python - with - How to read/process command line arguments?




run python script with arguments (12)

As you can see optparse "The optparse module is deprecated with and will not be developed further; development will continue with the argparse module."


I like getopt from stdlib, eg:

try:
    opts, args = getopt.getopt(sys.argv[1:], 'h', ['help'])
except getopt.GetoptError, err: 
    usage(err)

for opt, arg in opts:
    if opt in ('-h', '--help'): 
        usage()

if len(args) != 1:
    usage("specify thing...")

Lately I have been wrapping something similiar to this to make things less verbose (eg; making "-h" implicit).


I use optparse myself, but really like the direction Simon Willison is taking with his recently introduced optfunc library. It works by:

"introspecting a function definition (including its arguments and their default values) and using that to construct a command line argument parser."

So, for example, this function definition:

def geocode(s, api_key='', geocoder='google', list_geocoders=False):

is turned into this optparse help text:

    Options:
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
      -l, --list-geocoders
      -a API_KEY, --api-key=API_KEY
      -g GEOCODER, --geocoder=GEOCODER

If you need something fast and not very flexible

main.py:

import sys

first_name = sys.argv[1]
last_name = sys.argv[2]
print("Hello " + first_name + " " + last_name)

Then run python main.py James Smith

to produce the following output:

Hello James Smith


My solution is entrypoint2. Example:

from entrypoint2 import entrypoint
@entrypoint
def add(file, quiet=True): 
    ''' This function writes report.

    :param file: write report to FILE
    :param quiet: don't print status messages to stdout
    '''
    print file,quiet

help text:

usage: report.py [-h] [-q] [--debug] file

This function writes report.

positional arguments:
  file         write report to FILE

optional arguments:
  -h, --help   show this help message and exit
  -q, --quiet  don't print status messages to stdout
  --debug      set logging level to DEBUG

One way to do it is using sys.argv. This will print the script name as the first argument and all the other parameters that you pass to it.

import sys

for arg in sys.argv:
    print arg

The docopt library is really slick. It builds an argument dict from the usage string for your app.

Eg from the docopt readme:

"""Naval Fate.

Usage:
  naval_fate.py ship new <name>...
  naval_fate.py ship <name> move <x> <y> [--speed=<kn>]
  naval_fate.py ship shoot <x> <y>
  naval_fate.py mine (set|remove) <x> <y> [--moored | --drifting]
  naval_fate.py (-h | --help)
  naval_fate.py --version

Options:
  -h --help     Show this screen.
  --version     Show version.
  --speed=<kn>  Speed in knots [default: 10].
  --moored      Moored (anchored) mine.
  --drifting    Drifting mine.

"""
from docopt import docopt


if __name__ == '__main__':
    arguments = docopt(__doc__, version='Naval Fate 2.0')
    print(arguments)

The canonical solution in the standard library is argparse (docs):

Here is an example:

from argparse import ArgumentParser

parser = ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument("-f", "--file", dest="filename",
                    help="write report to FILE", metavar="FILE")
parser.add_argument("-q", "--quiet",
                    action="store_false", dest="verbose", default=True,
                    help="don't print status messages to stdout")

args = parser.parse_args()

argparse supports (among other things):

  • Multiple options in any order.
  • Short and long options.
  • Default values.
  • Generation of a usage help message.

Yet another option is argh. It builds on argparse, and lets you write things like:

import argh

# declaring:

def echo(text):
    "Returns given word as is."
    return text

def greet(name, greeting='Hello'):
    "Greets the user with given name. The greeting is customizable."
    return greeting + ', ' + name

# assembling:

parser = argh.ArghParser()
parser.add_commands([echo, greet])

# dispatching:

if __name__ == '__main__':
    parser.dispatch()

It will automatically generate help and so on, and you can use decorators to provide extra guidance on how the arg-parsing should work.


You may be interested in a little Python module I wrote to make handling of command line arguments even easier (open source and free to use) - Commando


import argparse

parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='Process some integers.')
parser.add_argument('integers', metavar='N', type=int, nargs='+',
                   help='an integer for the accumulator')
parser.add_argument('--sum', dest='accumulate', action='store_const',
                   const=sum, default=max,
                   help='sum the integers (default: find the max)')

args = parser.parse_args()
print(args.accumulate(args.integers))

Assuming the Python code above is saved into a file called prog.py
$ python prog.py -h

Ref-link: https://docs.python.org/3.3/library/argparse.html

import sys

print("\n".join(sys.argv))

sys.argv is a list that contains all the arguments passed to the script on the command line.

Basically,

import sys
print(sys.argv[1:])




command-line-arguments