java xss - What are the Xms and Xmx parameters when starting JVMs?




xmn default (5)

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Please explain the use of Xms and Xmx parameters in JVMs. What are the default values for them?


Answers

Run the command java -X and you will get a list of all -X options:

C:\Users\Admin>java -X
-Xmixed           mixed mode execution (default)
-Xint             interpreted mode execution only
-Xbootclasspath:<directories and zip/jar files separated by ;>
                      set search path for bootstrap classes and resources
-Xbootclasspath/a:<directories and zip/jar files separated by ;>
                      append to end of bootstrap class path
-Xbootclasspath/p:<directories and zip/jar files separated by ;>
                      prepend in front of bootstrap class path
-Xdiag            show additional diagnostic messages
-Xnoclassgc       disable class garbage collection
-Xincgc           enable incremental garbage collection
-Xloggc:<file>    log GC status to a file with time stamps
-Xbatch           disable background compilation
-Xms<size>        set initial Java heap size.........................
-Xmx<size>        set maximum Java heap size.........................
-Xss<size>        set java thread stack size
-Xprof            output cpu profiling data
-Xfuture          enable strictest checks, anticipating future default
-Xrs              reduce use of OS signals by Java/VM (see documentation)
-Xcheck:jni       perform additional checks for JNI functions
-Xshare:off       do not attempt to use shared class data
-Xshare:auto      use shared class data if possible (default)
-Xshare:on        require using shared class data, otherwise fail.
-XshowSettings    show all settings and continue
-XshowSettings:all         show all settings and continue
-XshowSettings:vm          show all vm related settings and continue
-XshowSettings:properties  show all property settings and continue
-XshowSettings:locale      show all locale related settings and continue

The -X options are non-standard and subject to change without notice.

I hope this will help you understand Xms, Xmx as well as many more other things that matters the most. :)


The flag Xmx specifies the maximum memory allocation pool for a Java virtual machine (JVM), while Xms specifies the initial memory allocation pool.

This means that your JVM will be started with Xms amount of memory and will be able to use a maximum of Xmx amount of memory. For example, starting a JVM like below will start it with 256 MB of memory and will allow the process to use up to 2048 MB of memory:

java -Xms256m -Xmx2048m

The memory flag can also be specified in multiple sizes, such as kilobytes, megabytes, and so on.

-Xmx1024k
-Xmx512m
-Xmx8g

The Xms flag has no default value, and Xmx typically has a default value of 256 MB. A common use for these flags is when you encounter a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError.

When using these settings, keep in mind that these settings are for the JVM's heap, and that the JVM can/will use more memory than just the size allocated to the heap. From Oracle's documentation:

Note that the JVM uses more memory than just the heap. For example Java methods, thread stacks and native handles are allocated in memory separate from the heap, as well as JVM internal data structures.



You can specify it in your IDE. For example, for Eclipse in Run ConfigurationsVM arguments. You enter -Xmx800m -Xms500m:


Pure speculation is that you're using a terminal that attempts to do word-wrapping rather than character-wrapping, and treats B as a word character but # as a non-word character. So when it reaches the end of a line and searches for a place to break the line, it sees a # almost immediately and happily breaks there; whereas with the B, it has to keep searching for longer, and may have more text to wrap (which may be expensive on some terminals, e.g., outputting backspaces, then outputting spaces to overwrite the letters being wrapped).

But that's pure speculation.







java memory-management parameters jvm