javascript - with - multiline string java




Creating multiline strings in JavaScript (20)

ES6 Update:

As the first answer mentions, with ES6/Babel, you can now create multi-line strings simply by using backticks:

const htmlString = `Say hello to 
multi-line
strings!`;

Interpolating variables is a popular new feature that comes with back-tick delimited strings:

const htmlString = `${user.name} liked your post about strings`;

This just transpiles down to concatenation:

user.name + ' liked your post about strings'

Original ES5 answer:

Google's JavaScript style guide recommends to use string concatenation instead of escaping newlines:

Do not do this:

var myString = 'A rather long string of English text, an error message \
                actually that just keeps going and going -- an error \
                message to make the Energizer bunny blush (right through \
                those Schwarzenegger shades)! Where was I? Oh yes, \
                you\'ve got an error and all the extraneous whitespace is \
                just gravy.  Have a nice day.';

The whitespace at the beginning of each line can't be safely stripped at compile time; whitespace after the slash will result in tricky errors; and while most script engines support this, it is not part of ECMAScript.

Use string concatenation instead:

var myString = 'A rather long string of English text, an error message ' +
               'actually that just keeps going and going -- an error ' +
               'message to make the Energizer bunny blush (right through ' +
               'those Schwarzenegger shades)! Where was I? Oh yes, ' +
               'you\'ve got an error and all the extraneous whitespace is ' +
               'just gravy.  Have a nice day.';

I have the following code in Ruby. I want to convert this code into JavaScript. what's the equivalent code in JS?

text = <<"HERE"
This
Is
A
Multiline
String
HERE

Update:

ECMAScript 6 (ES6) introduces a new type of literal, namely template literals. They have many features, variable interpolation among others, but most importantly for this question, they can be multiline.

A template literal is delimited by backticks:

var html = `
  <div>
    <span>Some HTML here</span>
  </div>
`;

(Note: I'm not advocating to use HTML in strings)

Browser support is OK, but you can use transpilers to be more compatible.


Original ES5 answer:

Javascript doesn't have a here-document syntax. You can escape the literal newline, however, which comes close:

"foo \
bar"

Updated for 2015: it's six years later now: most people use a module loader, and the main module systems each have ways of loading templates. It's not inline, but the most common type of multiline string are templates, and templates should generally be kept out of JS anyway.

require.js: 'require text'.

Using require.js 'text' plugin, with a multiline template in template.html

var template = require('text!template.html')

NPM/browserify: the 'brfs' module

Browserify uses a 'brfs' module to load text files. This will actually build your template into your bundled HTML.

var fs = require("fs");
var template = fs.readFileSync(template.html', 'utf8');

Easy.


Also do note that, when extending string over multiple lines using forward backslash at end of each line, any extra characters (mostly spaces, tabs and comments added by mistake) after forward backslash will cause unexpected character error, which i took an hour to find out

var string = "line1\  // comment, space or tabs here raise error
line2";

Easiest way to make multiline strings in Javascrips is with the use of backticks ( `` ). This allows you to create multiline strings in which you can insert variables with ${variableName}.

Example:

let name = 'Willem'; 
let age = 26;

let multilineString = `
my name is: ${name}

my age is: ${age}
`;

console.log(multilineString);

compatibility :

  • It was introduces in ES6//es2015
  • It is now natively supported by all major browser vendors (except internet explorer)

Check exact compatibility in Mozilla docs here


I came up with this very jimmy rigged method of a multi lined string. Since converting a function into a string also returns any comments inside the function you can use the comments as your string using a multilined comment /**/. You just have to trim off the ends and you have your string.

var myString = function(){/*
    This is some
    awesome multi-lined
    string using a comment 
    inside a function 
    returned as a string.
    Enjoy the jimmy rigged code.
*/}.toString().slice(14,-3)

alert(myString)

I solved this by outputting a div, making it hidden, and calling the div id by jQuery when I needed it.

e.g.

<div id="UniqueID" style="display:none;">
     Strings
     On
     Multiple
     Lines
     Here
</div>

Then when I need to get the string, I just use the following jQuery:

$('#UniqueID').html();

Which returns my text on multiple lines. If I call

alert($('#UniqueID').html());

I get:


I think this workaround should work in IE, Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera -

Using jQuery :

<xmp id="unique_id" style="display:none;">
  Some plain text
  Both type of quotes :  " ' " And  ' " '
  JS Code : alert("Hello World");
  HTML Code : <div class="some_class"></div>
</xmp>
<script>
   alert($('#unique_id').html());
</script>

Using Pure Javascript :

<xmp id="unique_id" style="display:none;">
  Some plain text
  Both type of quotes :  " ' " And  ' " '
  JS Code : alert("Hello World");
  HTML Code : <div class="some_class"></div>
</xmp>
<script>
   alert(document.getElementById('unique_id').innerHTML);
</script>

Cheers!!


If you happen to be running in Node only, you could use the fs module to read in the multi-line string from a file:

var diagram;
var fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile( __dirname + '/diagram.txt', function (err, data) {
  if (err) {
    throw err; 
  }
  diagram = data.toString();
});

If you're willing to use the escaped newlines, they can be used nicely. It looks like a document with a page border.


My extension to https://.com/a/15558082/80404. It expects comment in a form /*! any multiline comment */ where symbol ! is used to prevent removing by minification (at least for YUI compressor)

Function.prototype.extractComment = function() {
    var startComment = "/*!";
    var endComment = "*/";
    var str = this.toString();

    var start = str.indexOf(startComment);
    var end = str.lastIndexOf(endComment);

    return str.slice(start + startComment.length, -(str.length - end));
};

Example:

var tmpl = function() { /*!
 <div class="navbar-collapse collapse">
    <ul class="nav navbar-nav">
    </ul>
 </div>
*/}.extractComment();

My version of array-based join for string concat:

var c = []; //c stands for content
c.push("<div id='thisDiv' style='left:10px'></div>");
c.push("<div onclick='showDo(\'something\');'></div>");
$(body).append(c.join('\n'));

This has worked well for me, especially as I often insert values into the html constructed this way. But it has lots of limitations. Indentation would be nice. Not having to deal with nested quotation marks would be really nice, and just the bulkyness of it bothers me.

Is the .push() to add to the array taking up a lot of time? See this related answer:

(Is there a reason JavaScript developers don't use Array.push()?)

After looking at these (opposing) test runs, it looks like .push() is fine for string arrays which will not likely grow over 100 items - I will avoid it in favor of indexed adds for larger arrays.


The equivalent in javascript is:

var text = `
This
Is
A
Multiline
String
`;

Here's the specification. See browser support at the bottom of this page. Here are some examples too.


There are multiple ways to achieve this

1. Slash concatenation

  var MultiLine=  '1\
    2\
    3\
    4\
    5\
    6\
    7\
    8\
    9';

2. regular concatenation

var MultiLine = '1'
+'2'
+'3'
+'4'
+'5';

3. Array Join concatenation

var MultiLine = [
'1',
'2',
'3',
'4',
'5'
].join('');

Performance wise, Slash concatenation (first one) is the fastest.

Refer this test case for more details regarding the performance

Update:

With the ES2015, we can take advantage of its Template strings feature. With it, we just need to use back-ticks for creating multi line strings

Example:

 `<h1>{{title}}</h1>
  <h2>{{hero.name}} details!</h2>
  <div><label>id: </label>{{hero.id}}</div>
  <div><label>name: </label>{{hero.name}}</div>
  `

This works in IE, Safari, Chrome and Firefox:

<script type="text/javascript" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.4.4/jquery.min.js"></script>
<div class="crazy_idea" thorn_in_my_side='<table  border="0">
                        <tr>
                            <td ><span class="mlayouttablecellsdynamic">PACKAGE price $65.00</span></td>
                        </tr>
                    </table>'></div>
<script type="text/javascript">
    alert($(".crazy_idea").attr("thorn_in_my_side"));
</script>

Using script tags:

  • add a <script>...</script> block containing your multiline text into head tag;
  • get your multiline text as is... (watch out for text encoding: UTF-8, ASCII)

    <script>
    
        // pure javascript
        var text = document.getElementById("mySoapMessage").innerHTML ;
    
        // using JQuery's document ready for safety
        $(document).ready(function() {
    
            var text = $("#mySoapMessage").html(); 
    
        });
    
    </script>
    
    <script id="mySoapMessage" type="text/plain">
    
        <soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" xmlns:typ="...">
           <soapenv:Header/>
           <soapenv:Body>
              <typ:getConvocadosElement>
                 ...
              </typ:getConvocadosElement>
           </soapenv:Body>
        </soapenv:Envelope>
    
        <!-- this comment will be present on your string -->
        //uh-oh, javascript comments...  SOAP request will fail 
    
    
    </script>
    

You can do this...

var string = 'This is\n' +
'a multiline\n' + 
'string';

You can use TypeScript (JavaScript SuperSet), it supports multiline strings, and transpiles back down to pure JavaScript without overhead:

var templates = {
    myString: `this is
a multiline
string` 
}

alert(templates.myString);

If you'd want to accomplish the same with plain JavaScript:

var templates = 
{
 myString: function(){/*
    This is some
    awesome multi-lined
    string using a comment 
    inside a function 
    returned as a string.
    Enjoy the jimmy rigged code.
*/}.toString().slice(14,-3)

}
alert(templates.myString)

Note that the iPad/Safari does not support 'functionName.toString()'

If you have a lot of legacy code, you can also use the plain JavaScript variant in TypeScript (for cleanup purposes):

interface externTemplates
{
    myString:string;
}

declare var templates:externTemplates;

alert(templates.myString)

and you can use the multiline-string object from the plain JavaScript variant, where you put the templates into another file (which you can merge in the bundle).

You can try TypeScript at
http://www.typescriptlang.org/Playground


You have to use the concatenation operator '+'.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Document</title>
</head>
<body>
    <p id="demo"></p>
    <script>
        var str = "This "
                + "\n<br>is "
                + "\n<br>multiline "
                + "\n<br>string.";
        document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = str;
     </script>
</body>
</html>

By using \n your source code will look like -

This 
 <br>is
 <br>multiline
 <br>string.

By using <br> your browser output will look like -

This
is
multiline
string.

the pattern text = <<"HERE" This Is A Multiline String HERE is not available in js (I remember using it much in my good old Perl days).

To keep oversight with complex or long multiline strings I sometimes use an array pattern:

var myString = 
   ['<div id="someId">',
    'some content<br />',
    '<a href="#someRef">someRefTxt</a>',
    '</div>'
   ].join('\n');

or the pattern anonymous already showed (escape newline), which can be an ugly block in your code:

    var myString = 
       '<div id="someId"> \
some content<br /> \
<a href="#someRef">someRefTxt</a> \
</div>';

Here's another weird but working 'trick'1:

var myString = (function () {/*
   <div id="someId">
     some content<br />
     <a href="#someRef">someRefTxt</a>
    </div>        
*/}).toString().match(/[^]*\/\*([^]*)\*\/\}$/)[1];

external edit: jsfiddle

ES20xx supports spanning strings over multiple lines using template strings:

let str = `This is a text
    with multiple lines.
    Escapes are interpreted,
    \n is a newline.`;
let str = String.raw`This is a text
    with multiple lines.
    Escapes are not interpreted,
    \n is not a newline.`;

1 Note: this will be lost after minifying/obfuscating your code





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