w3schools How do I perform an IF…THEN in an SQL SELECT?




sql select case (20)

How do I perform an IF...THEN in an SQL SELECT statement?

For example:

SELECT IF(Obsolete = 'N' OR InStock = 'Y' ? 1 : 0) AS Saleable, * FROM Product

For those who uses SQL Server 2012, IIF is a feature that has been added and works as an alternative to Case statements.

SELECT IIF(Obsolete = 'N' OR InStock = 'Y', 1, 0) AS Salable, *
FROM   Product 

The case statement is your friend in this situation, and takes one of two forms:

The simple case:

SELECT CASE <variable> WHEN <value>      THEN <returnvalue>
                       WHEN <othervalue> THEN <returnthis>
                                         ELSE <returndefaultcase>
       END AS <newcolumnname>
FROM <table>

The extended case:

SELECT CASE WHEN <test>      THEN <returnvalue>
            WHEN <othertest> THEN <returnthis>
                             ELSE <returndefaultcase>
       END AS <newcolumnname>
FROM <table>

You can even put case statements in an order by clause for really fancy ordering.


This isn't an answer, just an example of a CASE statement in use where I work. It has a nested CASE statement. Now you know why my eyes are crossed.

 CASE orweb2.dbo.Inventory.RegulatingAgencyName
    WHEN 'Region 1'
        THEN orweb2.dbo.CountyStateAgContactInfo.ContactState
    WHEN 'Region 2'
        THEN orweb2.dbo.CountyStateAgContactInfo.ContactState
    WHEN 'Region 3'
        THEN orweb2.dbo.CountyStateAgContactInfo.ContactState
    WHEN 'DEPT OF AGRICULTURE'
        THEN orweb2.dbo.CountyStateAgContactInfo.ContactAg
    ELSE (
            CASE orweb2.dbo.CountyStateAgContactInfo.IsContract
                WHEN 1
                    THEN orweb2.dbo.CountyStateAgContactInfo.ContactCounty
                ELSE orweb2.dbo.CountyStateAgContactInfo.ContactState
                END
            )
    END AS [County Contact Name]

From this link, we can uderstand IF THEN ELSE in T-SQL :

IF EXISTS(SELECT *
          FROM   Northwind.dbo.Customers
          WHERE  CustomerId = 'ALFKI')
  PRINT 'Need to update Customer Record ALFKI'
ELSE
  PRINT 'Need to add Customer Record ALFKI'

IF EXISTS(SELECT *
          FROM   Northwind.dbo.Customers
          WHERE  CustomerId = 'LARSE')
  PRINT 'Need to update Customer Record LARSE'
ELSE
  PRINT 'Need to add Customer Record LARSE' 

Isn't this good enough for T-SQL ?


SELECT  
(CASE 
     WHEN (Obsolete = 'N' OR InStock = 'Y') THEN 'YES'
                                            ELSE 'NO' 
 END) as Salable
, * 
FROM Product

 SELECT
   CASE 
      WHEN OBSOLETE = 'N' or InStock = 'Y' THEN 'TRUE' 
      ELSE 'FALSE' 
   END AS Salable,
   * 
FROM PRODUCT

You can find some nice examples in The Power of SQL CASE Statements, and I think the statement that you can use will be something like this (from 4guysfromrolla):

SELECT
    FirstName, LastName,
    Salary, DOB,
    CASE Gender
        WHEN 'M' THEN 'Male'
        WHEN 'F' THEN 'Female'
    END
FROM Employees

Question ... SELECT IF(Obsolete = 'N' OR InStock = 'Y' ? 1 : 0) AS Saleable, * FROM Product

ANSI: Select case when p.Obsolete = 'N' or p.InStock = 'Y' then 1 else 0 end as Saleable, p.* FROM Product p;

Using aliases -- p in this case -- will help prevent issues.


If you're inserting results into a table for the first time, rather than transferring results from one table to another, this works in Oracle 11.2g:

INSERT INTO customers (last_name, first_name, city)
    SELECT 'Doe', 'John', 'Chicago' FROM dual
    WHERE NOT EXISTS 
        (SELECT '1' from customers 
            where last_name = 'Doe' 
            and first_name = 'John'
            and city = 'Chicago');

Microsoft SQL Server (T-SQL)

In a select use:

select case when Obsolete = 'N' or InStock = 'Y' then 'YES' else 'NO' end

In a where clause, use:

where 1 = case when Obsolete = 'N' or InStock = 'Y' then 1 else 0 end

The CASE statement is the closest to IF in SQL and is supported on all versions of SQL Server

SELECT CAST(
             CASE 
                  WHEN Obsolete = 'N' or InStock = 'Y' 
                     THEN 1 
                  ELSE 0 
             END AS bit) as Saleable, * 
FROM Product

You only need to do the CAST if you want the result as a boolean value, if you are happy with an int, this works:

SELECT CASE 
            WHEN Obsolete = 'N' or InStock = 'Y' 
               THEN 1 
               ELSE 0 
       END as Saleable, * 
FROM Product

CASE statements can be embedded in other CASE statements and even included in aggregates.

SQL Server Denali (SQL Server 2012) adds the IIF statement which is also available in access: (pointed out by Martin Smith)

SELECT IIF(Obsolete = 'N' or InStock = 'Y', 1, 0) as Saleable, * FROM Product

SELECT CASE WHEN Obsolete = 'N' or InStock = 'Y' THEN 1 ELSE 0 
             END AS Saleable, * 
FROM Product

SELECT CAST(CASE WHEN Obsolete = 'N' or InStock = 'Y' THEN ELSE 0 END AS bit) as Saleable, * FROM Product


From SQL Server 2012 you can use the IIF function for this.

SELECT IIF(Obsolete = 'N' OR InStock = 'Y', 1, 0) AS Salable, *
FROM   Product 

This is effectively just a shorthand (albeit not standard SQL) way of writing CASE.

I prefer the conciseness when compared with the expanded CASE version.

Both IIF() and CASE resolve as expressions within a SQL Statement and can only be used in well defined places.

The CASE expression cannot be used to control the flow of execution of Transact-SQL statements, statement blocks, user-defined functions, and stored procedures.

If your needs can not be satisfied by these limitations (for example a need to return differently shaped result sets dependant on some condition) then SQL Server does also have a procedural IF Keyword.

IF @IncludeExtendedInformation = 1 
  BEGIN 
      SELECT A,B,C,X,Y,Z 
      FROM   T 
  END 
ELSE 
  BEGIN 
      SELECT A,B,C 
      FROM   T 
  END 

Care must sometimes be taken to avoid parameter sniffing issues with this approach however.


Use pure bit logic:

DECLARE @Product TABLE (
    id INT PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY NOT NULL
   ,Obsolote CHAR(1)
   ,Instock CHAR(1)
)

INSERT INTO @Product ([Obsolote], [Instock])
    VALUES ('N', 'N'), ('N', 'Y'), ('Y', 'Y'), ('Y', 'N')

;
WITH cte
AS
(
    SELECT
        'CheckIfInstock' = CAST(ISNULL(NULLIF(ISNULL(NULLIF(p.[Instock], 'Y'), 1), 'N'), 0) AS BIT)
       ,'CheckIfObsolote' = CAST(ISNULL(NULLIF(ISNULL(NULLIF(p.[Obsolote], 'N'), 0), 'Y'), 1) AS BIT)
       ,*
    FROM
        @Product AS p
)
SELECT
    'Salable' = c.[CheckIfInstock] & ~c.[CheckIfObsolote]
   ,*
FROM
    [cte] c

See working demo: IF THEN WITHOUT CASE IN MSSQL

For start, you need to work out the value of true and false for selected conditions. Here comes two NULLIF:

for true: ISNULL(NULLIF(p.[Instock], 'Y'), 1)
for false: ISNULL(NULLIF(p.[Instock], 'N'), 0)

combined together gives 1 or 0. Next use bitwise operators.

It's the most WYSIWYG method.


Simple if-else statement in SQL Server:

DECLARE @val INT;
SET @val = 15;

IF @val < 25
PRINT 'Hi Ravi Anand';
ELSE
PRINT 'By Ravi Anand.';

GO

Nested If...else statement in sql server -

DECLARE @val INT;
SET @val = 15;

IF @val < 25
PRINT 'Hi Ravi Anand.';
ELSE
BEGIN
IF @val < 50
  PRINT 'what''s up?';
ELSE
  PRINT 'Bye Ravi Anand.';
END;

GO

SELECT CASE WHEN profile.nrefillno = 0 THEN 'N' ELSE 'R'END as newref
From profile

Use a CASE statement:

SELECT CASE
       WHEN (Obsolete = 'N' OR InStock = 'Y')
       THEN 'Y'
       ELSE 'N'
END as Available

etc...

As an alternative solution to the CASE statement table driven approach can be used.

DECLARE @Product TABLE (ID INT, Obsolete VARCHAR(10), InStock VARCHAR(10)) 
INSERT INTO @Product VALUES
(1,'N','Y'),
(2,'A','B'),
(3,'N','B'),
(4,'A','Y')

SELECT P.* , ISNULL(Stmt.Saleable,0) Saleable
FROM 
    @Product P
    LEFT JOIN 
        ( VALUES
            ( 'N', 'Y', 1 )
        ) Stmt (Obsolete, InStock, Saleable)
        ON  P.InStock = Stmt.InStock OR P.Obsolete = Stmt.Obsolete 

Result:

ID          Obsolete   InStock    Saleable
----------- ---------- ---------- -----------
1           N          Y          1
2           A          B          0
3           N          B          1
4           A          Y          1

Use CASE. Something like this.

SELECT Salable =
        CASE Obsolete
        WHEN 'N' THEN 1
        ELSE 0
    END




case