be instantiated; A Java abstract class also cannot be instantiated, but can be invoked if a main() exists.

  8. In comparison with java abstract classes, java interfaces are slow as it requires extra indirection.

For .Net,

Your answer to The second interviewer is also the answer to the first one... Abstract classes can have implementation, AND state, interfaces cannot...

EDIT: On another note, I wouldn't even use the phrase 'subclass' (or the 'inheritance' phrase) to describe classes that are 'defined to implement' an interface. To me, an interface is a definition of a contract that a class must conform to if it has been defined to 'implement' that interface. It does not inherit anything... You have to add everything yourself, explicitly.

From another answer of mine, mostly dealing with when to use one versus the other:

In my experience, interfaces are best used when you have several classes which each need to respond to the same method or methods so that they can be used interchangeably by other code which will be written against those classes' common interface. The best use of an interface is when the protocol is important but the underlying logic may be different for each class. If you would otherwise be duplicating logic, consider abstract classes or standard class inheritance instead.

From Coding Perspective

An Interface can replace an Abstract Class if the Abstract Class has only abstract methods. Otherwise changing Abstract class to interface means that you will be losing out on code re-usability which Inheritance provides.

From Design Perspective

Keep it as an Abstract Class if it's an "Is a" relationship and you need a subset or all of the functionality. Keep it as Interface if it's a "Should Do" relationship.

Decide what you need: just the policy enforcement, or code re-usability AND policy.

I think the answer they are looking for is the fundamental or OPPS philosophical difference.

The abstract class inheritance is used when the derived class shares the core properties and behaviour of the abstract class. The kind of behaviour that actually defines the class.

On the other hand interface inheritance is used when the classes share peripheral behaviour, ones which do not necessarily define the derived class.

For eg. A Car and a Truck share a lot of core properties and behaviour of an Automobile abstract class, but they also share some peripheral behaviour like Generate exhaust which even non automobile classes like Drillers or PowerGenerators share and doesn't necessarily defines a Car or a Truck, so Car, Truck, Driller and PowerGenerator can all share the same interface IExhaust.

I think they didn't like your response because you gave the technical differences instead of design ones. The question is like a troll question for me. In fact, interfaces and abstract classes have a completely different nature so you cannot really compare them. I will give you my vision of what is the role of an interface and what is the role of an abstract class.

interface: is used to ensure a contract and make a low coupling between classes in order to have a more maintainable, scalable and testable application.

abstract class: is only used to factorize some code between classes of the same responsability. Note that this is the main reason why multiple-inheritance is a bad thing in OOP, because a class shouldn't handle many responsabilities (use composition instead).

So interfaces have a real architectural role whereas abstract classes are almost only a detail of implementation (if you use it correctly of course).

Interfaces are light weight way to enforce a particular behavior. That is one way to think of.

Most answers focus on the technical difference between Abstract Class and Interface, but since technically, an interface is basically a kind of abstract class (one without any data or implementation), I think the conceptual difference is far more interesting, and that might be what the interviewers are after.

An Interface is an agreement. It specifies: "this is how we're going to talk to each other". It can't have any implementation because it's not supposed to have any implementation. It's a contract. It's like the .h header files in C.

An Abstract Class is an incomplete implementation. A class may or may not implement an interface, and an abstract class doesn't have to implement it completely. An abstract class without any implementation is kind of useless, but totally legal.

Basically any class, abstract or not, is about what it is, whereas an interface is about how you use it. For example: Animal might be an abstract class implementing some basic metabolic functions, and specifying abstract methods for breathing and locomotion without giving an implementation, because it has no idea whether it should breathe through gills or lungs, and whether it flies, swims, walks or crawls. Mount, on the other hand, might be an Interface, which specifies that you can ride the animal, without knowing what kind of animal it is (or whether it's an animal at all!).

The fact that behind the scenes, an interface is basically an abstract class with only abstract methods, doesn't matter. Conceptually, they fill totally different roles.

The interviewers are barking up an odd tree. For languages like C# and Java, there is a difference, but in other languages like C++ there is not. OO theory doesn't differentiate the two, merely the syntax of language.

An abstract class is a class with both implementation and interface (pure virtual methods) that will be inherited. Interfaces generally do not have any implementation but only pure virtual functions.

In C# or Java an abstract class without any implementation differs from an interface only in the syntax used to inherit from it and the fact you can only inherit from one.

There are a couple of other differences -

Interfaces can't have any concrete implementations. Abstract base classes can. This allows you to provide concrete implementations there. This can allow an abstract base class to actually provide a more rigorous contract, wheras an interface really only describes how a class is used. (The abstract base class can have non-virtual members defining the behavior, which gives more control to the base class author.)

More than one interface can be implemented on a class. A class can only derive from a single abstract base class. This allows for polymorphic hierarchy using interfaces, but not abstract base classes. This also allows for a pseudo-multi-inheritance using interfaces.

Abstract base classes can be modified in v2+ without breaking the API. Changes to interfaces are breaking changes.

[C#/.NET Specific] Interfaces, unlike abstract base classes, can be applied to value types (structs). Structs cannot inherit from abstract base classes. This allows behavioral contracts/usage guidelines to be applied on value types.

While your question indicates it's for "general OO", it really seems to be focusing on .NET use of these terms.

In .NET (similar for Java):

  • interfaces can have no state or implementation
  • a class that implements an interface must provide an implementation of all the methods of that interface
  • abstract classes may contain state (data members) and/or implementation (methods)
  • abstract classes can be inherited without implementing the abstract methods (though such a derived class is abstract itself)
  • interfaces may be multiple-inherited, abstract classes may not (this is probably the key concrete reason for interfaces to exist separately from abtract classes - they permit an implementation of multiple inheritance that removes many of the problems of general MI).

As general OO terms, the differences are not necessarily well-defined. For example, there are C++ programmers who may hold similar rigid definitions (interfaces are a strict subset of abstract classes that cannot contain implementation), while some may say that an abstract class with some default implementations is still an interface or that a non-abstract class can still define an interface.

Indeed, there is a C++ idiom called the Non-Virtual Interface (NVI) where the public methods are non-virtual methods that 'thunk' to private virtual methods:

i will explain Depth Details of interface and Abstract class.if you know overview about interface and abstract class, then first question arrive in your mind when we should use Interface and when we should use Abstract class. So please check below explanation of Interface and Abstract class.

  1. When we should use Interface?

    if you don't know about implementation just we have requirement specification then we go with Interface

  2. When we should use Abstract Class?

    if you know implementation but not completely (partially implementation) then we go with Abstract class.


    every method by default public abstract means interface is 100% pure abstract.


    can have Concrete method and Abstract method, what is Concrete method, which have implementation in Abstract class, An abstract class is a class that is declared abstract—it may or may not include abstract methods.


    We cannot declared interface as a private, protected

    Q. Why we are not declaring Interface a private and protected?

    Because by default interface method is public abstract so and so that reason that we are not declaring the interface as private and protected.

    Interface method
    also we cannot declared interface as private,protected,final,static,synchronized,native.....

    i will give the reason: why we are not declaring synchronized method because we cannot create object of interface and synchronize are work on object so and son reason that we are not declaring the synchronized method Transient concept are also not applicable because transient work with synchronized.


    we are happily use with public,private final static.... means no restriction are applicable in abstract.


    Variables are declared in Interface as a by default public static final so we are also not declared variable as a private, protected.

    Volatile modifier is also not applicable in interface because interface variable is by default public static final and final variable you cannot change the value once it assign the value into variable and once you declared variable into interface you must to assign the variable.

    And volatile variable is keep on changes so it is opp. to final that is reason we are not use volatile variable in interface.


    Abstract variable no need to declared public static final.

i hope this article is useful.