specific - undo last commit git




How do I undo the most recent commits in Git? (20)

How to fix the previous local commit

Use git-gui (or similar) to perform a git commit --amend. From the GUI you can add or remove individual files from the commit. You can also modify the commit message.

How to undo the previous local commit

Just reset your branch to the previous location (for example, using gitk or git rebase). Then reapply your changes from a saved copy. After garbage collection in your local repository, it will be like the unwanted commit never happened. To do all of that in a single command, use git reset HEAD~1.

Word of warning: Careless use of git reset is a good way to get your working copy into a confusing state. I recommend that Git novices avoid this if they can.

How to undo a public commit

Perform a reverse cherry pick (git-revert) to undo the changes.

If you haven't yet pulled other changes onto your branch, you can simply do...

git revert --no-edit HEAD

Then push your updated branch to the shared repository.

The commit history will show both commits, separately.


Advanced: Correction of private branch in public repository

This can be dangerous -- be sure you have a local copy of the branch to repush.

Also note: You don't want to do this if someone else may be working on the branch.

git push --delete (branch_name) ## remove public version of branch

Cleanup your branch locally then repush...

git push origin (branch_name)

In the normal case, you probably needn't worry about your private-branch commit history being pristine. Just push a followup commit (see 'How to undo a public commit' above), and later, do a squash-merge to hide the history.

I accidentally committed the wrong files to Git, but I haven't pushed the commit to the server yet.

How can I undo those commits from the local repository?


To change the last commit

Replace the files in the index:

git rm --cached *.class
git add *.java

Then, if it's a private branch, amend the commit:

git commit --amend

Or, if it's a shared branch, make a new commit:

git commit -m 'Replace .class files with .java files'


(to change a previous commit, use the awesome interactive rebase)


ProTip™:   Add *.class to a gitignore to stop this happening again.


To revert a commit

Amending a commit is the ideal solution if you need to change the last commit, but a more general solution is reset.

You can reset git to any commit with:

git reset @~N

Where N is the number of commits before HEAD, and @~ resets to the previous commit.

So, instead of amending the commit, you could use:

git reset @~
git add *.java
git commit -m "Add .java files"

Check out git help reset, specifically the sections on --soft --mixed and --hard, for a better understanding of what this does.

Reflog

If you mess up, you can always use the reflog to find dropped commits:

$ git reset @~
$ git reflog
c4f708b [email protected]{0}: reset: moving to @~
2c52489 [email protected]{1}: commit: added some .class files
$ git reset 2c52489
... and you're back where you started



Undo a commit and redo

$ git commit -m "Something terribly misguided"             # (1)
$ git reset HEAD~                                          # (2)
<< edit files as necessary >>                              # (3)
$ git add ...                                              # (4)
$ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD                                  # (5)
  1. This is what you want to undo
  2. This leaves your working tree (the state of your files on disk) unchanged but undoes the commit and leaves the changes you committed unstaged (so they'll appear as "Changes not staged for commit" in git status, and you'll need to add them again before committing). If you only want to add more changes to the previous commit, or change the commit message1, you could use git reset --soft HEAD~ instead, which is like git reset HEAD~ (where HEAD~ is the same as HEAD~1) but leaves your existing changes staged.
  3. Make corrections to working tree files.
  4. git add anything that you want to include in your new commit.
  5. Commit the changes, reusing the old commit message. reset copied the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; commit with -c ORIG_HEAD will open an editor, which initially contains the log message from the old commit and allows you to edit it. If you do not need to edit the message, you could use the -C option.

Beware however that if you have added any new changes to the index, using commit --amend will add them to your previous commit.

If the code is already pushed to your server and you have permissions to overwrite history (rebase) then:

git push origin master --force

You can also look at this answer:

How to move HEAD back to a previous location? (Detached head)

The above answer will show you git reflog which is used to find out what is the SHA-1 which you wish to revert to. Once you found the point to which you wish to undo to use the sequence of commands as explained above.


1 Note, however, that you don't need to reset to an earlier commit if you just made a mistake in your commit message. The easier option is to git reset (to upstage any changes you've made since) and then git commit --amend, which will open your default commit message editor pre-populated with the last commit message.


"Reset the working tree to the last commit"

git reset --hard HEAD^ 

"Clean unknown files from the working tree"

git clean    

see - Git Quick Reference

NOTE: This command will delete your previous commit, so use with caution! git reset --hard is safer –


A single command:

git reset --soft 'HEAD^' 

It works great to undo the last local commit!


Add/remove files to get things the way you want:

git rm classdir
git add sourcedir

Then amend the commit:

git commit --amend

The previous, erroneous commit will be edited to reflect the new index state - in other words, it'll be like you never made the mistake in the first place.

Note that you should only do this if you haven't pushed yet. If you have pushed, then you'll just have to commit a fix normally.


First run:

git reflog

It will show you all the possible actions you have performed on your repository, for example, commit, merge, pull, etc.

Then do:

git reset --hard ActionIdFromRefLog

I prefer to use git rebase -i for this job, because a nice list pops up where I can choose the commits to get rid of. It might not be as direct as some other answers here, but it just feels right.

Choose how many commits you want to list, then invoke like this (to enlist last three)

git rebase -i HEAD~3

Sample list

pick aa28ba7 Sanity check for RtmpSrv port
pick c26c541 RtmpSrv version option
pick 58d6909 Better URL decoding support

Then git will remove commits for any line that you remove.


If you are planning to undo a local commit entirely, whatever you change you did on the commit, and if you don't worry anything about that, just do the following command.

git reset --hard HEAD^1

(This command will ignore your entire commit and your changes will be lost completely from your local working tree). If you want to undo your commit, but you want your changes in the staging area (before commit just like after git add) then do the following command.

git reset --soft HEAD^1

Now your committed files come into the staging area. Suppose if you want to upstage the files, because you need to edit some wrong content, then do the following command

git reset HEAD

Now committed files to come from the staged area into the unstaged area. Now files are ready to edit, so whatever you change, you want to go edit and added it and make a fresh/new commit.

More


If you have Git Extras installed, you can run git undo to undo the latest commit. git undo 3 will undo the last 3 commits.


If you want remove files in the last commit, you can use this:

git reset --hard HEAD~1

And if need files in the last commit, you can use this:

git reset --soft HEAD~1

If you want to permanently undo it and you have cloned some repository

The commit id can be seen by

git log 

Then you can do -

git reset --hard <commit_id>

git push origin <branch_name> -f

Just reset it doing the command below using git:

git reset --soft HEAD~1

Explain: what git reset does, it's basically reset to any commit you'd like to go back to, then if you combine it with --soft key, it will go back, but keep the changes in your file(s), so you get back to the stage which the file was just added, HEAD is the head of the branch and if you combine with ~1 (in this case you also use HEAD^), it will go back only one commit which what you want...

I create the steps in the image below in more details for you, including all steps that may happens in real situations and committing the code:


On SourceTree (GUI for GitHub), you may right-click the commit and do a 'Reverse Commit'. This should undo your changes.

On the terminal:

You may alternatively use:

git revert

Or:

git reset --soft HEAD^ # Use --soft if you want to keep your changes.
git reset --hard HEAD^ # Use --hard if you don't care about keeping your changes.

There are many ways to do it:

Git command to undo the last commit/ previous commits:

Warning: Do Not use --hard if you do not know what you are doing. --hard is too dangerous, and it might delete your files.

Basic command to revert the commit in Git is:

$ git reset --hard <COMMIT -ID>

or

$ git reset --hard HEAD~<n>

COMMIT-ID: ID for the commit

n: is number of last commits you want to revert

You can get the commit id as shown below:

$ **git log --oneline**

d81d3f1 function to subtract two numbers

be20eb8 function to add two numbers

bedgfgg function to mulitply two numbers

where d81d3f1 and be20eb8 are commit id.

Now let's see some cases:

Suppose you want to revert the last commit 'd81d3f1'. Here are two options:

$ git reset --hard d81d3f1

or

$ git reset --hard HEAD~1

Suppose you want to revert the commit 'be20eb8':

$ git reset --hard be20eb8

For more detailed information you can refer and try out some other commands too for resetting head to a specified state:

$ git reset --help

There are two main scenarios

You haven't pushed the commit yet

If the problem was extra files you commited (and you don't want those on repository), you can remove them using git rm and then commiting with --amend

git rm <pathToFile>

You can also remove entire directories with -r, or even combine with other Bash commands

git rm -r <pathToDirectory>
git rm $(find -name '*.class')

After removing the files, you can commit, with --amend option

git commit --amend -C HEAD # the -C option is to use the same commit message

This will rewrite your recent local commit removing the extra files, so, these files will never be sent on push and also will be removed from your local .git repository by GC.

You already pushed the commit

You can apply the same solution of the other scenario and then doing git push with the -f option, but it is not recommended since it overwrites the remote history with a divergent change (it can mess your repository).

Instead, you have to do the commit without --amend (remember this about -amend`: That option rewrites the history on the last commit).


Type git log and find the last commit hash code and then enter:

git reset <the previous co>

Undoing a commit is a little scary if you don't know how it works. But it's actually amazingly easy if you do understand.

Say you have this, where C is your HEAD and (F) is the state of your files.

   (F)
A-B-C
    ↑
  master

You want to nuke commit C and never see it again. You do this:

git reset --hard HEAD~1

The result is:

 (F)
A-B
  ↑
master

Now B is the HEAD. Because you used --hard, your files are reset to their state at commit B.

Ah, but suppose commit C wasn't a disaster, but just a bit off. You want to undo the commit but keep your changes for a bit of editing before you do a better commit. Starting again from here, with C as your HEAD:

   (F)
A-B-C
    ↑
  master

You can do this, leaving off the --hard:

git reset HEAD~1

In this case the result is:

   (F)
A-B-C
  ↑
master

In both cases, HEAD is just a pointer to the latest commit. When you do a git reset HEAD~1, you tell Git to move the HEAD pointer back one commit. But (unless you use --hard) you leave your files as they were. So now git status shows the changes you had checked into C. You haven't lost a thing!

For the lightest touch, you can even undo your commit but leave your files and your index:

git reset --soft HEAD~1

This not only leaves your files alone, it even leaves your index alone. When you do git status, you'll see that the same files are in the index as before. In fact, right after this command, you could do git commit and you'd be redoing the same commit you just had.

One more thing: Suppose you destroy a commit as in the first example, but then discover you needed it after all? Tough luck, right?

Nope, there's still a way to get it back. Type git reflog and you'll see a list of (partial) commit shas that you've moved around in. Find the commit you destroyed, and do this:

git checkout -b someNewBranchName shaYouDestroyed

You've now resurrected that commit. Commits don't actually get destroyed in Git for some 90 days, so you can usually go back and rescue one you didn't mean to get rid of.


Use git revert commit-id

To get the commit ID, just use git log


Use reflog to find a correct state

git reflog

REFLOG BEFORE RESET

Select the correct reflog (f3cb6e2 in my case) and type

git reset --hard f3cb6e2

After that the repo HEAD will be reset to that HEADid LOG AFTER RESET

Finally the reflog looks like the picture below

REFLOG FINAL





git-revert